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Christopher Columbus Essay - 1112 …
book report wyle Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (Wyle), of El Segundo, California, protests the columbus issuance of essay questoins, a task order to essay about christopher columbus, Booz Allen Hamilton, of McLean, Virginia, under request for is the institute and parents, task order proposals (RFTOP) No. N00024-14-R-3370, issued by essay, the Department of the services Navy, Naval Air Command (NAVAIR), for engineering knowledge based services for the F-35 Joint Program Office. The protester challenges the christopher agency evaluation of the essay questoins protester's and awardee's proposals. We deny the protest in part and dismiss it in part. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for public release. Matter of: Wyle Laboratories, Inc. File: B-412964; B-412964.3.
Lee P. Curtis, Esq., Andrew E. Christopher Columbus? Shipley, Esq., Eric A. Essay On Home Institute And Parents Best? Aaserud, Esq., Seth H. Locke, Esq., and Andrew J. About Christopher? Victor, Esq., Perkins Coie LLP, for the protester. Marcia G. Madsen, Esq., Cameron S. Hamrick, Esq., David F. Dowd, Esq., Polly A. Myers, Esq., Roger V. Abbott, Esq., Luke Levasseur, Esq., and Jeffrey H. Redfern, Esq., Mayer Brown LLP, for Booz Allen Hamilton, the intervenor. Robin Ray Coll, Esq., and Caroline Cobb, Esq., Department of the Navy, for the agency. Elizabeth Witwer, Esq., and Jennifer D. Westfall-McGrail, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. Protest is denied where the math agency reasonably rejected the protester’s proposal as unacceptable because it failed to demonstrate compliance with a material solicitation requirement. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (Wyle), of El Segundo, California, protests the about columbus issuance of a task order to Booz Allen Hamilton, of McLean, Virginia, under request for task order proposals (RFTOP) No. N00024-14-R-3370, issued by the Department of the Navy, Naval Air Command (NAVAIR), for essay questoins, engineering knowledge based services for the F?35 Joint Program Office. The protester challenges the agency evaluation of the protester’s and columbus awardee’s proposals.
We deny the protest in part and dismiss it in part. The F?35 Joint Lightning II Program is a joint, multi-national program and is the Department of Defense’s (DoD) focal point for defining affordable next generation strike aircraft weapon systems among the United States Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and allies composed of eight cooperative international partners and three foreign military sales (FMS) customers.  RFTOP § C.2. The F-35 program objective is to develop and deploy a three variant family of strike fighter aircraft that affordably meets the needs of the various military departments and U.S. Services? allies. RFTOP §§ C.2, C.2.1. Essay? As the solicitation here provides, the F-35 program mission is “extremely complex” and “subject to unpredictable variations in the level of effort (LOE) required.” RFTOP § C.2.1. With an estimated acquisition cost of nearly $400 billion, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter is DoD’s most costly acquisition program and is classified as a DoD Acquisition Category 1D program.
RFTOP § C.2; Protest at 4. The F-35 Joint Program Office supports the F-35 program and is the best and parents are the best consists of more than 2,000 personnel, including U.S. military and essay civilian personnel, partner nation military and on the civilian personnel, and DoD support contractors. Columbus? RFTOP §§ C.2.1, C.2.1.1; Protest at essay 5. About Christopher Columbus? In particular, support contractors are integrated into the F?35 Joint Program Office, filling defined staff positions. The protester explains that many support contractors, including Wyle employees, “are the sole source of homework, specific acquisition, engineering, or logistics capabilities within the [Joint Program Office].” Protest at essay columbus 5. On January 7, 2015, the agency issued the subject solicitation for a cost-plus-fixed?fee level-of-effort task order under the Seaport-e Multiple Award Zone 2 (National Capital Zone) indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract.  Contracting Officer’s (CO) Statement, May 6, 2016, at 1?2; RFTOP §§ G, L.1.1, L.1.3. The solicitation provided for a period of performance of one base year and four option years. RFTOP § B. The solicitation contemplated an array of math on the, engineering knowledge based services to support the F-35 Joint Program Office in four core task areas: (1) program management support; (2) systems engineering and technical support; (3) engineering, technical, and analytical support to the integrated product and functional teams; and (4) FMS technical and engineering support. RFTOP § C.4. The solicitation anticipated award on christopher, a best-value basis. RFTOP § M.1. Custom? The solicitation identified three evaluation factors: technical, past performance, and price. Id. The technical factor was slightly more important than past performance, which was more important than price.
RFTOP § M.1.1. The technical factor included three subfactors, in descending order of essay columbus, importance: workforce, understanding the work, and management plan. Id. Math? Of relevance here is the agency’s evaluation of Wyle’s proposal under the workforce technical subfactor, which provides as follows: The Government will evaluate personnel and the supporting information to determine how well the team is suited to perform the essay columbus tasks under the [statement of work]. In addition, personnel will be evaluated on labor qualifications, including education, experience, and security clearance levels, that the custom writint services offeror proposes to utilize in the performance of this effort.
In connection with the workforce subfactor, subsection L.2.1.3 of the solicitation instructed offerors to provide resumes for proposed key personnel containing the following information: 2.1.3 KEY PERSONNEL RESUMES. About Christopher? 184.108.40.206 For any proposed Key Personnel provide a resume of the work assignments, training, etc., that demonstrates the experience and best are the teachers specialized qualifications of each key person proposed. Resumes shall contain, at a minimum, the following information: Employee name Years of employment experience including narrative description of duties and responsibilities Current position, title and employer Educational history Institution name, degree or certification earned, and year for all degrees or certifications earned Current level of security clearance and status (final, interim, or pending). 220.127.116.11 The Government may check educational background to verify degrees or certifications received. RFTOP § L.2.1.3 (emphasis in original). The solicitation listed 14 positions that were considered “key personnel,” including position #131, Systems Analyst Senior (Data Link Systems Analysis, Senior), which is at issue here. RFTOP § L.18.104.22.168.1. About Christopher Columbus? Subsection L.2.1 also instructed offerors to provide a “Workforce Qualifications spreadsheet (Attachment P1)” containing specific information for “each current, contingent, and prospective hire employee proposed under this effort.” RFTOP §§ 2.1.1, 22.214.171.124. The format for Attachment P1 is reflected as follows: Position Description/Labor Category. Type of Degree Earned, Field of Study, and Concentration.
If applicable, List Second Degree Earned, Field of Study and Concentration. Current Security Clearance Level. SOW Functional Area to be Supported. Essay Questoins? Description of Qualifications Relevant to Functional Area. RFTOP § L.2.1.1 Attach. P1. Offerors were required to essay christopher columbus, provide this information for all 173 labor categories or full-time equivalents (FTEs) specified in the solicitation, including the 14 key personnel.
RFTOP, Attach. P1; Attach. 18, “FOUO Labor Category Qualifications.” The requirements in subsection L.2.1.3, pertaining to the resumes for the 14 key personnel, and the requirements in subsection L.2.1.1, pertaining to essay on home institute are the, Attachment P1, do not reference each other. In fact, the instructions for Attachment P1 state that the attachment “is a stand alone document [that] will not be looked at in conjunction with the individual[’]s resume.” RFTOP, Attach. P1, Mandatory Instructions (emphasis in original).
Accordingly, the requirement to provide resumes for key personnel and the requirement to about christopher, provide information related to the fields specified on custom writint, Attachment P1 were separate and distinct. Section L of the essay christopher columbus solicitation alerted offerors that “[p]roposals that do not comply with these instructions may be considered deficient and may render the offeror ineligible for award.” RFTOP § L.1.10.1. Section M of the solicitation further cautioned offerors that “[f]ailure to address each of the areas identified in Section L will impact the resulting evaluation ratings and a deficiency or lack of responses to factors and/or subfactors may be used as a basis for eliminating a proposal from further consideration.” RFTOP § M.1.1. The solicitation defined a “[d]eficiency” as “a material failure of a proposal to meet a Government requirement or a combination of significant weaknesses in a proposal that increases the risk of unsuccessful contract performance to an unacceptable level.” RFTOP § M.5.4.1 ( citing Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) § 15.001). With respect to evaluation ratings, the solicitation provided that each technical subfactor would be assigned one of the following adjectival ratings: outstanding, good, acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable. RFTOP §§ M.5.1, M.5.2. Relevant here, a rating of “Unacceptable” was defined as “[p]roposal does not meet requirements and contains one or more deficiencies. Proposal is unawardable.” RFTOP § M.5.2. The agency received four timely offers, including offers from essay on home best institute are the best, Wyle and the awardee, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH).
CO Statement at 2, 25. The agency conducted two rounds of discussions with all offerors. Essay About Christopher? Id. at 3, 4. Math? Final revised proposals (FRPs) were due on November 19. About Christopher? Id. at 4. Both Wyle and BAH submitted FRPs. Homework On The? In its final technical proposal, Wyle provided a resume for Ms. [DELETED], a current Wyle employee, for position #131. Essay Columbus? Agency Report (AR), Exh.
7, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), [DELETED] Resume. In Attachment P1 of essay questoins, its technical proposal, Wyle provided information for an unnamed candidate for position #131, who was a contingent employee with academic credentials that differed from those listed in Ms. [DELETED]’s resume. Christopher Columbus? AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. In its price/cost proposal, Wyle identified a different named candidate, Mr. [DELETED], for brainchildren essays minds, the position and included a letter of intent signed by Mr. [DELETED].  Protest, Exh. 3, Wyle Price/Cost Proposal, at 8, E-11. On February 29, 2016, the technical evaluation team (TET) issued its final technical evaluation report. About Christopher Columbus? AR, Exh. 8, Final Technical Report, at dennett on designing 2. The TET rated Wyle’s technical proposal as “Unacceptable” because it determined that the essay christopher proposal “does not meet requirements and contains one or more deficiencies,” and, therefore, “is un-awardable.” Id. Specifically, under the workforce subfactor, the TET could not decipher which candidate Wyle proposed for position #131.
Id. at 2?3. The TET’s evaluation report explained as follows: One of the deficiencies is that the technical team cannot decipher who will be performing Key Position [Labor Category] #131 . . Dennett Brainchildren On Designing? . . In the Technical Volume, Attachment P2, under Key personnel resumes, the resume provided against [Labor Category (LCAT)] #131 is for Ms. [DELETED]. However, Attachment P1 lists LCAT #131 as “Contingent”, provides no name, has academic credentials that are different than shown in Ms. [DELETED]’s resume, but includes identical security clearance date. About Christopher? This contradictory information leaves the evaluation team questioning who the offeror is actually proposing for LCAT #131. Essay Questoins? As this is a Key Position requiring a valid resume, valid security clearance information to essay christopher, determine [Special Access Required] eligibility and a commitment to hire this individual for on the, a minimum of 6 months as “key” staff, the essay christopher proposal is seen as “materially deficient.” We do not know who the offeror is proposing, Ms. Essays? [DELETED] or Mr. [DELETED], therefore the proposal is unacceptable. AR, Exh. 8, Final Technical Report, at 2?3. The TET concluded that “[t]he offeror’s failure to provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the essay columbus proposal” and the proposal “is un-awardable.” Id. at 2, 3, 14.
The Source Selection Evaluation Board (SSEB) and the source selection authority (SSA) both concurred with the findings of the TET in this respect.  AR, Exh. Dennett Essays Minds? 9, SSEB Report, at 8; Exh. 10, SSA Decision, at 2?3. The final evaluation results for Wyle and BAH are summarized as follows: B.Understanding the Work. Evaluated Cost (Most Probable Cost Exclusive of Option to Extend Services) Evaluated Cost (Most Probable Cost Inclusive of Option to Extend Services) AR, Exh. 9, SSEB Report, at 3?4. Christopher Columbus? On April 4, 2016, the on designing minds agency issued the task order to BAH. CO Statement at 5. Wyle requested a debriefing, which occurred on April 8. Id. With respect to the deficiency pertaining to essay about, position #131, the agency provided the following explanation: The offeror’s proposed candidate for the Reference #131 (Key Position) does NOT meet the RFP Requirement. Specifically, the information that the offeror submitted for the proposed candidate is inconsistent between the different documents – Attachment P1, P5 and the Resume do not match (2 different names mentioned; the essay questoins security clearance dates for both happen to be the same date)[.] [T]herefore the essay about christopher evaluation team was unable to know who the offeror was proposing for the KEY position.
The offeror’s failure to dennett brainchildren, provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the proposal. Protest, Exh. 1, Debriefing Slide 14. Wyle filed a protest with our Office on April 13. Essay About Christopher? Wyle argues that the agency unreasonably assigned a deficiency relating to Wyle’s proposed candidate for position #131. In this respect, Wyle contends that a reasonable reading of its proposal would have made clear that it proposed Mr. Custom Services? [DELETED] for position #131.
Wyle contends that, to the extent the agency had any doubt regarding the christopher identity of the proposed candidate, the agency should have asked Wyle for clarification. Finally, Wyle argues that its proposal contained “all the information” the agency needed to evaluate its proposed candidate. Protest at 20. Essay? For the reasons discussed below, we find the agency’s determination to be unobjectionable. Essay Christopher Columbus? Although we do not specifically address all of Wyle’s arguments with respect to the agency’s assessment of the deficiency pertaining to position #131, we have fully considered them and find that they afford no basis upon which to sustain the is the and parents best protest.  In reviewing protests challenging an agency’s evaluation of proposals, even in a task order competition as here, we do not reevaluate proposals, but rather we examine the record to determine whether the agency’s judgment was reasonable and in accord with the essay christopher columbus stated evaluation criteria and applicable procurement laws and regulations. Paradigm Technologies, Inc. , B?409221.2, B-409221.3, Aug. 1, 2014, 2014 CPD ¶ 257 at 6. It is a fundamental principle in a negotiated procurement that a proposal that fails to conform to drum help, a material solicitation requirement is technically unacceptable and cannot form the basis for award. Id. Wyle concedes that it “made a mistake in essay christopher, compiling its proposal.” Protest at 24. Wyle represents that it “should not have included Ms. [DELETED]’s resume” because it intended to dennett minds, propose Mr. [DELETED] for position #131.  Id. at 20, 21, 24.
Wyle contends, however, that it should not have been assessed a deficiency for a mere “clerical, administrative error.” Id. at 20. Instead, Wyle contends that the agency should have surmised the identity of Wyle’s proposed candidate from information provided in its proposal. Id. at 21-24. In particular, Wyle explains that it identified Mr. [DELETED] in several places in its price/cost proposal and in Attachment P1. Essay About Christopher?  Id. at essay questoins 22-25; Wyle Opp’n to essay christopher columbus, Req. for Dismissal, Apr. 28, 2016, at 3. The record reflects that Wyle’s intentions with respect to its proposed candidate were ambiguous. Dennett Brainchildren Essays Minds? Although Wyle contends that the “repeated references to Mr. [DELETED] throughout Wyle’s proposal should have left no doubt that he was the intended candidate,” Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal at 5 n.2, the fact remains that in its technical proposal, Wyle provided a resume for Ms. Columbus? [DELETED] for on the, position #131.
To the extent Wyle attempts to shift the burden to the agency to decipher the conflicting information in its proposal, it is well-established that offerors are responsible for submitting a well?written proposal with adequately detailed information that allows for a meaningful review by the procuring agency. DKW Communications, Inc. , B?411853.2 et al. Essay About Christopher Columbus? , Jan. 8, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 17 at 5. Letter For Resumes? Due to the conflicting information in the protester’s proposal concerning position #131, we agree with the agency’s assessment that Wyle failed to provide information required by subsections L.2.1.3, and essay columbus L.2.1.1 of the solicitation, namely it failed to cover letter outlines for resumes, unambiguously identify a single, proposed candidate for a key position. The solicitation cautioned offerors that “[f]ailure to address each of the essay christopher columbus areas identified in Section L will impact the resulting evaluation ratings and a deficiency or lack of responses to factors and/or sub factors may be used as a basis for eliminating a proposal from further consideration.” RFTOP § M.1.1. See also RFTOP § M.5.4.1 (defining “[d]eficiency” as “a material failure of a proposal to meet a Government requirement or a combination of significant weaknesses in writint services, a proposal that increases the risk of unsuccessful contract performance to an unacceptable level.”). Accordingly, we find the agency reasonably assessed Wyle’s proposal a deficiency under the workforce subfactor, and thus, properly determined Wyle’s proposal to be ineligible for award.
Furthermore, even assuming for essay about, the sake of argument that the agency had been able to letter for resumes, discern from about, Wyle’s proposal that Mr. Custom Writint Services? [DELETED] was the intended candidate for position #131, Wyle failed to columbus, comply with a material requirement of the solicitation by not including Mr. Math? [DELETED]’s resume. See Pioneering Evolution, LLC , B-412016, B?412016.2, Dec. 8, 2015, 2015 CPD ¶ 385 at 8 (“When a solicitation requires resumes for key personnel, these form a material requirement of the solicitation.”). It is essay christopher, undisputed that Mr. [DELETED]’s resume was not included in Wyle’s FRP. Thus, the agency properly determined Wyle to be ineligible for award. RFTOP § M.1.1 (failure to address each area in section L could result in a deficiency); § L.1.10.1 (proposals that do not comply with section L instructions may be considered deficient and render the offeror ineligible for award).  Because the requirement for key personnel resumes was a material solicitation term, Wyle’s second argument, that the agency could have asked Wyle for clarification regarding its proposed candidate for position #131, is not persuasive.
Protest at 21; Wyle Opp’n to essays on designing, Req. for essay about christopher columbus, Dismissal at 4. When a solicitation requires resumes for key personnel, “[s]ubmission of key personnel resumes after receipt of final proposals constitutes discussions, not clarifications, because without these resumes, the proposal would omit material information required by the RFP.”  Pioneering Evolution, LLC , supra , at 8-9. In this respect, Wyle’s reliance on Sevatec, Inc. , B-410665, B-410665.3, Jan. 21, 2015, 2015 CPD ¶ 332, is misplaced. Services? Protest at 21-22. In that case, the awardee was not permitted to materially revise its proposal, but asked to essay about, confirm a conclusion reached by the agency. Sevatec, Inc. , supra , at 7. Here, despite its contentions otherwise, Wyle could not simply have confirmed its proposed candidate in outlines, order to comply with the about solicitation--it would have needed to submit Mr. [DELETED]’s resume. Dennett Brainchildren Essays On Designing Minds? Thus, the facts here are more akin to our decision in DataSource, Inc. , B-412468, Feb. Essay Columbus? 16, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 59, in which we held that clarifications could not be used to permit an offeror to essay questoins, supplement its proposal with a letter of intent, which was a material requirement of the solicitation in that case.
Finally, Wyle argues that its proposal contained “all the information” the essay columbus agency needed to evaluate its proposed candidate, Mr. [DELETED]. Protest at outlines 20, 21, 22, 25; Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 2. In this respect, Wyle refers to christopher columbus, Attachment P1. Custom? Protest at 22?23, 25; Wyle Comments at 4; AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. Wyle’s argument fails for three reasons. First, Wyle’s position writes a material requirement out of the solicitation, i.e. , the essay christopher columbus requirement to provide resumes for key personnel. Second, even if Attachment P1 could stand on its own, Wyle failed to identify the proposed candidate by name in Attachment P1. Third, the record does not support Wyle’s claim that the custom writint information provided in Attachment P1 was “virtually identical to the information contained in the Key Resumes.”  Wyle Comments at essay columbus 4. Essays? Because we find that the agency reasonably determined Wyle to be ineligible for award on the basis of the deficiency relating to position #131, we do not address Wyle’s other grounds of protest.
The protest is essay columbus, denied in essay questoins, part and christopher dismissed in part.  The eight cooperative international partners are: the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, Canada, Australia, Denmark, and Norway. Essay Best Institute Are The Best? RFTOP § C.2. The FMS customers are: Israel, Japan, and South Korea. Id.  The awarded value of the task order at issue exceeds $10 million.
Accordingly, this procurement is within our jurisdiction to essay about christopher, hear protests related to the issuance of essay on home best institute and parents best, orders under IDIQ contracts. 10 U.S.C. § 2304c(e)(1)(B).  The letter of intent does not refer to position #131 or any other labor category. Protest, Exh. 3, Wyle Price/Cost Proposal, at E-11.  The SSEB, in its trade-off analysis, also noted that in Wyle’s price/cost proposal, Wyle identified a different individual, Mr. [DELETED], for position #131. AR, Exh. 9, SSEB Report, at 8.  Wyle also challenged numerous other aspects of the about columbus agency’s technical, past performance, and price evaluations, including the agency’s: (1) assessment of two additional deficiencies under the workforce technical subfactor; (2) failure to drum, credit strengths in Wyle’s proposal under the essay christopher workforce technical subfactor; (3) unequal treatment of offerors under the workforce technical subfactor; (4) failure to rate Wyle’s proposal as “Outstanding” under the understanding the work technical subfactor; (5) failure to evaluate past performance in accordance with the terms of the solicitation; (6) failure to conduct a reasonable cost evaluation; and (7) unequal and misleading discussions with respect to price/cost. Math On The? Wyle argues that these alleged errors rendered the agency’s best-value decision unreasonable. Because we find that the agency reasonably determined Wyle to be ineligible for award on the basis of the deficiency relating to position #131, Wyle is essay about christopher, not an interested party with respect to its remaining protest grounds. Drum? Rotech Healthcare, Inc. , B?409020, B?409020.2, Jan.
10, 2014, 2014 CPD ¶ 28 at 5. Thus, we dismiss these grounds.  Wyle appears to essay, have made a similar error in its initial proposal. Protest at 25 n.6 (“In Wyle’s original Proposal, it identified both Mr. [DELETED] and Ms. [DELETED] in its Cost/Price Volume.”). Wyle also states that it included Mr. [DELETED]’s resume in its initial proposal. Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 3. In discussions, the agency asked Wyle to clarify its proposed candidate, which Wyle clarified to essay questoins, be Mr. [DELETED]. Id. Despite this clarification, Mr. [DELETED]’s resume was not included in the FRP.
To the extent Wyle argues that the agency should have known which candidate Wyle proposed from about christopher, these prior discussions, Protest at 25, the solicitation expressly provided that the agency would not evaluate prior versions of proposals and homework on the changed pages submitted in response to evaluation notices. About Christopher? RFTOP Amend. 7 at 2 (“[A]ny and brainchildren all information previously submitted to the Government in response to [evaluation notices] but not incorporated into the [final proposal revisions (FPR)] will be considered as an omission to the FPR and will not be considered in FPR review.”). Essay About Columbus?  Although Wyle may have included information regarding Mr. [DELETED]’s qualifications, degrees, employment status, etc., in Attachment P1, Mr. Essays Minds? [DELETED] is not identified by name in Attachment P1. AR, Exh. Christopher Columbus? 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1.  Wyle contends that its failure to provide a resume for dennett essays minds, Mr. [DELETED] was not the stated basis upon which the agency assigned the deficiency.
Wyle Opp’n to Req. for Dismissal at 6; Wyle Comments, May 13, 2016, at 2, 3; Wyle Supp. Comments, May 16, 2016, at 2. Essay? We disagree. This basis is implicit in the agency’s analysis of the assigned deficiency. The TET found that Wyle proposed two candidates and provided only one resume. AR, Exh. 8, Final Technical Report, at dennett brainchildren essays minds 2-3.
Moreover, the TET explained that “[a]s this is a Key Position requiring a valid resume . . . the proposal is seen as ‘materially deficient.’” Id. at essay 2-3, 14 (“The offeror’s failure to provide the necessary information for evaluation makes this a material failure of the proposal.”). The agency was not required to speculate as to which candidate Wyle proposed and then to further spell out the essay on home is the best institute and parents teachers consequences for that selection.  We note that this procurement was conducted as a competition between IDIQ contract holders and, as such, was subject to the provisions of FAR § 16.505, which do not establish specific requirements for conducting clarifications or discussions. See DLT Solutions, Inc. , B-412237 et al. , Jan. Columbus? 11, 2016, 2016 CPD ¶ 19 at 9 n.12. However, where, as here, an agency conducts a task order competition as a negotiated procurement, our analysis regarding such exchanges will, in large part, reflect the standards applicable to negotiated procurements. Cover Outlines? Id.  This is true both in terms of what the solicitation required and in terms of what Wyle actually submitted.
By way of example, offerors were required to include in essay christopher, the resumes “[y]ears of essay is the best and parents are the best, employment experience including narrative description of duties and responsibilities[;]” “[c]urrent position, title and employer[;]” and essay columbus “[i]nstitution name, degree or certification earned, and year for all degrees or certifications earned[.]” RFTOP § L.126.96.36.199. Offerors were not required to provide this same information in Attachment P1. RFTOP, Attach. P1. Additionally, notwithstanding Wyle’s contentions to the contrary, Wyle did not include “all the information” required under subsection L.188.8.131.52, pertaining to on the, resumes, in its Attachment P1.
For instance, it did not list the essay unnamed candidate’s institution name and year for all degrees or certifications earned. AR, Exh. 5, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), Attach. P1. This is significant because the solicitation stated that the agency “may check educational background to verify degrees or certifications received.” RFTOP § L.184.108.40.206. On The? Moreover, the degree of detail is markedly different between the essay about christopher two documents submitted by Wyle.
Ms. [DELETED]’s resume is letter outlines, more than two single-spaced pages containing extensive discussion of her qualifications, whereas Attachment P1 contains a four-sentence summary of the candidate’s qualifications as they related to columbus, one functional area in the statement of work. Id. ; AR, Exh. 7, Wyle Technical Proposal (excerpt), [DELETED] Resume. We deny the request. We dismiss the essay questoins protest.
We deny the protest. We deny the protest. We sustain the protest. We deny the protest. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely. We deny the request for reconsideration. Looking for more? Browse all our products here.
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How To Create A Modern CV/Resume With InDesign. In this tutorial we’re going to be learning how to use InDesign to create a clean and structured CV/Resume design. We will be using basic tools and techniques (but ever so important ones!) to create the design. If you haven’t already, you should check out our “Getting To Grips With InDesign” series to brush up on your InDesign skills. As with all designs, we need something to refer to when designing. Grab a piece of paper and sketch out essay about, a couple of ideas for your CV’s structure. The CV I’m designing is going to be double-sided – yes, it costs a little more to produce, but it gives you a little bit of space to showcase some of your work and ultimately “wow’s” your hopefully future employer even more! It pays to get resumes professionally printed – if it lands you a well-paid job that you love it is well worth it! Sketches don’t have to take long – I spent just a couple of minutes on mine. It just helps avoid that “ what do I do? ” phrase when you open up a blank screen in math InDesign or any other application!
It’s now time to open up InDesign and set up a document. About Christopher Columbus. When InDesign is open, go to best institute and parents best File New Document . Essay Christopher Columbus. Select A4 as your page size, and custom services change the number of essay christopher pages to two, making sure Facing Pages is major, unchecked. Change your margins down to 5mm and your bleed up to christopher columbus 3mm . Click OK. You’ll see that we have three different lines, a red one (which is essay questoins, our bleed line – any artwork that meets the edge of the page should meet this red line), the black line (this is our actual page) and our purple/pink line which is our margin line (all content such as text etc should be inside this line). The next step is to start putting together some of our structure, which is possibly the hardest thing to do as we don’t actually know how much space we need for our different sections until it’s all written up. However, it’s still a good idea to essay get some of the structure sorted. Grab the custom Text Tool and essay christopher columbus drag out a selection in the top left corner of your page. Dennett On Designing Minds. This will be our text box for our “ CV/Resume ” title. You’ll notice when you drag out christopher columbus, a new text box it will automatically snap to the alignment of other objects and/or important areas, such as the drum essay center of the page.
Drag out another text box for essay about christopher, your first header and homework your basic information section, such as your name and contact details. Keep on dragging out text boxes, making sure they’re well aligned. It’s now time to christopher columbus do the same but with image placeholders rather than text boxes. Select the Rectangle Frame Tool , and repeat the steps again in on home is the and parents places we want images. I’m going to have a profile image next to my profile text, and about columbus some icon images in the bottom left hand corner for my skills. Repeat the same steps again on our second page, where we will display some of our work. It’s time to start filling in our content! Lets start with out main header, “ CV/Resume “. Double-click in header box and type in your words. Dennett Brainchildren On Designing. Select a suitable typeface of your choice – I’m using Blue Highway Bold as it is the font used in my logo, and I want to keep my identity going throughout my brand. Go through your two pages filling in about christopher columbus all the on the header titles. Columbus. For this I have again used the typeface Blue Highway, set to 21pt.
Start filling in your profile section, including your name, email address, contact number, postal address and anything else you feel is necessary, such as your websites URL. I used Arial at 12pt for this section, and will do for all other sections of my text. Select all of the text you just inserted and essay questoins change the about Leading to dennett brainchildren essays minds 16pt – the leading is the space in between each line of text. This makes it much easier to read. Insert the essay about christopher columbus rest of cover letter outlines for resumes your profile information – this should include information such as how old you are, your ambitions, goals, and hobbies.
To add some “ oomph ” to essay about columbus our profile, we’re going to make certain words bold and italic. Go through your profile text and on designing minds change some words to about columbus Arial Bold or Italic. Essay Questoins. I also lowered the size of the typeface to 11pt and essay columbus the Leading to 14pt. To finish off our profile section we’re going to add a portrait picture of yourself. For this tutorial, I’m going to use a photo of myself. Click on essay questoins your image placeholder in your profile section and then go to File Place . Essay. Select your image and click OK. The chances are the image you have inserted is on home best best teachers, a lot bigger than your image placeholder. No worries though, this is super easy to fix. Select your Direct Selection Tool and essay about columbus click on the image you have inserted into essay questoins, your placeholder. You will notice that this has selected the image inside the about placeholder rather than the placeholder itself.
Still with the Direct Selection Tool selected, whilst holding the Shift-Key to keep the image in major essay proportion, scale the essay about columbus image down. If you’re image seems blurry or pixelated at all, this is most probably caused by InDesign’s default display performance, which is essay best are the, mixed between speed and essay quality. Custom. For a small document like this with barely any images, you’re best off using the highest quality setting. Essay About. You can change this by going to View Display Performance High Quality Display . Finish the rest of the drum essay help text-based tasks off using techniques we have already used. Areas we need to fill include the qualifications, education/employment and essay christopher achievements areas. As you can see I have used the same typeface through all of the text, with bold titles and italic used for custom, things such as the dates at the end of each achievement. Fill in the final piece of text on the back of your CV/Resume and then we can move on! Our next step is to find a good set of icons, for essay columbus, which we’re going to be using in our skills section of our CV. We have space for 8 icons – we could of custom services course design our own, but for this tutorial I’m going to outsource to ‘freebies’ to about christopher columbus save us some time. Homework On The. Decide which 8 skills you’d like to include. In my case, I’m going to columbus use: OS X, Windows, Email (Communication), Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, TextWrangler and Microsoft Office.
Below is essay is the best and parents teachers, a list of where I got my icons… With that done, open all of your icons up in Photoshop and about columbus resize them to homework on the exactly 100?100 pixels. Once done, save all of your files as JPGs. With your icons done, start placing them into your icon/image placeholders that we created earlier. You can do this the same way we inserted our profile picture; by clicking on the placeholder and then going to essay about christopher columbus File Place , selecting your file and then resizing it within the image placeholder using the Direct Selection Tool . Our next step is to major make some blocks for our ‘meter readings’ to show our skill level of the different applications. Select the about columbus Rectangle Tool and dennett brainchildren essays minds drag out a shape with the same height as your icons. Copy and paste the shape several times, and set them an equal space apart from each other as seen below. Remove the stroke of about all the on home is the institute are the shapes, and color them all grey. Copy and columbus paste all of the shapes seven times, placing them in the correct position next to your other icons. Fill in your skill level for each application – be honest here, there’s no point in brainchildren essays lying, they will find you out! The next stage is to add your portfolio of work into the image placeholders on about columbus our back page.
To do this, select the image placeholder and the go to File Place to locate your image. Resize the placeholders using the Selection Tool, and the placeholders contents using the Direct Selection Tool . With that done, so is for resumes, our CV/Resume! The next step is to export our document as a PDF for easy printing and about christopher sending digitally via email. Having a PDF version of your CV is outlines for resumes, also great for showing it off on shiny gadgets such as your iPad! Go to File Export and save as a PDF . Select “ Smallest File Size ” from the PDF settings. Essay Columbus. As our CV is made up of just text and few images, the smallest file size quality should be fine for both on-screen and sending. The biggest bonus is essay institute are the best, that it should end up being a tiny file to send over about email. Dennett On Designing. And that’s it, we’re done!
Just remember that it’s worth spending a little bit of quality time when putting your CV together; it should not only show off your creative ideas and skills, but also give away a clue or two into your personality and the person you are, leaving the viewer wanting to find out more about you, hopefully leading to an interview, or at least a phone call! We’d love to christopher see your CV and essay teachers Resume designs, so why not share a link to your work in the comments? Callum Chapman is a self-employed designer, illustrator blogger. About. View his work at Circlebox Creative. He is also the founder of Picmix Store, a store dedicated to is the institute are the teachers limited edition prints, and The Inspiration Blog. Drop him a line on Twitter! It’s a really good model for resume! Very creative! ;) Craig Harrison says.
It looks quite cheap and quick. If someone came to me with that at my company, I wouldn’t have great first impressions with their design capabilities. yo Craig, easy man… a resumes not a piece of design work :-) its just a list to give you an about, overview of what a person has done before . Letter Outlines For Resumes. could be nicely edited indeed. actually this list of tools you are working with is quite obsolet… I dont know a professional who doesnt expect photoshop experience from about christopher, a graphic designer as well as nobody is interested in what editor you are coding as long as it is math homework on the, NOT dreamweaver. and as you wont apply for a job as a secretary, who cares how deep you are into something like MS office Word :-) I second craig actually. Doesn’t feel special in any way, quite texty if you ask me. @Dennis : The icons are there as an example (and by the way, Photoshop is in there). The goal with this tutorial wasn’t to actually design the most incredible resume ever, it was to show techniques that can be used to create your own. Grab the InDesign file from the essay columbus tutorial and use it as a starting point :) Its a great tutorial and essay questoins I might use it for myself.
However you can not use a photo of yourself on the resume. Columbus. Most places will throw it out for legal reasons, they’re terrified that someone will complain they weren’t hired because of major how they looked or the essay about color of their skin or because they have a minaret in essays on designing the background ;) This is an awesome tutorial! I love that you sketched first. Christopher. I always do that too. I love how you defined your skills. That is always the essay on home best institute and parents are the best hardest part for me to put into words.
If you use InDesign to make your resume, use the advanced tools to make a baseline grid, at least. To make a resume like the one you made, Illustrator is enough, and easier. Would you really show your skill level that way? Looks like an easy way to show what your not good at. About half the content on that CV/Resume shouldn’t even be there. Before you even start the layout, sort out the content. Function before form. @Illet : Good point, but on the other hand it’s also a way to tell clients/employers what you are good at. If you ‘can’ work with a particular application but you’re not at the advanced/expert level yet, it’s still worth mentioning in my opinion.
@Lennington : What would you add/remove then? The goal with this tutorial was to show how you can create your own resume with InDesign (a starting point), not to about tell people what should or should not go on there. You will of course put different content depending on the job you’re after, the industry, the income level, the position in a company, etc… Note: Do NOT ad a picture of yourself to a CV unless you want the brainchildren on designing person to judge you before meeting you. The hoodie etc would turn me off strait away just based on my personal judgment. I can say I will not judge these people but it is human nature. A CV is about christopher columbus, you on paper, not you in letter outlines person. @steve: This post is not about what you should or should not put on your CV, that’s up to the person looking for a job (as I’ve mentioned in previous comments) and in some cases having your picture on there can help. I’ve put a picture of myself on my CVs and that never prevented me from getting a job or at christopher, least an interview. If someone judges me from my looks before meeting me, I honestly don’t wanna work for them. It’s a nice way to essay on home best and parents are the best teachers design CV.
N seriously very nice tutorial. You have explained it very well. Christopher Anderton says. About not putting your picture in your CV. Sounds like a U.S. only essay columbus, thing (that part about being accused for rasism). Where i live (Sweden) you should almost ALWAYS put your picture in your CV. Great article Callum – thank you ! The CV it self isn’t really impressive in anyway, However! I agree with some people said, that it’s an inspiration. Daniel Winnard says. Whats your issue with Dreamweaver? I actually love seeing the mixed comments here!
Whether you like a CV/Resume, at the end of the day, comes down to essay is the personal taste. I’ve seen CV’s I’ve loved and CV’s I’ve hated, yet those with CV’s I didn’t like have great jobs, and those with CV’s I do like are unemployed… It totally depends on who is about, looking at the CV. @Steve: A lot of CV’s have pictures on… If I were reading through CV’s I personally would prefer those with photos of themselves. I think it shows they have the confidence to think outside of the box, try new things and take little risks. That’s a good thing, especially in the design industry. On The. And that picture is just an essay about christopher columbus, example of me – doesn’t mean you HAVE to have a hood up, and besides, what’s wrong with a hood? You can’t be stereotypical when it comes to CV, everyone should have an equal right when it comes to essay questoins appearance etc. As Jon said, if I didn’t get an interview/job because of my appearance I wouldn’t want to work for them anyway!
@Illet: It’s just as important to show the essay about christopher columbus things you’re not great at essay questoins, as it is the things you are great at. It a) shows you’re honest, b) know you have room to improve with certain skills and applications and c) shows you want to essay christopher improve – otherwise you wouldn’t have put it there. Employers like to know you want to learn and want to keep up with the fast-moving trends, regularly updated software, development skills and last but not least, technology. @Dennis: It doesn’t just indicate how good you are at dennett essays on designing, the application you develop in, but how confident you at developing all together. Essay About Columbus. You wouldn’t give yourself 4/5 for a coding application if you couldn’t code… But you could use a HTML icon or something! Also, lots of employers like to know they can ask you to help out with letters etc. There’s no harm in letting people know you have good office skills, too. :)
It’s always nice to see examples of different and customized CVs… Really creative and nice CV! thanks for tutorial! I adopted inspiration and essay on home institute are the best teachers changed my own resume. Tips are always welcome :) Geez.. the title of the post was how to CREATE your CV / Resume. Just to show you how to lay the essay about foundation. It wasn’t meant to be the be all end all on writint how to christopher columbus DESIGN one. @Jon It’s all about either being personal or being TOO personal. Let’s say that the company you applied for is affirmative action company, including your picture can tip the scales either for or against you. Designers can be self-righteous all they want but business is business. Believe or not if you put your age on your resume, the employer has the ability to discriminate you without breaking any laws by on home best and parents best teachers, asking for your age.
This is a HUGE no. People need to columbus know their rights, like what are “illegal” questions an employer can’t ask. Plus, putting images of yourself leaves you wide open. Designer love to custom writint be personal and creative but giving alway too much personal information can hurt you in the long run. That’s my experience in the industry in essay about christopher columbus the US. Like Christopher said, it differs from country to country. In my opinion, there is nothing wrong approaching a potential employer with a personal approach but sharing your age and including a photo can be hurtful to your price quote (younger = cheaper + easier to get free service for example). Very good tutorial for example. @Patricia : Thanks for your comment, you bring good points. In my opinion, if someone discriminates me because of my age or what I look like, like I said, I wouldn’t want to work for writint, them anyway, but on the other hand I agree that having your age and a picture of yourself on your CV may, in some cases it, hurt more than it can help. If you include your age on your resume, I see this as a way to weed out employers you probably wouldn’t really want to work for in the christopher columbus first place.
But like you said, it seems to differ from country to country. different and professional design. Brainchildren On Designing. thanks. @Tycho: Nice work! I love the graph to show off your skills! @Patricia: Good points; I think it totally depends on where you live, what position you’re applying for, and what company you’re sending it into. Some companies are quite old fashioned and do take age, experience etc too seriously, where as there are a lot of essay about christopher young, creative and homework experimental agencies out there who purposely go for younger designers to bring fresh talent, modern ideas etc, in which case a picture and about christopher your age could be beneficial. Completely depends on your circumstances I guess! Thanks for your tutorial. It’s Awesome! About InDesign I have a Templates for InDesign. For example: Newsletter Templates, Book Templates and much more but It’s free.
Personally I wouldnt add a photo to a Resume but thats just the done thing here in Ireland. I know that other European countries such as Spain where employers expect to see a photo on it. Regarding the tutorial (not the content, cos thats not what is being taught here!), its very well written, easy to follow and major essay help helpful to those who want to get into InDesign. Thanks for posting! I’ve come across conflicting information about whether or not you should save your resume in PDF. I’ve read several design blogs that say your resume should show off your design abilities. Essay Columbus. Therefore design it in InDesign and save to PDF. Cover Letter Outlines For Resumes. But some human resources professionals say that you should NEVER submit a resume in anything but MS Word format.
Anyone care to comment? I know I would be impressed if an applicant brought in a resume that looked that nice. Essay Christopher. Indesign is very user friendly, but going into math on the, it with a guide like this makes the job a lot easier to understand. I have heard that too, but funny when you said that, I cringed, thinking of all of the essay about people who have brought me flattened pdfs and on home best institute and parents are the asked for columbus, them in ms word format. I say go for indesign and convert to essay pdf.. why the hell would they want to be able to edit your resume anyway! :) I love the tutorial and the comments. The tutorial IS just a tutorial on essay about christopher layout, hence the use of InDesign. As for the content, not every employer is the same. Nor are the industries. To be honnest, I didn’t realy like it at first. However I think this tutorial is more intended for absolute newbies in Indesign, or people outside of the design industry.
Theirfore : thumbs up ! Spot on with this article, i although have the problem that i am not a gfx wizkid as you are, so i would rather have a system that does these things for me. I always found it very time consuming to maintain different CV for different positions i wanted to apply for. Normally i make a special CV for my jobs, if they are asking for something specific in the job ad then I write in essays on designing minds my CV the about christopher things that I have had experience with. For a long time i did this manually, but now i found a tool on the internet http://www.comoto.com where you can have your CV and work with them actively. It can even inherit data from other CV’s in a way that i only have to change on place end the basic stuff gets changed automatically. For mee as a computer specialist but not a graphics wizard like you, this is an easy and transparent way to have several CV’s. It sounds like you might not be in the US, but in the US I’m pretty sure it’s illegal to put your photo or for an employer to ask for your photo. Your clients list should be much easier to scan, why not a 3-column list or something. I hate it when design jobs ask for designers to homework submit their resumes in Word, hello? do you understand what design is, it’s infuriating. Essay About Columbus. I did recreate my creative resume in Word to satisfy those idiots (though normally I ignore them because they obviously don’t know what they’re doing.)
It looks like you used all one typeface (Arial?) and is the best and parents best teachers you really should try to about christopher columbus create as much visual hierarchy as possible, which includes using different typefaces. Listing all your school grades makes it seem like you’re a high schooler trying to math get a job and that you don’t know what else to list. Qualifications to me means, handled X project X under budget with X people working with/for me, something like that. Essay Christopher. A “C” in Science doesn’t show me anything except that you don’t know Science. To be honest, I wouldn’t even consider you for outlines, a design job.
The designer’s job is to show people what’s important and to get them to columbus move over the information and guide them through the page/item, but everything’s the same volume on your page. I wouldn’t feel confident you could get me the dennett minds results I wanted. Why not step up and columbus show us your own resume instead of essay on home is the best institute teachers leaving an anonymous comment? Another great article. I like how you showed off the essay christopher columbus draft/prototype that was originally hand drawn.
That phase… is letter, a must when designing. I appreciate this post as it gives me a few ideas, but probably more for my Web site than for essay christopher columbus, a print resume. (And this is essay questoins, a resume. A CV is about christopher, much longer and brainchildren essays on designing contains citations of journal publications and the like. CVs are mostly for academics and researchers applying for grants and other academic positions. It’s not really the columbus same thing.) I especially like seeing your overall design process as that can be applied to any design project. It’s rare to get that glimpse into math on the, someone’s head. I can see insight and practicality. It’s certainly not illegal to put a photo of yourself on your resume, unlike “Designer’s” comment. (It’s also not illegal to swear on a resume, but should you?) It’s just not always wise to christopher columbus show your visage though unless you’re an actor, model, etc.
The reason is, someone might assume you’re too old, too young, too white, too dark, too pretty, too ugly, etc. Believe it or not, some people won’t hire attractive men or women. So, even if you’re a god(dess), it could be a bad idea. But if that’s expected in essay questoins your area of the world, then just make sure you look great and professional. I’m not sure about the printing on both sides though. I’ve had a lot of HR and creative directors tell me not to do that since it makes it too hard to essay about columbus make notes and major essay draw correlations. Plus, unless you have a great paper, it can just look cheap. And glossy paper seems to be out as it’s again too large to make notes on the resume itself. Again, thanks for the post — and the icon links.
Casanova Frankenstein says. It’s not illegal to put your photo on your CV for first amendment reasons, but it’s not commonly done for reasons of about good taste. You’re right that it is illegal for the employer to ask for on home is the institute, your photo. Great tips to essay about give someone has done a resume in awhile. Really catches your eye and well organize, and attention to detail. Erica Cain says.
I am a professional corporate recruiter (read: I work in-house for one company and am not what is commonly called a headhunter), and I can tell you that I have never heard anything more proposterous than someone saying it is major help, “illegal” to put anything on a resume. *facepalm* That being said, HR professionals do not want you to put a photo on about columbus your resumebecause it sets them up for the exact issues that Stanford mentioned. Writint. Depending on the field, it also can come across as quite unprofessional. A good HR professional really don’t care what their IT/marketing/communications/etc. About Christopher Columbus. professionals look like. If they do, then they are in the wrong field. Also, as was also mentioned by Stanford, this is not a CV, and dennett brainchildren you do people a disservice by about christopher columbus, labeling it as such. Some people may be searching for how to essay is the institute and parents create a CV, and I’m sure you would hate for them to be misinformed. Columbus. This is a resume. Get the accents right (notice there are two) because spelling is a huge deal on resumes. If you don’t have attention to detail when selling yourself, then why would I think you have attention to detail when working on my product? I agree that the is the best and parents best qualifications section is about, not what I would consider a qualifications list.
Your grades don’t matter to help me. About Christopher. I want to know if you graduated, and that’s really about homework, it because that is an employer set requirement. That doesn’t tell me anything about you, though. I want to know WHY to hire you. What have you contributed in the past?
Did you implement something nifty that created an annual cost savings of about 20%? Tell me about THAT! Those are the things that sell you, and that I can sell to the company. Don’t go into anymore depth than what I listed in my example. Remember–your initial goal is to land an interview. You can tell me the rest then. You WANT me to want to brainchildren on designing know more about you and your projects.
Speaking of selling yourself, “One of my…” is not the way to start a bullet point that will get my attention. You should always start a line with an action verb: “Developed award-winning marketing campaign for christopher columbus, , which led to major essay a 10% increase in essay about christopher columbus sales” is much more impressive. Don’t bore me or I will move right on to the next resume. You have about 5 seconds to win me over so that I will finish reading your resume. That is the harsh reality in a world where everyone is seeking a job opportunity and HR professionals are flooded with applicants. All that being said, I love the icons that you use to list skills. “Skills” is usually the most boring field on a resume because people write the same crap (and, yes, you are 100% right that we WILL find out if you lie on these things–often before you get your foot in the door since we often use assessments to weed out the help people who do lie on their resumes). This is a unique way to display skills, and it would definitely catch my eye. I know I listed a lot of constructive criticism in this post, but I do admire your goal to create an interesting and different resume. For creative job opportunities, this is very important.
Kudos to columbus you! I’m embarrassed at some of the comments here. Brainchildren On Designing Minds. I love this tutorial and I think like some people have said that the point was to show how to do this in InDesign, not to tell people what to put on essay about christopher columbus their resume. For me, this was very helpful. Some people need to relax.
If you have so much to say, make your own tutorial for people to rip apart. Thanks for the tips!
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It's better to be clear than to be fancy. This is something you can fix when you revise your essay in the last 2-4 minutes of the essay section. What ACT, Inc. Doesn't Tell You: 3 Secrets. Even though the ACT essay has some clear published guidelines, there are a few secrets that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. These are facts that ACT, Inc. doesn't want to be too well-known because it helps us develop ACT Writing strategies that may give us an about christopher edge over dennett minds people who haven't prepared. 1) You Don't Need to Know the Facts. You can make up whatever information you need to support your point. Really.
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They can't check whether Martin Luther King was born in 1929 or 1925. Thus, ACT essay scoring uses a simpler rule--all statements are taken as truth. The important point is that the evidence needs to support your thesis. (Of course, ACT, Inc. doesn't want people to know about this - that would make the ACT essay sound silly.) If you're short on on home is the institute are the examples to prove a point, make up something realistic-sounding (you can even pretend a newspaper or politician said something they didn't), and slap it in there. It's much better than trying to write a vague paragraph without concrete evidence. 2) You Should Write More Than a Page. This is one of the most important ACT Writing tips. Essay About. There is a strong relationship between essay length and score - the longer your essay, the better your score. In a short essay, it's difficult for writint services you to essay about christopher, develop your points well enough to earn a decent score.
Really, you should write a page and a half if at all possible. Although ACT, Inc. never explicitly mentions that length matters in ACT essay scoring, it does. And if you can write more than a page and a half without repeating yourself or digressing from your point, you'll be in really good shape. 3) Your First Paragraph and Conclusion Matter More Than the cover letter outlines for resumes, Middle. The introduction and conclusion are the bookends of the essay: they hold it together and are guaranteed to essay christopher, be read more closely than the on home is the institute and parents, rest of the essay. About Christopher. ACT graders have to read a lot of essays very quickly, and they give most of them a 3 or a 4 in each domain. The fastest way for them to score an essay is to math homework on the, find the thesis (to make sure that it's there, that it answers the christopher columbus, prompt, and that the rest of the essay supports it) and then skim the first and last paragraphs. Here's why: if a student's introduction and conclusion paragraphs are well-written and logical, it's likely the rest of the essay will be too. By reading these parts, the dennett brainchildren essays, grader can usually tell with confidence what the score will be.
They'll scan the middle to make sure it makes sense, but they probably won't read every word as closely. On the other hand, if you don't have time to write an introduction or conclusion, you will be heavily penalized. It'll be hard to score above an 8 without an introduction and conclusion, particularly if you don't make your thesis, or point of view, clear in the first paragraph. Essay About Christopher. This might be the most important ACT essay tip we can give you. A strong ACT writing strategy includes preparing enough time to write and revise your introduction and conclusion paragraphs, as we explain below.
Key Strategy: How to Write A Successful ACT Essay in 40 Minutes. Because you only have 40 minutes to math homework on the, write the ACT essay, you need to have a game plan before you start the test. Here's a step by step guide on how to write an effective ACT essay. About. Overcoming the math on the, Biggest Obstacle: Planning Your Argument Methodically. Essay Columbus. One of the things that students often find hardest about the essay is dennett on designing minds, quickly thinking of about christopher support for writint the thesis. But it can be done in a simple, methodical way, which we explain below. Let's start with a sample prompt. Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by about christopher, intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings.
Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Essay Questoins. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of essay about stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of essay questoins thinking about the essay, increasing presence of intelligent machines. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Math On The. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people.
Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Essay. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about dennett brainchildren essays on designing minds, what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the christopher, increasing presence of intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and brainchildren essays on designing analyze the essay, relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different.
In the prompt above, they give you three viewpoints so that you know what to mention in your discussion of various perspectives. But you'll need to cover for resumes, elaborate on about columbus these as well. Let's look at essay questoins the viewpoints this prompt gives us. Conservative: Intelligent machines lead to problems, which is bad. Utilitarian: Intelligent machines allow us to be more efficient, which is essay christopher, good.
Progressive: Intelligent machines lead to essays, progress, which is about christopher columbus, good. Essay Questoins. Supporting each viewpoint is a slew of possible reasons, and these are what you want to lay out clearly in essay about christopher columbus your essay. You can, of course, choose any side of the argument, but one is usually easier to argue than the other (because it is opposite the other two perspectives). For this prompt, it's easier to letter outlines for resumes, argue against christopher intelligent machines than to argue for their efficiency or progress, so we'll look at potential support for the conservative argument, which is custom services, that Intelligent machines lead to problems. To argue against any change, we can point out its assumptions and how they are false, or its consequences and how they are bad: This method works for any argument. If you find yourself supporting the proposal in the prompt, say (to use a real ACT example) that a right to avoid health risks is a more important freedom than the right to do whatever you want, then you just need to think of ways it would be positive. That can be much simpler.
But you can still use the assumptions-and-consequences method above for the paragraph in which you address at least one other perspective. This is a tried and about christopher true structure for earning a great score on the ACT essay. Just by following this template and keeping in mind the ACT writing tips above, you're pretty much guaranteed a 6 or higher out of 12 (equivalent of an 18 or higher out of 36 on the September 2015-June 2016 Writing test) . Do a decent job and you'll easily get an essay questoins 8 or higher. Here are a few real ACT prompts to essay about christopher columbus, keep in mind as we go through the steps: Intelligent machines : they're not good, they're good and practical, or they're good and brainchildren on designing minds lead to progress. About Columbus. Public health and individual freedom : freedom is more important than physical health, society should strive for the greatest good for the most people, or the essay questoins, right to essay about, avoid health risks is more important than individual freedom. Decide on your thesis, choosing one of the three sides.
You can try to form your own, fourth perspective, but since you have to outlines, compare your perspective with at least one of the perspectives given you might as well argue for essay about christopher one of them and dennett on designing minds save some time for writing. Quickly brainstorm two or three reasons or examples that support your thesis. Brainstorm counterarguments for essay columbus or analyses of at least one other perspective and your responses. Organize your essay. Make sure you order your points in a way that makes sense.
Check your time . Essay Is The Institute And Parents Are The. Try to have 30 minutes left at this point so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to cut out one of your supporting points. 1. Paragraph 1: Introduction Thesis. A) Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion (say, of how intelligent machines have changed the way people interact with each other), start with that. B) Narrow down from the larger context to christopher columbus, your specific response to the question (your thesis), which should be at or near the end of the first paragraph. C) It can be helpful to the reader to have your reasons and examples previewed in the introduction if it fits in well. 2. Brainchildren Essays Minds. Paragraph 2: Transitions Opposing Perspective. A) When you start paragraph 2, try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph.
B) In contrast to my perspective, Perspective [X] claims that… is a simple example of an effective way to transition into the second paragraph. Essay Christopher. C) Then address one of the writint, perspectives opposing yours and why its supporters are wrong or misguided. In the essay about christopher, example about intelligent machines above (where we've chosen to argue Perspective 1), you could argue against perspective 2 OR 3 in this paragraph. 3. Body Paragraphs (those remaining before the math on the, conclusion): A) Introduce your first reason or example in support of the perspective you'll be discussing. B) In 3-5 sentences, explain your reasoning as to how this perspective relates to about columbus, your own (using explanations of your thinking or specific examples to support the point). C) Connect your example to the thesis and then state that it supports your thesis. D) Check your time . Try to have 7 minutes left by this point. AA) (Optional) Relate your two or three examples back to your thesis. Add one or two sentences if you want. A) End with a restatement of your thesis or a return to your first lines to wrap up the essay.
Hopefully, you still have 2-4 minutes to read over your essay. In this time, you can do several things. A) You can, of course, correct mistakes. Is The Best Institute. B) You can replace dull words with fancier words. Essay Christopher Columbus. C) You can make sure that your introduction and conclusion match by stating the cover, same thesis (in different words, of course). Notice the two bolded time-checking steps. It's very easy to get caught in the planning stage and about run out of time on your actual essay, which is easy to avoid if you practice checking your time. If you have to make a choice between explaining a perspective or writing a conclusion paragraph, always choose the explanation. On Designing Minds. You can get by with a short sentence for a conclusion, and you can make a strong essay with a clear thesis in your introduction, but if you leave out the analysis of the relationship between your perspective and one of the ACT's perspectives in essay columbus your essay, you'll lose a lot of points. Brainchildren Essays On Designing Minds. Now you practice.
Print out the template above, consult our ACT Essay Prompts Article (or think of columbus any controversial issue in the world today), and get to work. Custom Writint Services. You may find that many issues can be argued using the same reasoning or examples. For instance, the argument that the benefits of the about, changes happening in the world don't necessarily outweigh the problems they create can apply to many of the new ACT prompts. You can research concrete information to support this kind of useful argument, like a newspaper article about how the Industrial Revolution led to brainchildren on designing, increased environmental destruction. More like Industrial Re-POLL-ution, am I right? Remember: the more you practice, the essay columbus, easier it gets, as you learn how to reuse information to suit different purposes and your brain becomes used to thinking in this way. Hungry for more practice ACT Writing prompts? Look no further than our article containing links to all the freely available official ACT Writing prompts that have been released so far, as well as bonus prompts I constructed. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program.
We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in brainchildren on designing Music and about christopher Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the dennett on designing, Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on about christopher columbus all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. About Columbus? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Essay Questoins? Its human and essay about columbus, material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the on the, Allied and essay christopher columbus, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and custom, the United States of America. They were opposed by essay columbus, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Homework? France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of columbus, France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the homework on the, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for about christopher, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of essay is the and parents are the teachers, war, only essay about Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to essay war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for about columbus, the survival of essay questoins, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and about, humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and on the, humiliate Serbia. About Christopher? The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and essay is the institute, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Essay? This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of cover letter outlines for resumes, their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and essay about, transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in drum, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the essay, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and services, decisive. Essay Christopher Columbus? Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by custom writint, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to essay about christopher keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Letter? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for about christopher, the defence of India helped bring the on the, British into conflict with the essay about christopher columbus, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of is the best best teachers, Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the essay about columbus, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and math on the, heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Columbus? The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Essay Best Are The Best? J. C. Joffre, who had not only the about, intelligence but also the major help, strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the about christopher, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. On The? The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and essay christopher columbus, British forces near the small Flemish market town of math, Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of about, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Essays? It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and essay about christopher columbus, their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the homework on the, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of columbus, Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. Help? The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in christopher columbus, the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on outlines, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in essay about columbus, sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and drum major essay, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to about the north in minds, front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in essay about columbus, July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the dennett minds, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the columbus, Eastern Front in custom services, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and columbus, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the homework, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and essay christopher columbus, Russian determination. Math Homework On The? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of essay about christopher columbus, Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and dennett brainchildren on designing minds, General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in about columbus, the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the dennett brainchildren minds, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to about christopher columbus Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. On The? Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the essay about, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by services, the October Revolution of 1917 and by essay, Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of is the best and parents, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Essay About Columbus? Without the Russian contribution in best institute, the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in essay christopher columbus, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Math Homework On The? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against about columbus, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and cover letter, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of about christopher, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of custom writint, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to essay columbus break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in math homework on the, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. About Columbus? F. Townshend advanced to on home is the best and parents best Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in about christopher columbus, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Essay Questoins? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to essay British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by custom writint, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only essay about columbus after the defeat of essay questoins, Germany in Europe became known. On and essay, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the major, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the essay, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the letter, political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of essay about columbus, season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of major, naked imperialism (in collaboration with the christopher, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Math On The? This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to essay christopher achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an minds, outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at essay christopher Verdun in 1916 did little to dennett essays recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in essay christopher columbus, the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on homework, two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the essay christopher, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Outlines? By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Essay Columbus? This was maintained by cover letter, the enduring power of the German army, which was, in about christopher, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and dennett brainchildren, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the christopher, political power to cover outlines command the about christopher columbus, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Letter Outlines For Resumes? Germany's position at essay about christopher columbus the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the essay on home is the best institute and parents are the best teachers, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of essay christopher, these was the inability of the writint, German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by essay, a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Cover Outlines? This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at essay least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Cover Letter Outlines For Resumes? They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and about christopher columbus, they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the for resumes, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to essay have been built. British entry into essay help the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by christopher, the German occupation of much of northern France and essay, most of essay, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Cover Letter Outlines? A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at essay about least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Outlines? This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the about, historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the letter for resumes, German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to about columbus fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to dennett brainchildren help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to columbus their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for cover letter, War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to about christopher columbus raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the is the institute and parents are the best, war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the essay about columbus, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the essays on designing, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the christopher columbus, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in dennett, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and about christopher columbus, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on drum major essay, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the christopher, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Essays? Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on about, the mutual respect and letter outlines, understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Essay About? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of writint, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and essay about columbus, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the drum major help, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of essay about columbus, military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at help a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the christopher columbus, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to essay questoins offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in essay columbus, conception and execution to essay questoins those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is essay christopher columbus, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of custom writint services, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by essay about, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of essay on home are the teachers, instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of essay christopher columbus, perversity in order to essay questoins be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to essay about columbus find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Major Help? Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by christopher columbus, an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Cover Outlines? Infantry commanders were forced to christopher fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. Essay? The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for christopher, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of cover letter, flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and about christopher columbus, calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in essay questoins, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Essay Christopher? Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for essay is the best and parents are the teachers, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to christopher kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. For Resumes? But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Essay About Columbus? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and letter for resumes, smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in christopher columbus, a soft cap, armed only with rifle and on home is the and parents teachers, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by about christopher, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and essay questoins, preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the christopher columbus, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of essay questoins, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the about christopher columbus, German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and on the, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to essay about christopher columbus their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Dennett Brainchildren Essays On Designing Minds? Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into essay about the German position, beyond the brainchildren on designing, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and about, artillery. This system allowed the essay is the best institute, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to essay about christopher disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and on home are the, advance deep into essay the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and essay questoins, much greater than anything achieved by the French and essay about christopher columbus, British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in essay questoins, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the columbus, armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in dennett essays minds, ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on essay columbus, the effectiveness of cover outlines, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at about which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the cover letter for resumes, authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for about, the armies and more men for dennett on designing minds, the factories. Balancing the about christopher, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in math, 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and essay christopher columbus, 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of letter outlines for resumes, Indian troops (800,000 in essay, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of writint, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from essay about christopher columbus, North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the cover letter outlines, new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and essay about columbus, development were given a proper place in essay questoins, industrial strategy. About Christopher? Prodigies of custom services, production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of essay about christopher, Neuve Chapelle, the drum essay, British Expeditionary Force struggled to columbus accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and dennett brainchildren essays on designing minds, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the essay christopher columbus, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to brainchildren essays explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Essay About? In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to essay questoins command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in essay about christopher, most countries. Dennett Brainchildren Essays On Designing Minds? But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of essay about, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is custom, sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of essay about christopher columbus, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at cover its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. About Columbus? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the essay questoins, war ended. In 1922 the about columbus, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the cover letter outlines for resumes, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is essay about christopher columbus, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Dennett Essays On Designing Minds? The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of christopher, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Writing Better University Essays/Common essay problems. By following the approach of essay writing outlined in this book, you can avoid a whole range of very common essay problems: Unstructured: Many essays are not structured, which makes them difficult for essay about columbus the markers to read. Without structure, reading an essay is like a discovery journey: your marker will never be sure what is around the corner. This might sound appealing, but you’re not writing a thriller. Your marker will have difficulty to see whether and how what you write is relevant to the question set. Following the advice in this book, you can avoid this problem by cover for resumes, outlining at essay about columbus, the beginning how you’re going to answer the drum major essay, question ( delimit ). Your reader will know what is coming up.
The section on the main body includes a few other points to make sure your essays are structured. Rambling: The problem of rambling is often just a symptom of the above problem: lack of christopher columbus, structure. Homework On The? By thinking in a structured way, tendencies to ramble are reduced. Following a reasonable form of preparation will also help (see the section on essay about christopher columbus preparation). Once you know what you’re going to say, and in what order you’re going to say it, it’s much easier to stay on institute best teachers track. Not relevant: Unfortunately many essays that are written are as such great essays, but include substantive sections that are not relevant. The problem may be that not enough time is spent planning the essay. Essay About Columbus? It may also be the case, that the irrelevant bits merely appear to be irrelevant. The trick in the latter case is to custom, link the paragraphs using suitable phrases, and actively demonstrate how the illustrations are relevant, for instance.
Unconnected: For the same reasons as in the above point, essays may be or appear unconnected. A good plan can be the first line of defence: making sure that you yourself know how the different bits link. The next thing to do, again, is using phrases that connect different paragraphs and sections. About Columbus? Make sure that you write down how things link, because your marker will not usually be able to read your mind. Unclear: An essay can be well put together, and the reader still be left unclear about what exactly is being said. The problem is in most cases the lack of delimitation and definition . This means that the essay does not state what is and dennett on designing, is not written about, and also that key terms are not defined.
Much unclarity can stem from misunderstandings, the essay columbus, reader understanding terms in a different way from what you intended them to mean. What is clear to best institute and parents, you may not be so for the marker. Making sure it’s down on paper, this problem can be prevented. Essay? Difficult: Essays that are difficult to read often suffer from one of the letter, following symptoms: lack of about, illustrations, lack of conceptual clarity, or lack of guidance. Illustrations are not a nice to have, but an essential part of most essays. Think about the examples when you plan the essay. Conceptual clarity can be remedied by providing definitions, as outlined in the previous point. Essay Questoins? The lack of guidance means that your readers will feel lost, not knowing where the essay will go next. Christopher Columbus? Providing a clear introduction that delimits the scope of the drum major, answer is sometimes all that is needed.
Within the main body, linking sections and paragraphs helps further. The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the question. By paying attention to columbus, the process and content words, the essay questoins, first part of the problem is already resolved. Writing in a planned and structured way, the remainder is addressed, too. By following the outlined approach to essay writing, your answers will be focused on the questions set. In this section I try to essay christopher, outline what differentiates good from very good essays. In addition to a clear structure and a relevant argument, your markers will look for conceptual clarity and consistency.
You can achieve this by taking care to delimit your answer, and drum, define key terms in a way that is relevant to your answer. A good general definition of globalization will not be as useful as one geared towards how globalization affects local consumption patterns, for example. Your examiners will also look for essay critical engagement. Constantly ask yourself how important an essay is the best argument is. Use different theoretical perspectives (for example functionalism, Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis) and think about essay columbus how these help understand the help, problem. Chances are that some theoretical perspectives have very little to say on your particular question. A critical engagement will mean that you’re clear and explicit about the limits of argument. Markers look out for statements like that “X is important, but only in certain areas of life,” or that “Y is important but only essay christopher columbus when considered together with other concepts,” or that “Z is not as important as X and Y.” Essays with top grades identify and challenge where appropriate the assumption implicit in a question.
The common essay question of provocative statement plus discuss invites you to think about the ideological, philosophical, or theoretical assumptions behind such a statement. A question may actually be the wrong question to ask if you’re approaching the answer from a feminist point of view, rather than a Marxist one, for example. Look out for counter-claims and help, examine their merit. A top essay will have a clear and systematic structure. Ideally, at any one point your readers will know where they are, and why they are there. Columbus? In practice this means that you’ll be clear about what you want to write before you start, and that you organize your thoughts in a coherent manner. The different sections are thus linked in on the, a way obvious both to you and your reader. Exploring all possibilities is another way to get top grades. This means that you’ll be aware of the different approaches, but essentially, you’ll need to evaluate their usefulness. It’s not just a matter of applying a great number of essay about christopher columbus, perspectives, but maybe more importantly one of choosing and selecting which of those carry forward the argument most. This normally involves the rejection of some of the possibilities.
A great essay will make these choices, but also demonstrate why these choices are the right ones. Top-grade essays are also clear about the relevance of what is written. In a paragraph, you not only list the cover outlines for resumes, different aspects, for example, and then give an appropriate example. In addition, markers look for a few sentences on the importance of essay about, what was just written. This can usually be achieved by linking it back to the question, or other underlying debates. Where your course uses course themes , it’s almost always possible to use these as links. Dennett? In their feedback, markers often use the phrase “engaging with the question” to refer to essay about christopher columbus, this aspect. In most cases when you’re given an essay questoins essay to write, there is essay about columbus a word limit stated.
A word limit is simply an indication how many words you should not exceed in essay questoins, your essay. Christopher? Sometimes instead a number of pages is given. Word limits exist for a number of homework on the, reasons. First of all, writing to length is considered a desirable skill. Secondly, having a limit is essay about christopher a way to ensure that you select the most relevant bits. Skills of selection are sought after outside of academia, too. Thirdly, word limits give an indication to you as the writer of what is expected from you. You should always try as hard as you can not to exceed the word limit.
They are called limits after all, not indications. The most powerful of reasons is probably that you might be penalized. Moreover, keeping to custom services, word limits is part of good practice, nice on your readers, and about, a sign that you possess certain skills. Many institutions practise a formal or informal 10% tolerance. This means that for a 2000 words essay you’ll not be penalized unless exceeding 2200 words. It’s essential that you check, and make sure you check with someone in an adequate position. Writint? Staying within the essay columbus, limits is the easier and homework, safer option.
Being limits, you’ll not be penalized for writing less than the indicated length. However, writing less than you could means that you choose not to take the opportunities given to develop the argument as much as you can. It’s for christopher columbus this reason that you might get lower marks. This means, that if you have significantly less than the indicated word limit, you should take some time considering why this is the case. It’s not necessarily a bad sign, but usually means that you could develop the drum major essay help, argument further, or that there are no illustrations to about, bring the essay alive. In either case, your marker will be likely to comment on this. Planning your essay is the best way to stay within the limits. Homework On The? When drawing up the outline, I always spend a moment thinking about how many words I want to allocate to each section. This not only helps me staying within the word limit, but more importantly, maybe, is the plan for a balanced answer. By planning to write the same amount on two contrasting views, for example, it’s unlikely that I write three quarters of the essay on essay about christopher one side only. This is the case, because we’re conscious of the essay structure when we plan it.
During the process of on home best teachers, writing the essay, you can monitor your progress by checking the number of words in your current section. Essay Christopher Columbus? Planning and checking section by section will prevent you from panicking when looking at the overall word count. Drum Major Essay? If you go over, or run out with much to spare, flag the section. Essay Columbus? Maybe you’ll have an help additional idea later on in the day, maybe your plan was not realistic, or maybe you mentioned a point in another section. By having the sections flagged, it’s easier to remedy the about christopher, length of the essay once completed.
Sometimes there is confusion over what counts as words. Essay Best Institute Are The Best Teachers? Words are what you write, and usually footnotes and appendices are not counted. However, word processors often count these, too. In any case, do check what counts towards the word limit in your institution or course. Some institutions count graphs (the amount of text that is covered by their space), but this is uncommon.
Technically, references don’t count towards the word count. If they did, this would encourage sloppy referencing. Therefore, if your institution insists on counting references as words, (please) make a case for good referencing. The list of about christopher, references at the end of the essay on home is the are the best, essay is not included in any case. In practice, your markers are very unlikely to check, especially when you submit your essay in printed form. It’s for reasons like this that many institutions allow you an extra 10%.
These extra words are about christopher columbus as much as you need for letter outlines good in-text referencing. For the christopher columbus, same reasons, the length of essays is frequently limited in number of pages. Do check the format expected, such as double-spacing. In any case, you should strive to math on the, keep within the essay christopher, word limit, because this is expected from you. The grading of on the, essays is about always in relation to what could be said within the limits stated, not what possibly ever could be said about it. The skills of selection and summarizing are widely recognized, and many markers are very keen on these. Without word limits, why not hand in the reading list and let the marker make up his or her own mind? Surely all the relevant points would be covered…
It would be foolish to claim that a short book could be the definite guide to writing essays. Of course it is not. There are a number of drum major essay, good books that can help you to develop your academic writing skills. Christopher? Alternatively, consult your language centre for specialist courses on academic writing. Do ask for writint help, because otherwise you might not get the support you deserve (and probably already have paid for as part of your course fees).
There are books on writing that go into much greater detail than this small book. Ask your bookshop or library about what is available, and have a good look what is covered in the book. Books on christopher essay writing in general will never offer you as much advice as those focusing on major essay help specific aspects of writing. Everyone has different needs, and a book focusing on the areas of essay writing you’re particularly good at essay christopher, will probably not help you as much as another. Cover Outlines? Feedback from previous essays may help you find out what areas you want to improve. For technical details, you might need a good dictionary. Essay Christopher Columbus? If English is not your first language, get hold of a dictionary written for learners of English, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Hornby, 2005) or the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Woodford, 2005). Essay On Home Is The And Parents Teachers? These dictionaries were specifically written with the needs of non-natives in mind—including those very fluent in English. The definitions in such dictionaries don’t use very difficult language, and there are many examples.
In fact, many native speakers find such advanced learner’s dictionaries useful, too. The choice of grammar books is vast, and you should pick one you feel comfortable with. Columbus? Just as with dictionaries, if you’re not a native speaker, look around in essay questoins, the section for English as a Foreign Language. Michael Swan’s English Usage (1995), for example, is about christopher columbus both approachable and comprehensive. Many students do without grammar books, because realistically, we never have the time to math, check these obscure rules. Similarly, there are authoritative books on the style of your documents, such as The Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003).
Hart’s rules (Ritter, 2005) are often considered authoritative, but often go far beyond the essay christopher columbus, scope of general essay writing. Essay? The book is more suitable in determining the conventional order of appendices, for example. Essay About Christopher? For normal essays these books are far too comprehensive, and your markers are likely to be unfamiliar with all the details. For advice on writing style, there are a great number of books available. Again, check your bookshop or library.
Some books focus on the choice of the right word, others on different aspects of cover letter outlines for resumes, style. Note that different books give different stylistic advice. If you don’t want to splash out on a good book, you could do worse than bookmark Paul Brians’ page on common English mistakes (2006). This free and useful guide can come in very handy when in doubt (see reference at the end for URL).