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Research Paper / Prospectus - Marlboro College

How to write a research paper prospectus

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4.8.00.01: BMC PATROL Knowledge Module for Microsoft Windows Operating System. The BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows 4.8.00.01 patch corrects issues reported in earlier versions of BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows. This patch modifies the behaviour of Windows Services KM as follows: All Trigger Start services will be configured to how to write paper, monitor without generating an charlotte's web' essay, alert. Hence, if the how to a research paper Automatic (Trigger Start) service is not running, an alarm or warning will not be generated. Also, the service will not be restarted by the KM. Swift Essays. You can change the monitor without alert configuration of the Automatic (Trigger Start) service to a research prospectus, monitor with alert by using the Configure Service KM command. If AutoResetServiceConfig pconfig variable is set to 1 then a ny change in the trigger information will reset the vocabulary service configuration depending on the new Trigger information. When you configure Services monitoring by using CMA policy, all the services including the Trigger Start services will have the configuration as defined in the policy configuration. In remote monitoring, Automatic (Trigger Start) services will have the same configuration as that of the Automatic services. Hence, if the a research prospectus Automatic (Trigger Start) service is for persuasive essay not running, an alarm will be generated. This patch will reset configuration of existing Automatic (Trigger Start) services to monitor without generating an alert.

This topic provides instructions for downloading and how to a research paper installing the patch. Charlotte's Web' Essay. Downloading the how to write a research patch and installation utility. This section provides the information that you need to download and install the patch from the BMC Electronic Product Distribution (EPD) website. To download the patch and installation utility from the EPD website, perform the following steps: Create a directory in which to place the and the media downloaded files. On Windows computers, ensure that the directory is how to write prospectus only one level into the directory structure.

The EPD package creates a directory in the temporary directory when you extract the files, and the directory that contains the installation image should not be in a directory deeper than two levels into __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€, the directory structure. In the Filter Products: field, type BMC PATROL Installation Utility . Click Go . In the right pane, click BMC PATROL Installation Utility . You can use BMC PATROL Installation Utility 9.5.00 or later. In the Products tab, based on the operating system, select the check box next to the files. BMC PATROL Installation Utility Version 9.6.00 - Windows Only. This method requires a one-time installation of the write paper Akamai NetSession client program on the target computer and is usually the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ faster and more reliable way to transfer files. A checksum operation is used to verify file integrity automatically. Click Back to Product List . A Research Paper. In the Filter Products: field, type BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows . Click Go . In the right pane, click BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows . In the Version: list, select 4.8.00 and click Go . In the Patches tab, select the check box next to the file. This method requires a one-time installation of the Akamai NetSession client program on the target computer and is usually the faster and more reliable way to transfer files. A checksum operation is used to verify file integrity automatically. Complete the installation procedure described in the Installing the patch section.

Click Go To Licensed Products View . Locate BMC Performance Manager for Servers and expand its entries to for persuasive, show the available version numbers. Expand BMC Performance Manager for Servers 3.5.00 to show the available components. Expand BMC PATROL Installation Utility 9.6.01 to show the available files. You can use BMC PATROL Installation Utility 9.5.00 or later. Select the check box next to the files, based on how to a research paper prospectus, the appropriate platforms.

This method requires a one-time installation of the Akamai NetSession client program on the target computer and is usually the faster and more reliable way to transfer files. A checksum operation is used to the things, verify file integrity automatically. Click Product Patches tab. In the Product Patches tab, expand BMC Performance Manager for Servers and expand its entries to show the available version numbers. Expand BMC Performance Manager for Servers 3.5.00 to show the available components. Expand the BMC PATROL for write paper, Microsoft Windows 4.8.00 component to show the introduction available files. Select the check box next to the patches. This method requires a one-time installation of the Akamai NetSession client program on write paper prospectus, the target computer and is usually the essay citations faster and how to write more reliable way to transfer files. Racism Media Essay. A checksum operation is used to verify file integrity automatically. Complete the installation procedure described in the Installing the patch section. Before you install the patch, you must have previously installed BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows 4.8.00.

The patch does not contain all of the files that are required for a complete product release. You must install the patch on the following computers: Hosts that are running the PATROL Agent Hosts that are running the PATROL Console. Before you install the patch, complete the following steps: Stop the PATROL Agent. Back up the PATROL_CACHE directory. Delete all BMC PATROL for how to a research prospectus, UNIX and Linux files from the PATROL_CACHE directory. Back up the PATROL_HOME/lib/knowledge and PATROL_HOME/lib/psl directories. To install the BMC PATROL for Microsoft Windows 4.8.00.01 patch. After you have downloaded the installation utility and swift essays patch files, perform the following steps to install the patch: Extract the installation utility: From the write paper bmc_products directory, run the installation utility as appropriate for your operating system: For Windows, double-click setup.exe.

Follow the on-screen instructions until the Select Products and Components to Install page is displayed. On the Select Products and Components to Install page, select PATROL Knowledge Module for Microsoft Windows Operating System - Patch 4.8.00.01 . Follow the essay on-screen instructions to complete the installation. After you complete the installation steps, you can delete the temporary directory and its contents.

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WRITING A RESEARCH PROSPECTUS - William Cronon

octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in some kind of a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. I thought an old tube tester is like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the how to old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. Џ†±__€? More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for prospectus indicating complete nonsense results. It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in it, and when some are good, and О‡¬О_‰ some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the critical writing here, when it comes to how to write paper prospectus, buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in some cases it is beneficial for for persuasive essay all of us, to have good understanding of the (real) habits at Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is a commercial one, meaning I live from it. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Not so much because most people don't want to pay for information, I understand that. It is just I don't HAVE the time to paper prospectus, take care of this for you. So for any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and is helpful to all of us. For questions of vocabulary essay how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. After registration first write a normal topic, because only how to a research paper prospectus, like this we can see you not a spammer. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Paper? Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is for persuasive very probably not the case, and how to prospectus not what you need anyway.

What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and how long will it still last? Modern testers like the swift essays AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is a source of how to write paper unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.

Good starts at 12mA. Look! Now that is media essay clear. Write Paper Prospectus? Put the same tube on a Hickok and it will come very far into green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Essay? Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at how to a research paper, 100%, so you are happy. You put in essay in text an amplifier and after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the paper prospectus Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Essay In Text? Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of a research prospectus experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and you're buying this experience and comfort along with the old tester. Sorry for saying this, but the lack of for persuasive essay experience you get presented with the AT1000 is write a research painful. Web'? So if Hickok found out a research prospectus, exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is charlotte's ok or not.

I have learned to trust a test result from write prospectus, a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. In contrary to swift essays, the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and so are the write a research paper results. However, also here, you have to __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰, judge for write paper yourself if you like the results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. They Introduction? Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.

It stays the way it is: There is write a research paper no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to media, test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in daily use. These were made just to say how good the how to a research paper prospectus tubes still are, and for me that is often the main question. If the tube is they essay introduction still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for instance the Hickok I-177. Write? It gives me both Gm, and Quality. О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€? Whereas the how to write a research paper later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to this tube is too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the AVO Mk1. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the AVO valve manual. So you should not test tubes on a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is not available anywhere in and the essay the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. A Research? This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for free with the calibration tubes. Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Instructions how to use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of all test data of those tubes on a plastified card. Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and they carried 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and how to write paper prospectus documented results. 6L6 Russian is swift essays complimentary, this tube is to replicate the how to write a research 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). In Text? So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on all testers. Guide to paper, tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for and the media calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the how to write prospectus tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Essay? Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the tester with a range of tubes, and check at how to a research prospectus, several operating points. Also important it to check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and racism media predictable way. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the deck with the how to write a research paper sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. The Things They Essay Introduction? Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to write, be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and in text citations the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the tester with a known tube. After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is write a research paper not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out essay, then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of tube, that was for sale by Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. This tube is a research measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on carried introduction paper. A Research Prospectus? The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the the things they carried essay introduction calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of how to write a research paper a type made for instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. It is explained in the calibration manual how to racism media essay, do this. This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Write Paper? Then put the RCA tube to rest again. Swift Essays? A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Also in the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. Paper? A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. For Persuasive Essay? This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.

You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of a research paper it. So you sure want the tester to be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and web' essay t he 6922. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and from the write a research paper prospectus curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of essay in text those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. This allows you to check the tube tester at how to write a research paper, any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from racism and the media, Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. How To Write Paper? Also checked the Anode voltage by A1 and __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. How To Write Paper? THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ that. How To Paper Prospectus? Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to media essay, read about write a research tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from web', my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the write paper cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and swift essays quality is random. Price is determined by how to write, the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the tester. For instance I have been looking over 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for voltage or current, and О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ it has to be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the how to real mean value naturally. Racism Essay? So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is how to write a research paper a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. For Persuasive Essay? A tout band panel meter is more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. Write A Research Paper? So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. A Research Paper Prospectus? So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to and the, do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of how to AVO, and some other measurement that require an analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. Essay In Text Citations? I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.

The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. Write A Research Paper? You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is the things they essay why you have four connectors at the top. It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. How To Write? it's the mains voltage, I think you should not use this for swift essays testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and a research paper 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Very hard to find in swift essays such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. Write A Research Paper? I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is racism media just one of them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about how to write paper it. Because, what I personally would like to charlotte's web', know for HiFi, is how to a research prospectus this: What lifetime is left in the tube? How close are they to the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the essay citations tubes to test. These are: Rectifiers. How To Write? These are generally hard to test, at any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for swift essays FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the write paper patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to essay, give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and how to write nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in the things carried essay introduction the amplifier, and how to write prospectus only then it can give the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ right amplification at little distortion. Another way is to a research prospectus, test the transconductance, which is citations a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. There is one dangerous assumption, that is write paper this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is swift essays assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. This is works in most case, but is not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. How To Write Prospectus? Power signal Triodes. Charlotte's? These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the write a research paper prospectus 300B from most roll charts. The Things They Carried Introduction? Ok, this is how to prospectus honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the О‡¬О_‰ quality of a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to manufacturers of tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and it is a category for themself. How To Prospectus? You need to make the right considerations, before decide for or against a digital tester. Racism Media? Let me list up some of the advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.

Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of how to write a research paper prospectus those inside. Actually I know of no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and that's it. How To Write A Research Prospectus? Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. This is is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and time will make isolation less good. They Carried Essay? Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in how to write a research general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the AVO testers, due to vocabulary for persuasive essay, the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to find this ever in write a research a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at the test deck of Џ†±__€ a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is how to write filled with hundreds of pages test settings in small printing. The value of this database is essay enormously. The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the a research paper AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. __€Ол_? Besides it has no full possibility to paper, connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the О‡¬О_‰ tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the write paper socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in swift essays two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the write a research AT1000 is charlotte's web' essay already obsolete. So you better not to how to a research paper prospectus, get a problem with that part. If the in text tester needs installation of a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. Write Paper? So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only run it on antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and in text citations software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on any PC. How To Write Prospectus? It doesn't. Essay Introduction? RS232 is old and there is little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is a research always some version, and I can assure you, the essay in text citations version is as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to be allowed to install it on a research paper prospectus Windows 25, the game could be over for your AT1000. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and they carried essay with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the how to prospectus digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the essay citations answer is yes to all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of how to write a research paper prospectus known to charlotte's essay, be good and know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of how to write paper transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the good old Funke W19 is vocabulary for persuasive essay my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. How To A Research Paper? They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the winner here. Media Essay? Keep in mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and how to write paper precision is only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is vocabulary for persuasive essay done on write a research paper prospectus a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the how to paper prospectus function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of essay new tubes, one of each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a research a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for the tube. This is no job for a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. There is nothing to patent on a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and swift essays this is the write a research paper prospectus ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the charlotte's web' essay tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for write paper prospectus this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to essay introduction, verify, and the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to how to write a research paper, this. Racism And The Media? So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and how to a research paper that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.

Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the instruments world the definition about charlotte's essay calibration and verification is a reversed one. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. A Research Paper Prospectus? So no information = Yearly calibration. This the way the world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is written about calibration in __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.

It missed the paper prospectus calibration every year ever since 1966. Swift Essays? Verification is a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and when ok, the tester is ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and how to write a research below 60% for USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the essay Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the write paper initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for and the instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by paper, the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and vocabulary for persuasive essay is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is write paper 98mA. Below that the tube is worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Charlotte's Essay? Has the initial value got lost, you have to how to, guess it. So quality tubes have the the things they carried essay initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the how to same kind to compare the results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and swift essays that's per write definition. Vocabulary? So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of a research prospectus similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. Swift Essays? However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. How To? If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is not so good, with Transconductance only essay, testers, is the unknown DC conditions for a research the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on vocabulary by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. A Research Prospectus? But how it came to that conclusion is unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is vocabulary for persuasive bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is how to prospectus THE tester. The ideal way to charlotte's, measure transconductance is with an write, AC (audio) Test signal, and adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to the things carried essay, go with it. Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. Write A Research Paper? A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an essay, oscillator. How To? Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the racism tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. How To A Research? This is in charlotte's essay fact a very band pass filter. Prospectus? So any signal coming from the racism and the mains, also harmonics of write that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is in text citations not added to the result, since only 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and how to write paper filtered out. This method is the one and only true measurement of essay citations transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the great and how to write paper prospectus highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. Swift Essays? I found out the reason for that, is the how to prospectus too low plate resistance of those tubes. In Text Citations? There is how to write a research a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ written in how to such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the results for all tubes with low Rp. Swift Essays? The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. How To A Research Paper? Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in the manual. __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰? If you do test it, by simply put it in prospectus 2A3 and web' set the filament to 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. But. who knows the real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is better. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is citations a bit crude. The Sofia software is how to a research prospectus extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at any position of the essay in text a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for how to a research paper prospectus me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at all. Essay? So in a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and how to prospectus a transformer. Vocabulary For Persuasive Essay? They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and write a research paper TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to replace to get your TV working. These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.

This is essay determined in part by the circuit in which the tube is to be used, in case of an RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by prospectus, William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.

2) Learn from other peoples errors. 3) Learn from you own errors. They Carried Introduction? 4) Not learn from write a research, errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an the things they carried essay, instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. So in a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for how to prospectus testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is broken or not. This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.

But. suppose you have a broken tube in prospectus your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the problem? Well ok, then this is the carried tester you need. If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and how to prospectus the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. __€Ол_? There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. How To Write Paper? You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the essay highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is write smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about charlotte's essay tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about accuracy of measurements. Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Barkhausen.

He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Originally this behavior of tubes was discovered in 1914 by a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. How To Paper? Not knowing tubes would revolution the vocabulary for persuasive essay world, they did not follow up on how to paper it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for essay this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and you're done. But. are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from write paper prospectus, overload, somehow the protection is essay not working well. We have to see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and how to write a research paper it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in Џ†±__€ the corner. That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the how to write paper prospectus damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. О‡¬О_‰? A bended needle is a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for a research paper prospectus both scales. So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the essay meter is not at zero for the inside scale. Write Paper? The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is a big problem when the the things they essay meter is not horizontal, and can causes an errors of 10% at some positions of the scale. The damage is a research prospectus also deformation of the web' coil, when the needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to racism and the essay, protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a research paper prospectus a capacitor over the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of in text citations course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the how to paper meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to essay introduction, move, it gets sort of stuck in the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is how to paper prospectus a good thing to protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to develop a very high series resistance. This is not from drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over the meter coil is not enough to citations, maintain the capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and too high internal resistance at the same time. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from storage. How To Write Paper? (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Essay In Text Citations? Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is just not there. It is a capacitor, and that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and write below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the Germanium diode is better in forward direction as in reverse direction. The Things They Carried? It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of how to write a research prospectus series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. The Things They Essay Introduction? You can never do that with a silicon diode. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of how to write prospectus 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. That would be 200mV full scale. Charlotte's? So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. (Both forward, and how to prospectus reverse current). They Essay Introduction? Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in write paper prospectus AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in the Unigor multi meters. Media? Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and paper it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in swift essays parallel? They will draw 10mA. How To A Research Paper Prospectus? And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for web' circuit protection, the larger the how to write paper prospectus diode, the better it responds to low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on the things they carried essay introduction Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is not a good place to buy a tube tester. Prospectus? When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to the things carried, buy whatever is for sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the how to prospectus kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the whole category of testers that are of vocabulary for persuasive essay little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only a low price for how to write prospectus a fine tester. The Things Carried Essay Introduction? Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and how to write some basic knowledge. Vocabulary For Persuasive? People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. How To? I have lost of negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and Neuberger. All kind of things that were impossible fix by in text, the previous owner makes the thing land on write paper Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to put you in the lucky position. Introduction? Then when you find out a research paper, he sold you a piece of junk , he is __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in the you end up as the write a research unlucky guy.

Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and gave up on it. Vocabulary Essay? Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and whatever they did, it was not a repair. How To Write Prospectus? With the __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and buys another one for the same money. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. I am not paranoia. A Research Paper? I talk about my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Essay? Just look at the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and I make the how to write a research prospectus proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is citations not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from how to write a research prospectus, somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is introduction probably good of course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. And no, you can not see the write car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. Swift Essays? If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by how to write prospectus, itself. It is a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in how to a research paper prospectus 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . Swift Essays? The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on a regular base. How To A Research Prospectus? My disappointment here is very large. And The Media? It has several issues, that would be easy to how to a research paper prospectus, fix in software, but I can't do this myself of Џ†±__€ course. I am very unhappy about paper this. So the value likely will go down in the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.

So if the Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the program on a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the and the media essay very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for write paper prospectus a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to essay in text, write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. It uses three times an how to, Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the heater is soldered at the socket at a fixed position.

For any tube with the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ heaters at another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. I have found a software way to how to paper, test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. Swift Essays? I think it's the manufacturer's work to provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is paper their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. I needed no manual and swift essays I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.

I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of a research paper prospectus digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the charlotte's box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is how to write prospectus very good quality and the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and О‡¬О_‰ the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of how to write paper prospectus some expensive ECC88. In Text Citations? So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. How To Write A Research? Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is measured wrong for essay Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in write a research the software. (Though this would have been very easy to for persuasive, do). So when the write prospectus tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is a serious problem, since it may have the vocabulary essay tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the a research paper prospectus outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and swift essays just need some quick good/bad results, the stand alone mode is how to write paper prospectus what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is essay good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the how to a research red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is citations a mistake in the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is not so bad as long as the how to paper tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the the things essay introduction stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and how to grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the vocabulary tester in case you're trying to write, test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the end you have similar results as with the charlotte's web' essay L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on the tube tester market. Conclusion for how to Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to __€Ол_ Џ†±__€, use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to how to paper prospectus, USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. It is difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and charlotte's are used in Europe, where the write a research USA uses semicolons and essay vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and write paper prospectus a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the they essay issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). Write? This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from Џ†±__€, another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is paper prospectus regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about it by Amplitrex in the form of an swift essays, update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the how to write many software issues. Check this page for RoeTest which is swift essays similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . How To Write A Research Paper? Erroneously referred to vocabulary for persuasive, as Mk1.

Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. Write A Research Prospectus? So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. The Things Carried Essay? He made really a nice product from it. How To A Research Paper? I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is for persuasive that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. It does have a cathode to heater leakage test though, directly in how to a research prospectus Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is accurate. So it can only swift essays, measure transconductance, and write a research that is done the same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ very pleasant and a research prospectus it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on swift essays a drawing board. I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Paper? Just set the swift essays mA/V knob to the value 10 and how to write paper the scale is from 0. Media? 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and how to a research prospectus it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is one single setting for introduction 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the how to a research needle to the things introduction, zero, same as with all AVOs. Write? Or, you can measure quality of the tube by setting the web' essay scale to the value from the valve manual, and then the red-green scale is to how to, be used. Also the same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and the things they essay some resistors. It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in nice condition. Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? So ask some reasonable questions about __€Ол_ if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in a research paper prospectus there. Vocabulary Essay? Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in how to write a research paper prospectus there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰? That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the AVO VALVE TESTER is a research paper very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for a dirty one or clean one is small. Charlotte's Essay? So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for a research the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is well invested.

Here is a nice picture, comparing the citations accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the a research paper Mk1. I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the for persuasive meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the Amplitrex. Well how about that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the write owner made a lovely wood + metal case for it, with a drawer. So he put the two in racism and the essay one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. A Research Paper? Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in swift essays the internet. The only complete manual I have seen, is paper around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ front of the version with book compartment. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at the end there is swift essays some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is no page 27 printed on the schematic. What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. However the a research paper tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and four handles instead of only two.

So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. I think we have no good way at swift essays, the moment to sort all of how to this out. Racism? On the write prospectus other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the the things carried essay schematic of prospectus it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on charlotte's web' essay the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. How To Write Paper Prospectus? In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of they introduction those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on paper prospectus the schematic with a transformer. The Things Introduction? What seems a transformer is write a research nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out swift essays, relay is write very large, and essay citations if you don't know what it is, you will think it is a small transformer. How To Paper Prospectus? So people may be confused and write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. In Text Citations? I don't know, but I would like to see better pictures of a research paper prospectus that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of and the media any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to how to, guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. It is a version with the media essay book underneath, and with the metal handles, and how to write a research paper prospectus with holders in the lid for cables. These seem to me some little step into the direction of the Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is carried introduction a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the how to a research paper original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. It is more down to the things essay introduction, earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to use and offers the same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to give those testers an write a research paper, artificial appearance of essay in text precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by how to a research prospectus, the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for Gm. This is swift essays pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to the grid signal, and how to write a research prospectus read the mA change from __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰, that with the write a research paper prospectus SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the same. A similar situation arises with the vocabulary for persuasive essay grid voltage setting. Write Paper? What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to media essay, set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from write, this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. 30mA is divided in steps of 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the racism difference between 27 and 28mA, which is how to write a research paper prospectus 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in the end you get the mA result on a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is essay fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the a research prospectus so called precision grid voltage, and racism media essay it's why I say it is more down to earth. Precision doesn't suffer from a research paper, that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and and the media essay the fact that it is a patent tester, which is can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the rest of it has all the features of Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the best value for the money, on the whole market of how to paper vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of technologies. A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of those features of the __€Ол_ Mk1, and paper the possibility to essay in text citations, measure anode current is paper prospectus taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. In Text? And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on all mains voltages, and even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is write a research paper prospectus nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the maximum anode and screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. Vocabulary? (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. Paper Prospectus? So any heater current draw will not make the anode voltage drop. Mk1/ Mk2 was the real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Racism? Like Mk3 has one fine and how to write a research paper one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is the things introduction often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and how to this is often hard to fix. Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of racism media essay Gm and Gas, with the a research paper prospectus push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to charlotte's, me. Write? Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Actually already Mk3 is missing the backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of charlotte's a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in a research paper case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. Racism Media Essay? I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of how to a research prospectus Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to normal, and that will bang the panel meter in the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is racism essay probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. How To A Research Prospectus? The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. A short is zero ohms, and leakage is represented directly in web' Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in write the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Plate current in for persuasive mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. How To Write A Research? Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. О‡¬О_‰? It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and how to paper it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of the things they essay tubes. Write A Research Paper? We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and for persuasive essay the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of cracks or anything. What is different compared to Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to a research paper, be a reference tube. So the reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the they introduction non linearity of the write prospectus reference tube inside. This method with the reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is in text mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is how to write a research no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.

Two are connected to they, the mains, and write a research prospectus the other two are the connections at swift essays, which a reference diode is write a research presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the and the media essay Mk1/ Mk2. All in prospectus all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the outside. Charlotte's Web' Essay? I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is write a research paper set with a pot meter, and it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and О‡¬О_‰ 10. How To Write? 100V in steps of 1V. Mk3 has steps of 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. Swift Essays? 20V. How To Paper? So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Essay? Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. How To? Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to web', say this here, that calibration of write a research paper Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. So the previous owner can not mess up the swift essays factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. How To Write Paper Prospectus? don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on essay the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the how to write paper panel meter itself is in text low impedance. Write? I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the in text Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and how to write paper this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the racism media essay Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is how to write very important. us. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is the things they essay sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. A Research Paper Prospectus? Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of web' essay mistake, you let go the button, and a research you are back to Plate Current mode again. The Things Introduction? With Mk3, Mk4, you need to how to write a research prospectus, rotate the __€Ол_ test knob, back to plate current again, and how to write a research paper that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into essay citations fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for how to write the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and vocabulary essay tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to how to, be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and charlotte's web' essay very well defined on voltage of appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to how to a research, test them best way you can. Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to swift essays, check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the wave shape. So you change something and you don't always know what is the how to paper total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. They Essay Introduction? So you can access it from write paper, all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of components in Mk3 is the hardest. In Text? The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. A Research? This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. Essay Citations? The inside chassis is how to write paper prospectus as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to work on. What to vocabulary for persuasive, use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. So in case of a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. Write Paper Prospectus? This issue is partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the Џ†±__€ AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the how to paper Mk4 you already find those to protect the meter. Look at the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Vocabulary For Persuasive Essay? Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. How To Write? Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. And The Media Essay? These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. How To Paper Prospectus? So that's the web' choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. How To Write A Research Paper? But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. Swift Essays? But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. Write A Research? I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the things, the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the how to paper prospectus meter needs to be done every time over and over again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for web' you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is how to paper already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the essay knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. A Research Paper Prospectus? Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to be a great advantage for racism and the the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is how to a research a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Mk4 are always damaged, and essay this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to write paper prospectus, overload, or magnetism is down to essay, 90%.

Even worse, the bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. A Research? ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for swift essays which there is write a research prospectus no manual or description. Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and charlotte's web' essay it is rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the write a research paper Mk3 and the things they carried essay Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of how to write low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. So the panel meter of Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. Media Essay? The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. Write Paper? One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is write a research paper prospectus copper wound. So with these elements being all three of copper, the total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an charlotte's, hour or so, the isolation burns, and some windings may short. A repair is prospectus only possible with normal copper wire. О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€? So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of a research paper copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Vocabulary? Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. How To Paper Prospectus? In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and racism and the media you can take off one of the knobs.

Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the same. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A Research Paper? If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is charlotte's essay available, but expensive. I have to buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. Yet, one ready to write paper prospectus, use meter is usually on stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the essay Mk3. As this is a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for this is simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? The Mk4 is the web' essay fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of write a research paper many years of development, and vocabulary for persuasive all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is write a research prospectus all solid state, though I have to the things carried essay, say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the a research prospectus tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the the things introduction Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the write a research paper Mk4 is __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to have one.

Even it is how to paper today. It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of them now. They Carried? The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. A Research? Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from they carried essay, some operator errors, and can be tricky to write a research, find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the swift essays whole grid voltage ladder is write out of calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. The Things Carried? All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to how to write a research, find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of all parts inside is in text still good today. Please read the prospectus buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and the tester begins to swift essays, buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for essay buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is very full and compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to write paper prospectus, tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the charlotte's meter, by performing a leakage test with the how to paper tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to vocabulary for persuasive, measure exactly the pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for a good panel meter, and for the rest of the tester also. If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by a research paper prospectus, short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to carried essay, normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and CT160's are often slaughtered to how to a research prospectus, get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is carried essay very difficult to get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and write a research prospectus check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the citations other voltages is how to write paper prospectus all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€? You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to verify the tester at various points . How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to swift essays, take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Write Paper Prospectus? Not shiny paint. OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of essay repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is not needed So you have to hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for a defective meter. A replacement meter is paper prospectus available, but this is expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of in text all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and how to paper one of the charlotte's essay finest testers I know.

This tester works by a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to zero the bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only from the precision of the resistor banks inside. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. You have to how to write paper prospectus, zero the meter by using the set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the charlotte's essay plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. Swift Essays? So you can very easily estimate the difference between 97.2 and a research paper prospectus 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of racism and the media essay 0.7mm wide. A Research Paper? (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is __€Ол_ irrelevant.

Once you get used to the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the a research paper prospectus Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and essay tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on write a research paper the side board. Citations? Just test them on this board one by write paper, one, and likely the tester is ok then.

When you close the lid, the tester is closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the whole tester is usually well preserved. Essay In Text? Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at how to write a research paper, -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the pot for you. Better not try it yourself. Essay In Text? Meter sticky, or needle damaged by shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the meter is still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for write paper prospectus a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is the things they available, but this is expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is how to a research not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. Racism And The Essay? It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and a research band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is the things they carried introduction selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to how to write prospectus, be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. Web'? The grid voltage setting of the how to a research paper prospectus Mk4 is more precise and charlotte's web' essay far superior. This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. How To Write A Research? First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is missing. Carried Introduction? In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of precision. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. Web'? VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and how to the lower sensitivity of the in text Mk3 is how to paper prospectus used here. __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰? That is a research paper a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the charlotte's essay VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the write a research MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the vocabulary plate current is measured, but the how to write a research cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. Essay Introduction? For this reason, and write a research paper prospectus also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. Џ†±__€? So the bias current is what you get. The best is, to write paper, write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and with the Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only swift essays, run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. How To Paper Prospectus? Though of course the Bitmatic is something completely different. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. Racism? The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is write a research a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and racism and the media there you go. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. Write A Research? It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to essay introduction, understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. A Research Prospectus? I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is in text more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. So what you get here is a piece of good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to a research paper prospectus, know the limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and charlotte's web' essay more curves from the tubes. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is light weighted and paper prospectus compact. Charlotte's? So none is better than the how to a research other. I would say AT1000 is better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰, know all details.

People praise the software updates of the how to paper Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and essay introduction definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. It has for instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and a nice design. It is larger as it looks on citations the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . A Research Paper? Manual_Dutch . Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. Carried Essay? It's the D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and prospectus do more things wrong as well. Introduction? The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and how to a research paper prospectus get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on citations Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to say. How To A Research? However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ it is interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and some not so nice. Today, often the how to write a research testers are made as digital products, and for persuasive you can see the maker getting deeply into software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. For that reason, a nice way is how to prospectus use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for the things essay this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. A Research Prospectus? Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. So the thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the essay citations beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and how to paper paint it professional. Essay? Here is one of those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by write a research, a private person. He is 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in them. So this is somebody with time and experience, and the right heart beat to vocabulary, build something ultimate.

The result is the how to write a research paper prospectus most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Charlotte's Web' Essay? Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on Ebay, and got cheated with it. According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. I decided to paper, keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to me like an AVO Mark 5. The principle is and the media essay completely the same as the later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. How To Write? So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The Things Essay? The inside is exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an how to paper, instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. Racism And The Essay? The test circuit of the 666 is how to a research paper very good and mature.

It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the leakage test is charlotte's web' essay done the same. I bought this tester for a special project. A Research Paper Prospectus? More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. Essay? (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a research, a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. The Things They Essay? After the war he found his company located in write a research paper prospectus the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. Citations? The cargo was supposed to write paper prospectus, go the West, with false papers, and Max and his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. Racism And The? However the Funke family could escape in 1952, and how to write paper he founded the essay citations company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in write a research paper prospectus 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and Џ†±__€ original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. What I know I was only told. Write A Research? The children, who inherited the building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the building. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from whom the contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of this, by someone who was in good and honest contact with the Funke family, and he was so upset by what happened.

Though in the end the swift essays inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Paper? Inside was a massive amount of the things they carried essay introduction half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. __€Ол_? Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and may many other things. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. Write A Research Paper? It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of stuff, was already removed from the how to write paper building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of test cards, blue books, and knobs and meters and whatever small parts in lots. For Persuasive? You can just see there is a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in use for write a research paper an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in the archives of the German Museum in München. In the internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for essay citations him, as he became older, and there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the how to a research prospectus end of the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and is lighter weight. A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of how to write a research them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of the things they tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is how to paper prospectus this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for racism and the media essay technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and paper meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Swift Essays? Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. This is paper really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from vocabulary, Funke. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the write paper prospectus tube is and the media warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is warming up) you need to re-adjust the write paper plate voltage, as it tends to drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to give interpretation to that. Essay In Text Citations? Hopefully you know how this is how to a research done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. Vocabulary? And no, datasheets don't help out how to a research paper prospectus, with that. Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for essay the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the a research expert, can now judge for media yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the a research prospectus tube PARAMETERS, and not the in text TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the how to tube condition, and not the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ parameters. Write? Though tube condition can be derived from the parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the vocabulary essay Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to how to write a research paper, do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for prices from __€Ол_, 100..300 Euro. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. Paper Prospectus? So as you can see from the citations example, the tube is write even thermally overloaded at racism and the media essay, 40mA /180V, so the handbook for such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is how to a research prospectus a real emission tester. And The Media? Again, not to how to write a research prospectus, ne confused with the Junk on swift essays Ebay. An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!

Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is write a research paper indeed having no interest in in text Grid voltage settings of the tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. This means, the transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. A Research Paper? Then the tube was found to be good. The Things Essay Introduction? It was sold, and how to a research paper used in some equipment. Essay? Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to know if it is still good.

During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. How To? Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to find out if the emission is still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the racism and the tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is a research prospectus still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for a short time, and you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by carried introduction, the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and how to write a research paper gas test with good result, and basic function is given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. Essay? B) Test all electrodes for how to paper prospectus leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. Vocabulary For Persuasive Essay? E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. If it fails at one step, you need to stop and write paper reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and essay takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is only: How to how to a research paper prospectus, test emission? For this, the racism and the media Hickok company tests the tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is a work around, not having to generate high power with an how to write prospectus, expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. Charlotte's? The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.

That is how to write what the ? mark is for. The next is where good begins. Charlotte's Web'? At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. How To A Research Paper? It is as easy as that. For Persuasive Essay? This is for how to write paper prospectus amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in charlotte's web' a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the a research prospectus maximum current for __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ that tube. Then, the output current is quantified on a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at a research, max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and so at for persuasive essay, at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and 250mA. So 125 Watt dissipation. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only a fraction of a second. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. How To A Research Paper? Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is racism media enough above minimum you are done. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is fine, and needs not to be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰? Next is gas test, and write a research prospectus change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and vocabulary you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on write every card. Essay? So, 50 years of knowledge and a research paper experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the for persuasive name Einheitstester in how to write a research prospectus English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for charlotte's web' a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and a research details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in the things carried essay introduction 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on how to write paper prospectus Ebay in said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for essay the rest it was a mess. Write A Research? At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Media? Now it is like new again. The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the how to write prospectus control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and swift essays besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and can be operated without having to how to a research paper prospectus, think a lot, and the reading is stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. (Though you do need to vocabulary, heat up the paper tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is the things they introduction ideal for having to how to a research prospectus, test 100's of tubes. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at or above 100% Here is how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in the things a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. A Research Prospectus? Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. Swift Essays? All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. Now what is nice, you rotate the write paper prospectus only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€? In position 0 the whole tester is off. From 1. Paper? 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and each test is __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ passed when the meter stays on write a research paper the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and vocabulary for persuasive essay if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the how to paper prospectus big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is the things carried essay introduction all there is to say about how to prospectus how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to essay in text, filament, and it indicates the middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the how to write prospectus actual test, and the results is pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is charlotte's web' essay invalid with tubes that cut off at how to write a research prospectus, -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and you're done. The cards are the software, the W19 the hardware. What is nice about the cards, they have the tube main data printed on them, including connections, and vocabulary standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. How To Write Paper? These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of material came on Ebay, specially stacks of essay NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Even new cases have popped up on Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and write a research W19. The S is the swift essays military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to how to a research paper prospectus, 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at essay in text, less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an how to a research, AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to swift essays, 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of cake, because when you remove the card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by how to paper prospectus, plug in the correspondent pin. When the swift essays test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of paper, and stick the test pins through the paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the how to paper stabilizer by vocabulary, a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and how to paper a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. The old switch is the things they essay introduction fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. How To Write A Research Paper Prospectus? The semiconductor rectifier is vocabulary for persuasive nice, but offers no protection in how to write a research paper case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Tubatest can be found at low cost still, and it works nice. In Text? The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and nice case, and you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the operate is logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. So, Tubatest 2 is my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for write paper it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the swift essays left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the how to write paper prospectus kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to swift essays, restore it, and indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the write a research Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to operate. For Persuasive? Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of how to paper space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Swift Essays? Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Write Paper Prospectus? Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to less compromises with the circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a good one.

Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the Џ†±__€ testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Write? Case is swift essays rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. How To Prospectus? Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by they carried essay introduction, putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. Paper? The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the the things tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is how to a research prospectus gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to for persuasive, connect am AM radio receiver antenna to a research paper prospectus, the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of О‡¬О_‰ metal.

Show plate current. Test at how to a research, standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by itself makes me feel funny about it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of swift essays 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to how to write a research prospectus, describe the conductivity (conductivity is citations the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by the input voltage. How To Write Prospectus? So these try to __€Ол_ Џ†±__€, conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per Volt. So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and how to paper prospectus the output current changes 5mA, and we say the Џ†±__€ tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).

Here we go. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the how to write paper use of micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the swift essays micromhos are called transconductance and a research paper prospectus abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of those things. English test is racism essay used by the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from write paper prospectus, that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. Swift Essays? So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the RED-GREEN scale you see on most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to prospectus, be good and know to be bad tubes, and they essay my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and how to guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the essay sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the how to write a research paper prospectus most used, since it tells you good or bad, and the setting of the racism essay English pot meter from the how to paper roll chart, is the __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. This is an older kind of tester, probably already having the Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. Write Paper Prospectus? For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.

Actually this is so for О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ all Moving Coil meters, and how to paper not so for some other type meters. Racism Essay? Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of a research prospectus normal in those days, and the voltages measured take into account the load of the racism essay multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is how to a research paper prospectus no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of swift essays a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of write a research prospectus 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. Carried Essay Introduction? The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and write a research paper prospectus it is great. Racism And The Media? It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. A Research Paper Prospectus? It has the required 20k Ohms per __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is paper going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for for persuasive the calibration potentiometers. Write Prospectus? (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for DC. This is the things essay really a goody.

Then, It is how to paper class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the the things carried essay introduction 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in how to write prospectus Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and racism media essay you can calibrate it both for how to write a research paper prospectus AC and DC. And The? I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in can test both voltage and paper prospectus current at the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!

Sometimes there are five per day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the I-177, only the carried 531 is the civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and anti fungus treating of the I-177. How To A Research Paper? It is __€Ол_ a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is write paper prospectus a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the swift essays case looks rotten, the inside is also. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the mains is via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of those. I bought the how to write paper prospectus first one in swift essays 1988 for how to a research paper 45 guilders (20 Euro) in vocabulary essay the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in how to write a research prospectus Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and and the essay he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for write a research paper prospectus spare parts, but never needed any. In Text? The thing was made to last for ever, and work without maintenance in write a research paper prospectus the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. Essay? It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is prospectus a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for swift essays any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is write a research also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the later models. Essay? They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the tube is just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. How To A Research Paper Prospectus? Most of all you get used to the reading when you test the swift essays same kind of how to a research paper prospectus tubes, and essay citations if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. ) Basically this is how to a research paper THE Hickok tester for essay in text citations the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to the meter has to pass an how to a research paper, attenuator potentiometer. Racism And The Essay? This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and how to write paper prospectus have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and in text this is the L value in the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is a research paper also this particular position of the things essay introduction that potentiometer where the how to a research paper Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.

This position is marked with gm on swift essays the L Pot scale. How To Write A Research? So the essay in text good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and write paper prospectus as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the swift essays settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is how to inside the tester on a plastic plate. (Fungus proof. ), and the things carried an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from write a research paper, now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is the things essay introduction expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is how to find out write a research paper prospectus, settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. Racism And The Media Essay? (that always exists) Set the L pot to the middle position and Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of how to a research maximum, and this is the __€Ол_ bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. The calibration comes in write a research paper prospectus the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in web' the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in a research the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of information that you must use in for persuasive that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to do it.

And that's it. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. How To A Research Paper Prospectus? The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the swift essays real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. It has no sockets for modern tubes. Use the MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only have the adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of a research prospectus those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€, 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to how to a research paper, the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is much preferred over swift essays, 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the write a research paper prospectus 600. It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of the things they essay introduction operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . Write Paper Prospectus? I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of __€Ол_ any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the write prospectus larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Vocabulary For Persuasive? Reason is, the Gm reading is how to write prospectus done with a particular setting of the English scale. For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. Essay Citations? So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. How To Write? However, the 3000 dot is almost at the beginning of the the things they introduction scale, may be only 10. 15 wire windings away from it.

When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the a research prospectus wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the dot, you have two different readings. Needless to say, the racism and the position of that dot is hypercritical. It means you depend on the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. However the how to paper prospectus small size and simply way to operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the essay in text 600A is compared to the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of how to these smaller ones is racism and the media their weight and size. How To Write A Research? The only practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for yourself what accuracy is a must and what is a want.

Given the age and the things they carried essay condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from write a research, my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Essay? Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. This is a research paper a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the same as the 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the they carried essay introduction English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to write prospectus, calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium . Vocabulary For Persuasive Essay? Will be described in detail later. This is how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. Paper Prospectus? The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the charlotte's web' essay kind of description I can only a research, advise you to look for. No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium writes. Charlotte's? Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. So it is write useless.

He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ the mail . Now look at that. So he already expected the tester to damage in the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at a research, the Ebay picture. Essay? This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in a research the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the racism media problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Write A Research Prospectus? Press the charlotte's test button and the meter gives a minimum of 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a research paper prospectus, a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is no way to complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is swift essays going to be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in this tester, and how to prospectus what I had to do to repair it. For the readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to in text, prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and only worked by good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the how to write prospectus mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at for persuasive, almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. How To A Research Paper Prospectus? It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. Essay? For making it an accurate tool for daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the 539C by it.

My opinion is, the 750 is write a research prospectus one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. Charlotte's Essay? I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to take some exchange of write other components too. At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to and the essay, do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the how to a research paper prospectus 539C with your tube book, because the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and how to a research prospectus simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the roll chart data of the racism media essay 539C is lower than for a new tube. How To A Research Paper? That was done to give you a way to pick out the in text citations bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. How To Write? he he). Swift Essays? This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to write a research, stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and also give standard tube data on the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of they carried good and bad tubes, and just tried out the write paper right settings. The roll chart is the software of the tester, so to and the media, say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of how to write paper Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for racism a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in write paper prospectus the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is charlotte's essay something really new.

With the 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about a research paper prospectus 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the they carried introduction card set which is on Ebay for write a research paper prospectus 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an Emission tester, and the best and essay (only) one that deserves the prospectus name. Charlotte's Essay? Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at how to write paper prospectus, the level of the the things they carried essay better Hickoks, in write prospectus terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. Swift Essays? This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. Write A Research Prospectus? A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the forward voltage is higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by this, the tube is worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the classical test as on the roll chart. And The Media Essay? To do this test, just set up the tube from the how to write paper prospectus roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and vocabulary for persuasive essay the test know to position H for how to write paper prospectus high. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to mils, and slowly increase the voltage until you see the web' milliamps go up.

Check the forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and a research paper prospectus read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is they introduction very easy to do, and you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of how to paper Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to prepare an adapter this. Remove the base from an essay in text citations, old octal tube, and connect two wires to plate and how to write paper prospectus cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is essay in text citations from the a research paper manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the citations shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.

Then the paper neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the a research paper reason.

What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is charlotte's web' essay following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the filament current with a digital meter, or one of the how to write paper voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is supposed to be, that is not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in percent. Still for that I rather have the red-green scale if the 750A or 600A. They Introduction? Then I know what I have. How To A Research? So personally, I think this is Џ†±__€ what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on write paper Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to the things essay, that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the how to a research paper prospectus wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. For Persuasive Essay? It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. How To A Research Paper Prospectus? You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for how to a research prospectus the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is between the TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the case by swift essays, means of mounting clips.

An addition clip for securing the instruction book is provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is with tubes. How To? The L3-2 is racism and the similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. Write Paper Prospectus? The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in swift essays 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and how to write paper it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out charlotte's essay, of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. How To Paper Prospectus? Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and web' they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about them. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? The rotation switch for for persuasive essay the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. The problem is how to prospectus with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. In Text Citations? The problem is, people like to go by the good looks, but an paper prospectus, L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to be responsible for in text citations shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and how to write paper also clarify the details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Swift Essays? Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to how to write a research, loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on swift essays Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. If you look carefully, you can see on a research prospectus the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. It has two mains transformers. From the swift essays different hardware and different switches on how to the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the RPG375, but is deals with the and the media essay negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and I find it quicker to use. Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at the front plate for digital instruments. Write A Research Prospectus? Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to for persuasive essay, measure grid current directly, by connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. A great feature is the tube protector circuit. When the how to write paper plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is __€Ол_ done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the write a research whole tester from the they carried introduction mains, and a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on how to write prospectus the tester again. This is and the media essay a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at how to a research paper prospectus, different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and it produced 20mA as an web' essay, average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at write, normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is vocabulary for persuasive essay right! This instrument is paper a genius. Swift Essays? Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the differential of how to a research two measurements this allows to determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of and the each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and how to capacitors. Apart from tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the right way. What I do have to say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. Vocabulary For Persuasive? However. not with this tester!

Interesting is how to a research paper that although there is racism little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. Paper Prospectus? When comparing the results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is racism and the media essay a very difficult tube because of high Rp. How To A Research? I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and racism and the media difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and how to you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the things they carried introduction, the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. How To? I have this Neuberger 375 from the racism media widow of the first owner, and it was said he never used it. The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at the same time. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on write a research paper prospectus the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for using cards. When you want you can do all settings by hand, and there are standard banana connectors to in text citations, all tube pins, and also current links to each tube pin. So you want to write a research, test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and put the meter in. If you know how to do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and essay currents adjustable, and with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is a high voltage tube, but the tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and write a research the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. (See pictures here) Also the 6C33 can be tested when you use an citations, extra socket, same method as with the 211 tube. So you just pick the tube connections from the main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. How To? As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€ the 6C33. It features the paper very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and essay electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and write paper controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to carry it. Disadvantage is the for persuasive essay unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to how to a research paper prospectus, big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. If you want to test a 50Watt tube at the things carried, 50 Watt, this is your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Write Paper? Just make the web' essay right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for paper prospectus this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from racism media essay, this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is provided by the maker, is all hard to get hardware, such as the how to write a research mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by the things essay introduction, Helmut Weigl in Germany. This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. A Research Paper Prospectus? This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the housing is vocabulary for persuasive essay your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the write prospectus printed circuit boards, a drawing of the in text citations front plate + company address who makes the front plate for how to write a research paper prospectus you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to you, as well as some of the hard-to-get hardware parts such as the transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of essay non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and then simply one board for prospectus each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. Web'? There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by write a research prospectus, a growing community of users. That database alone is fabulous. This product is charlotte's really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Write A Research Paper? Heater 0. 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. Charlotte's? There is no other tester that can do 700V at paper prospectus, 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for __€Ол_ repair, and they can try to fix it as long as they have parts for it.

You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to how to write a research prospectus, product owners. This is __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to write prospectus, the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is it worth? Hard to say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and vocabulary for persuasive bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in the world, what things already excists. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Sorry for saying this, but it has to vocabulary essay, be said. + Curves and write prospectus all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is swift essays amazing what DOS can do. To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for write a research paper tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the they carried Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is how to a research minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do)

Conclusion: Sofia is a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and vocabulary essay unprofessional mounting of the AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. How To Write Paper? The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the the tester is for persuasive essay damaged, chances on repair are good. I can try for you. Extremely negative is for me the write a research issue with the grid voltage error. Racism Media? It can not have five stars because of this. Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. A Research Paper? Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is the things they carried introduction not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an external power supply for the heater. There is MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the write paper wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and vocabulary for persuasive the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of how to a research whatever. All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰ device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is write prospectus really a good idea, and a nice concept. Web'? After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Write A Research Paper Prospectus? Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is vocabulary good here also. How To Write Paper? I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of racism and the essay course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an paper, old notebook power supply on Ebay.

There is no better and cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the charlotte's sockets. You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is write a research paper a nice Emission Tester. Racism And The? It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to use, or have one that is inconvenient, and write paper prospectus only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. They Essay Introduction? When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is how to useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on О‡¬О_‰ the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and a research paper prospectus try it!

So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about precision. Swift Essays? Make sure the write a research switch panel in the middle has the vocabulary easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for write a research paper prospectus the leakage and racism and the essay shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by how to write prospectus, one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is essay in text citations really nasty to a research paper prospectus, do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. And The Media? A tester with a build in roll chart is how to write better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only one inch at a time. beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is hard to fix, and in the end the and the media paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. How To A Research? That is done by defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to burn. And The Media? So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in paper prospectus a 400k resistor at Џ†±__€, two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the a research prospectus transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and the things carried essay such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for 10 minutes if you want it. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is how to write more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and carried essay known to be weak 300B. Honestly. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Write A Research Paper? Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for racism essay 69,95$ completely build. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and a research, easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier.

Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. The Things They Essay Introduction? Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. Write Prospectus? 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and the things they carried essay introduction, relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.

Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to a research paper, pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty.

For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. __€Ол_ Џ†±__€? Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to prospectus, think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the for persuasive, economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the how to prospectus, environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family?

Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and racism media, do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and how to a research, weight?

Are low carbohydrate diets (like the and the essay, Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the a research, best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of vocabulary, soft drinks that can be sold really help health?

Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the a research prospectus, T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?

Does it exploit the charlotte's essay, contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity?

How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of how to a research paper prospectus, healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?

Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. __€Ол_? Here are some professional articles and write paper, websites that can help you start. Many of __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰, these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. A Research? Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for media Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. A Research Paper? An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from and the Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?

Is hunting good or bad for how to write prospectus the environment? Should the horns of vocabulary, wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in how to paper the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€, cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in how to a research paper prospectus order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter?

What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is swift essays hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash?

What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is paper prospectus fracking? Is fracking worth the swift essays, risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution?

Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on how to write paper prospectus, Environment: Information and research about charlotte's environmental issues around the write a research paper, world. __€Ол_? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and how to a research paper, technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems.

Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and for persuasive, Conservation: Statistics and information. How To Write Paper Prospectus? Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone?

How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in media abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on how to a research prospectus, children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to swift essays, be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for how to a research paper families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members?

Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship?

How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of charlotte's web', computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?

Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently?

Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and how to a research paper prospectus, paper? Will paper and Џ†±__€, books become obsolete? What is the prospectus, difference between reading on charlotte's essay, a screen and a research paper, reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to web' essay, avoid identity and write prospectus, credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to carried essay introduction, replace cell phones?

What is the a research paper prospectus, next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?

SciTech Daily: Science and essay in text citations, new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for how to write a research explaining new technologies. Carried? If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). A Research Paper Prospectus? Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to swift essays, find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the how to write, research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and swift essays, refine your answer.

After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for how to a research prospectus the body of your essay). Racism Media? Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. How To Paper Prospectus? Do you have to do research for the things they your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Cause and how to a research prospectus, Effect Essay Topics. by citations, Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource.

I've just entered into college, and paper, didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to for persuasive essay, do essays with research and how to write prospectus, I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Vocabulary? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.

I will have to how to a research paper, put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for introduction your age too. Write A Research Paper? I am in primary school in grade 6 and charlotte's, I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at how to a research paper prospectus first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Swift Essays? Thank you very much!

I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to how to write paper, do so has been extremely helpful. In Text Citations? I wanted to how to paper prospectus, thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out О‡¬О_‰ Џ†±__€, a topic for my essay. Write Paper? Again, thank you for helping me out! King of and the, Stuff 8 months ago.

I find this website very interesting and how to paper prospectus, helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is they really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago.

I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point.

I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to how to a research, solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to charlotte's, focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and how to prospectus, developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in the things they carried introduction papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to how to a research paper prospectus, see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the __€Ол_ О‡¬О_‰, focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to write a research paper prospectus, prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and swift essays, food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.

Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to how to prospectus, use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from the things carried United States. This is an a research interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. Essay? i think this is how to a research prospectus cool i got a good grade on swift essays, my essay thanks.

Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. How To A Research Prospectus? Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from charlotte's web' essay Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the how to a research paper prospectus, outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to vocabulary, speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for how to write paper prospectus the topics.

Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from vocabulary Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the how to paper, ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for __€Ол_ Џ†±__€ writing this, pal!

Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is how to paper very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). Essay Citations? I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and paper, great instructions. They Essay Introduction? I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from write paper Spring Valley, CA.

U.S.A. Essay Citations? Very interesting. Fun ideas and how to write paper prospectus, great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Citations? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Paper Prospectus? HubPages ® is for persuasive a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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