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Emission on a tout essaye

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1 Quality of programme Organisation. 1.1 Whole school support. School management is commended for on a essaye, the allocation of resources to ensure the successful implementation of the many aspects of the pr resume template, LCVP. Due to the small size of the school and teaching staff, the team of teachers involved in implementing the LCVP remains fairly constant from year to year. The LCVP programme, as delivered in Grennan College, is implemented collaboratively by members of the whole teaching team: the coordinator; the guidance service; the learning support team and the teachers of English; the emission on a tout essaye, Information Technology (IT) teacher; the teachers of the Vocational Subject Groupings (VSGs), such as Home Economics, Design and Communication Technology (DCG) or Engineering, the modern language and the business departments. In this context, the need for school-based, whole-school training in pr resume template, LCVP was articulated during the course of the evaluation and should be considered by school management in emission, the future. Cross-curricular work is an important aspect of the LCVP and the commendable practice of different members of the teaching staff assisting with specific LCVP activities and events was very much in evidence. Examples of cross-curricular input include the following: the guidance service assists students in carrying out the compare and contrast essay - fresh food and canned, career investigations module; the science department has contributed in emission tout, the area of health and safety in the workplace; teachers of Business have helped with enterprise education; the IT teacher contributes to template, the refinement of word-processing skills; the English and learning support teachers help with literacy and improving writing and tout essaye, reporting skills. This level of template, collaboration and cross-curricular work is highly commended, as is the awareness among teachers of the VSGs of the objectives of the programme.

The coordination of emission on a tout essaye, LCVP is assigned as a post of pr resume, responsibility, together with responsibility for health and safety, and has a time allocation of two hours. The present coordinator has been in place for the past five years. The coordinator has attended two in-service courses on LCVP in the past two years, and school management is commended for facilitating attendance at available in-service. This has provided guidance in relation to the practicalities of delivering the programme and assisted the coordinator in the successful coordination of the emission on a tout, programme. The effective fulfillment of the coordination role has brought cohesion and obesity and physical education essay, commitment to on a tout essaye, the implementation of the programme.

The additional teacher allocation for LCVP is deployed to facilitate adequate coordination time, to offer as wide a choice of subjects as possible and, therefore, to be of benefit to senior cycle students overall. The allocation of time to obesity and physical, programme delivery goes some way to ensuring, in the first place, adherence to programme objectives. Link Modules classes are currently allocated two single periods in fifth year and in sixth year. This is one period less than the syllabus guidelines. However, two periods a week are assigned to computer studies which augment the time needed for the development and enhancement of the students? information and communication technology (ICT) skills, a core objective of the programme. In this way, the school has tailored the essaye, time allocation to the programme to best meet the pr resume template, needs of its total student cohort. Different factors, including student numbers, subject choices and VSGs chosen impact on on a the timetabling of the Link Modules. Global Essay? Where it has been possible to have concurrent timetabling of Leaving Certificate Business and the Link Modules, this has facilitated the on a tout, possibility of the for university, deployment of the Business teachers in clarifying understanding of the more complex of the Business concepts required of students in the course of the Enterprise module. It is therefore recommended that school management tries to ensure that the Business department can be deployed in emission essaye, the programme to ensure that LCVP students have regular and frequent access to the specialist expertise and environment of Business.???? Students not taking a Leaving Certificate language are provided with a module in French or German. It is praiseworthy that certification in essay on pollution, the ab initio language module in the form of a Further Education and tout essaye, Training Awards Council (FETAC) award is reduce global warming essay available to these students.

However, the number of emission on a essaye, periods assigned per year to the language module is not sufficient to meet programme requirements or to ensure adequate competence in childhood obesity education, the language after two years. School management is aware of this and is strongly urged to emission tout, address the allocation of the additional time required for the coming year. Students pursuing a school-based language module are required to have one period per week in and physical education, that language over the two years of the programme. Funds are provided for emission on a tout, LCVP by school management on request and on a needs basis. The school-owned minibus provides the necessary transport for out-of-school visits to colleges, open days and outings. Essay Food? The main difficulty encountered by the school relates to the small pool of resources which are available in the community to meet the work experience and work shadowing needs of the students of both LCVP and TY.? This has been addressed by emission on a tout, the LCVP team as a result of their annual review. A possible solution to securing work placements for and physical education essay, three days instead of five days has been piloted successfully in the current year. Emission Essaye? The team is praised for its proactive and solution-driven approach. Writing Essays For University Guide? 1.3 Student selection. School management, in on a essaye, endeavouring to accommodate the case study, diversity of its student needs and on a tout essaye, wishes, makes every effort to accommodate student preferences in on pollution, relation to subjects and programmes.

The school?s criteria for the selection of students to the LCVP are inclusive and student centred. When students have chosen their subjects, those who meet the criteria for participation in LCVP are afforded the opportunity and are encouraged to participate in on a tout, the programme. Reduce? Students who teachers consider would benefit from the programme are encouraged to choose it and the advantages of the LCVP are highlighted. Two-thirds of the total student cohort may be eligible and a half actually takes on the programme. This is praiseworthy and would not happen without the commitment of senior management and emission essaye, staff to the programme and their conviction of its value. And Contrast Essay - Fresh Food And Canned Food? The vocational orientation of the programme is recognised by the school community to be of real benefit to the students. Participation in the LCVP remains fairly consistent from year to year. There are seventeen students in the sixth-year group and twenty-five in the present fifth-year group. As TY is optional, students in third year and TY are given careers advice simultaneously. On A Tout? During TY, students are involved in fund-raising activities and projects, and begin the process of self-directed learning. Therefore, TY students are considered ideally placed to continue on to the LCVP, which a number of students do.

From discussions with students and pr resume, teachers, while acknowledging the workload involved in meeting deadlines in the completion of tasks and portfolio items, it was clear that those students who chose LCVP were committed to programme objectives and programme completion. This is highly commended. There are many aspects to the programme which attract students for different reasons. As articulated by teachers in on a, the course of the evaluation, some students see the LCVP as a back-up subject for additional Central Applications Office (CAO) points; students who do not study Irish or newcomer students can take the Link Modules as an extra subject; some students particularly value the practical, vocational skills development dimension to the programme. All such applicants are accepted onto the programme.? The reasons cited by students themselves for opting for the LCVP included: the childhood education, possibility of gaining extra points; the involvement in emission on a tout essaye, projects and enterprise activities; the focus on careers investigations and work experience. LCVP students form part of the mainstream established Leaving Certificate groups and come together as a distinct group for links modules lessons and associated activities. Pr Resume Template? 1.4 Home, school and community links. A number of links have been established with local businesses and enterprises, such as with the emission essaye, catering industry, the template, manufacturing industry or voluntary organisations. The links established through LCVP with the community have raised an awareness of the college and its students.

The coordinator makes contact with the employer, visits some of the work placements and tout, makes telephone contact with all employers in the course of work experience. The employers also write a report for the school on completion of the work experience. Thank you letters are sent to employers by both the school and the student. The process, as outlined and documented, is thorough and professional. This ensures that good relationships with community businesses and voluntary agencies are developed and sustained over time. One of the most effective aspects of the programme, as identified by the LCVP team and childhood education essay, school management, is the enhanced community spirit between the school, parent and student. At present, parents are involved in helping with activities, in sourcing employment and in transporting students to and from work experience. Through the coordinator, the school keeps in touch with parents about work experience, checking regarding attendance, punctuality, dress code and concerns of parents or students when on work experience. The LCVP team is currently pursuing the worthwhile objective of finding ways to essaye, optimise the involvement of parents in the implementation of the programme and this should be further explored and pursued by the coordinator and school management. 1.5 Supports for on pollution in urdu, students.

A team approach is adopted to the provision of learning support, which is available to students who are in need of additional support. Where literacy needs are identified or are still required by students in fifth year, the aspect of the programme where the student needs most support is identified. The learning support teachers then liaise with the emission on a, relevant subject teachers and support is provided in the subject areas identified. The learning support team was of the view that the format of LCVP actually helps students with SEN. In relation to work placement, the LCVP team holds a case conference for individual students with additional educational needs. This is commendable. Supervised study provided by the school, and the school?s homework policy also give direction and parameters to all students. A study skills and writing guide, examination preparation booklet prepared by the guidance service is a useful aid to both students and parents. Emission Tout Essaye? 2 Quality of programme planning and coordination. The success of the LCVP relies on the effective teamwork of the individual contributions of teachers within the school. To achieve this, the study method, coordinator liaises with a number of key groupings involved in emission essaye, the programme on an ongoing basis: the guidance service; the learning support department; the IT and Business departments; the teachers of the VSGs and the modern language department.

This requires both interpersonal and organisational skills and the coordinator is commended for the quality of the coordination. Reduce Essay? Liaison with employers, visiting speakers and community groups, as well as with parents and students is also a crucial and ongoing dimension to the coordinator?s work. The teamwork which results from students and staff working together on projects, activities and events enhances the effectiveness of the programme for students. The coordination of the LCVP involves engagement in an extensive number of? administrational, educational and organisational duties: organisation of on a tout, work experience; organisation of visits out, visiting speakers and presentations; preparation of on pollution, digital copies for portfolio work; preparation of requirements for state examinations; management of activities and events; organisation of the Safe Pass course and promoting the programme with TY students and their parents, in conjunction with the guidance department. The school has made a range of resources available for the fulfillment of these duties. These include access to emission, phone and secretarial assistance; use of the principal?s office when required and access to the computer room. There are two planning meetings per year for the LCVP team. There are written agendas for the formal meetings and minutes are also kept. Informal meetings take place weekly, with frequent liaison between teachers in relation to LCVP activities, events and portfolio items. The records kept by on pollution language, the coordinator include employers? reports of work experience, parental permission slips for activities, examination results, reports on activities, portfolio items and records of team meetings.

A subject plan for the Links Modules was presented and emission essaye, examined at the time of the warming essay, evaluation. This sets out the aims and objectives for the modules. There is also a useful checklist for portfolio items. The development of a more detailed plan for the implementation of the LCVP is recommended. This should be completed incrementally and should record for the wider school community the richness of the learning experiences provided by the programme. On A Tout Essaye? For example, for each of a variety of activities to be carried out, the plan could list the time allocated to the activity; the specific learning outcomes on the syllabus that are being addressed; the core student activities involved; the on pollution language, methodologies to be used and the modes of assessment to be used.

Dates for the completion of all the items which the students will prepare for their portfolios could also be included in the plan. Planning documentation for the language module is good and is set out in terms of communicative language skills, grammar and cultural awareness, with an emphasis on personal information and communication in a social setting in the target language. The plan also includes communicative objectives, articulated in terms of can-do statements. This is commendable. Students qualify to follow the LCVP through a variety of VSG combinations; combinations involving Business, DCG, Engineering, Construction Studies, Biology, Art and Home Economics. The work in the area of careers and career investigation in the course of LCVP reinforces for students the links between subjects and the vocational links within the VSGs. In this way, one of the core objectives of the LCVP is being achieved effectively. Teachers reported that the skills acquired from participation in LCVP transfer to the practical work of their subjects.

Students carry out a range of enterprise activities as part of their programme of study. Examples of such activities include the planning and running of on a tout, a gourmet restaurant evening; fund raising for charity; planning and managing visits of guest speakers to the classroom; running a soccer league and visiting local enterprises. Students interviewed particularly highlighted the benefit of working in teams when organising enterprise activities and appreciated the essay in urdu, opportunity such activities provided to work with peers who were in other subjects and class groups. There are plans to build on the achievements and experiences in enterprise to date by compiling recipes in calendar form, using archival photographs of the school, of the town and surrounding area. This is praiseworthy as it draws on tout the strengths already identified and is unique to the school and its students. As well as providing students with opportunities for teamwork and with hands-on experience, these activities provide the basis for preparing reports, diaries and compare and contrast essay - fresh food, other material for their personal portfolios. This good practice is very much in emission tout, keeping with the ethos of the LCVP. All core portfolio items are addressed as part of the curriculum. In relation to the portfolio items, all students do three core items: the curriculum vitae (CV); Career Investigation and My Own Place.

Two optional items, a diary of pr resume template, work experience and an enterprise report, are also addressed within class and through LCVP activities. Completed portfolio items are carefully stored in the school . One of the most enjoyable aspects of the programme identified by students was the work experience. All LCVP students participate in emission tout, a work experience for at least three days. Each student tries to get his or her own work placement. Having to do this helps them develop initiative but they do have the support of the school. And Contrast Essay - Fresh? A skills audit of students is undertaken prior to work experience.

The guidance service contributes in terms of preparation of students for the career investigation and, in particular, their skills, qualities and career suitability. Emission Tout Essaye? One-to-one career advice and advice on subject options is also given and and contrast - fresh and canned, this is commendable. Emission On A Tout Essaye? Their career investigation has been initiated by the student, college courses have been examined, CVs prepared and letters of application written. Method? The work placement then provides students with a good foundation for completion of their career investigation. The guidance service also helps with the debriefing of students after work experience. On A Essaye? The forms for employers provided by reduce global warming essay, the LCVP coordinator not only ensure feedback but also structure the comments of the employers. All students attend at least three open days. Visits to institutes of on a tout, technology and third-level colleges, including careers? exhibitions, are organised. When students visit colleges for open days, they prepare a set of questions the answers to which they find out in the course of the visit. This is a good approach. ? 3 Quality of learning and teaching.

3.1 Planning and preparation for teaching. The LCVP coordinator and teachers are to be commended for their team approach and their willingness to try new approaches and methodologies to effectively meet the needs of their student cohort. Teachers ensured both student engagement and development of knowledge and essay language, skills. 3.2 Teaching and learning. The content of the lessons observed was appropriate. In one lesson observed, a market research test conducted in supermarkets by Coca Cola was simulated and conducted. Each student was required to taste the three colas and record and report their response.

This was a simple exercise to emission on a essaye, illustrate the basic principles of food market research. The results of the class test confirmed the results of the actual market survey conducted. Reduce Global Essay? The marketing situation which pertained at the time was then outlined and provided the context for the market research. The terminology appropriate to theme was introduced in an interesting way. Emission Tout Essaye? Further reinforcement of the terms could be ensured by requiring students to apply the newly acquired knowledge in a follow-up pair or group work activity. For University Guide? Students mentioned that working in pairs or small groups is a regular feature of their links modules classes and this would have been appropriate on this occasion. Both the emission on a essaye, approach and the content of lessons observed were designed to meet the identified needs of the particular cohort of students.

For example, the learning of unfamiliar business and enterprise terms and concepts was of essays for university guide, particular importance to the students, who in the main were following a VSG combination of DCG and Engineering.? Sufficient time required by students to prepare for the case study, which can be perceived by students as challenging, was also being allocated in their links modules classes. Appropriate to the time of the evaluation, a case study was distributed to students to examine and to develop strategies in emission on a essaye, relation to case studies. Good interest and application were displayed by students. Christmas tests, mock examinations and employers? reports all contribute to the assessment of pr resume template, students throughout their participation in the programme. Students appreciated the fact that the portfolio work was based on on a continuous assessment, while acknowledging that the LCVP activities and preparation of writing essays guide, portfolio items were time consuming.

When monitoring students? portfolio work, teachers follow through with students to ensure that all identified mistakes are corrected. Ultimately, responsibility for the quality of the completed portfolio work lies with the student. In relation to emission, the portfolio items, students prepare a variety of items and choose the best for inclusion for assessment. The results achieved in the state examinations include a majority of passes and reduce, merits from year to year. Some students expressed the wish to on a tout essaye, have the possibility of completing their portfolio by the end of fifth year but acknowledged the quality of the final portfolio items was better after two years. Some very good student work was in case of research, evidence in the portfolios examined at the time of the evaluation.

Regrettably, errors in lay-out, spelling and presentation, observed during examination of student work in preparation, lessened the overall quality of some of the portfolio work. On the positive side, the individuality of the My Own Place items prepared by students was excellent, with clarity of photographs, good use of maps and tout, with attractive lay-out and presentation. Good diaries of work experience were also examined. 4 Programme evaluation and outcomes. 4.1 Programme evaluation and review. A review of the programme is conducted by the LCVP coordinator, in conjunction with the principal, deputy-principal, the guidance service and team of compare and contrast essay food food, teachers. Senior management does not conduct a formal analysis of the examination results for LCVP, but was satisfied that additional points gained through achievement in the Links Modules have helped students to access college places.

Students interviewed were convinced of the benefit of the LCVP and that it would help them achieve their career, study and life aspirations. A formal review of the programme, including attainment in state examinations, is emission essaye recommended. This should be conducted annually to pr resume template, inform programme planning and implementation. Tout Essaye? Destination tracking of method methodology, past LCVP student careers and further education direction would also provide reliable data on the successful outcomes of the programme for students.? 4.2 Attainment of programme objectives. The LCVP has impacted on the school in different ways.

IT equipment was acquired initially. There has been a reported improvement in the standard of presentation of reports, design briefs and case studies in practical subjects as a result of student participation in the programme. The principal benefits identified by senior management have been in student outcomes, development of skills and the value of work experience. The additional teacher allocation helps in allowing a lower pupil-teacher ratio. The inclusion of the LCVP on the school curriculum has contributed to the positive profile of the school in the community and improved the prospect of future employment for students as a result of on a tout essaye, their work placement. The value of the LCVP was appreciated by the students interviewed during the course of the evaluation.

5 Summary of strengths and recommendations for further development. The following are the main strengths identified in the evaluation: The LCVP programme as delivered in pr resume template, Grennan College is implemented collaboratively by emission tout essaye, members of the whole teaching team. In Urdu? The effective fulfillment of the coordination role has brought cohesion and commitment to the implementation of the programme. Cross-curricular work is an important aspect of the LCVP and on a essaye, the commendable practice of different members of the teaching staff assisting with specific LCVP activities and events was very much in warming, evidence . The school?s criteria for the selection of students to the LCVP are inclusive and student centred. The LCVP coordinator and teachers are to be commended for their team approach and their willingness to try new approaches and methodologies to effectively meet the needs of their student cohort.

Both the approach and the content of lessons observed were designed to meet the identified needs of the particular cohort of students. The monitoring of students? portfolio work is conducted thoroughly and systematically. Teachers follow through with students to try to ensure that all identified mistakes are corrected. The inclusion of the LCVP on emission on a tout the school curriculum has contributed to the positive profile of the school in the community and the principal benefits identified by senior management have been in student outcomes, development of skills and for university guide, the value of work experience. As a means of building on these strengths the following key recommendations are made: Students pursuing a school-based language module are required to have one period per week in that language over the two years of the programme. It is recommended that the number of periods currently assigned per year to the language module be addressed.

It is recommended that the Business department be deployed in the programme to ensure regular and frequent access for LCVP students to the specialist expertise and environment of emission on a tout, Business. The worthwhile objective of finding ways to optimise the involvement of parents in the implementation of the programme should be explored and pursued by LCVP coordination and school management. The development of a more detailed plan for the implementation of the LCVP is pr resume recommended. This should be completed incrementally and should record for the wider school community the richness of the learning experiences provided by the programme. A formal review of the programme, including attainment in State Examinations is recommended.

This should be conducted annually to inform programme planning and implementation.

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Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. By the time you start to on a, write the first draft of pr resume your dissertation, you will probably already have accumulated a wealth of notes, scribbles and emission on a, ideas. Planning is essential, but do not be hesitate to draw up new plans whether it is a brief abstract of your dissertation as a whole, or a detailed breakdown of a particular chapter. This section looks at effective planning, which should be a continuous process that intensifies during the and contrast essay food, writing of your dissertation and not something that fades into the background. Do all dissertations look the same? At one level, yes. They will have to: Formulate a clear question that your dissertation seeks to answer.

Review the literature in the field relating to your question. Engage in independent research in emission on a tout addressing this question. Justify whatever methods you choose to undertake your research. Present and discuss your findings, whilst demonstrating how they relate to your original question. Watch Different types of dissertations video (.wmv) Do all dissertations look the pr resume template, same? This video clip contains comments from the following academics: Sociology Shawna McCoy. Criminology Christopher Christopher-Dowey. Insofar as the preparation of the dissertation is a process of tout essaye investigation and discovery, the precise scope of your study may well only emerge as you become closely involved in a detailed review of the childhood, literature.

At this early stage, your title may be a provisional one that you will revise later. Your dissertation supervisor may advise on the title in emission on a essaye order to help you find and define the focus of the dissertation. You should examine articles in scholarly journals for examples of appropriate titles for language a study of this length. Starting to emission on a essaye, write the dissertation. Supervisors have different ways of working and you will, to some degree, need to negotiate your approach to supervision style. Compare And Contrast Food Food? For example, your supervisor may advise you to write a short proposal or abstract, say of about 300 words, in which you set out as clearly as possible what you intend to emission tout essaye, do in the dissertation.

The value of this exercise is that it requires you to focus and articulate your thinking. It may be that you will be able to summarise the exact nature and scope of your study, in obesity and physical essay which case the proposal can serve as guide to refer to as you write the main chapters of the work. Alternatively, it may make you aware of gaps in emission on a tout essaye your knowledge and understanding, and guide, show you the areas that need further thought and research. It is useful, therefore, to write the proposal and to retain it for reference and revision. Tout Essaye? It helps to attempt such an pr resume abstract even if your supervisor has not suggested that you write one. However, practice varies, and emission on a tout, your supervisor will advise you on essay on pollution language how to proceed.

As you continue to tout essaye, write the main chapters of the work, you may find that your initial plan has changed. This means that when you have completed the chapters that form the main body of childhood obesity education essay your dissertation you can return to the proposal and revise it as much as you need, to form the introduction. It is highly advisable to draft a plan of the dissertation. On A Tout Essaye? There is a lot in common between different dissertations regarding the structure and although you do not need to stick slavishly to a standard plan, such a plan is very helpful as a template to impose some order on what may seem an essay in urdu language unmanageable task. Emission On A Tout Essaye? Here is an indicative structure that might help you with your initial plan. The field of study, the research question, the hypothesis (if any) or, more generally, the research question that is to be investigated.

It should also include a summary of the contents and main arguments in the dissertation. Usually, this comes immediately after the for university, introductory chapter. This may be more than one chapter, but should certainly be written in sections. This should include previous work done on the field of study and anything that you consider to be relevant to the hypothesis or research question and to its investigation. It will include a large number of references to the literature in your chosen area.

This section should include an account of the research questions and/or hypotheses to be investigated, relevant methods of investigation and an argument for why you think these methods are the most appropriate ones for the question and for your circumstances. You should consider the benefits of your chosen method as well as identifying any disadvantages and essaye, how you overcame them. Ethical issues and the ways in childhood and physical education which you dealt with them should be noted. This section should also discuss any variations from the emission tout, original fieldwork plan, and should conclude with a reflection on the experience of doing fieldwork. This section should present the main findings of your research together with an account of the strengths and weaknesses of childhood obesity and physical education essay your data relative to your research question/hypothesis. You may also wish to include an evaluation of any difficulties you encountered in collecting and analysing data, together with an emission tout assessment of how this affected your plan of research. Here you can provide an assessment of whether and how well you were able to answer your research question and/or confirm/reject your hypotheses. This chapter must relate the findings to template, the theoretical/policy discussion in emission on a your literature review. You should NOT introduce any new literature at this stage. Conclusions and recommendations. An overall assessment of what you found out, how successful you were and suggestions for pr resume template future research.

Beginning work on the main body of the dissertation. Once you have produced the emission on a essaye, proposal and discussed it with your supervisor, you may want to write the first draft of a chapter of the dissertation. When you hand in this draft, you should arrange a tutorial to receive your supervisor's verbal or written comments and suggestions on how it may be improved. You may, for example, produce a draft introduction setting out the issue, together with a literature review which covers what, if any, treatment of the topic has gone beforehand. You may also wish to draft those sections of the methodology chapter that cover the methods that you wish to use, together with a justification for why you think those methods are best.

Revising sections after receiving the supervisor's comments. When you have received your supervisor's comments on the draft of essay on pollution in urdu any chapter, you should revise that particular chapter immediately. Prompt revision is easier than letting things drift, and you should do it while the advice of your supervisor is emission on a fresh in your mind. This will also avoid building up a backlog of work that needs to be revised, which can be discouraging. Having the material on a computer disk will enable you to do revisions efficiently and on pollution in urdu, with a minimum of fuss. Be sure to back up all your work on a floppy disk, CD, or memory stick. Depending on emission tout the credit rating of the dissertation, the amount of and contrast essay - fresh food and canned time you devote to it should be equivalent to the time you would devote to a taught course with the same credit rating; that is, seminar and lecture time plus time for private study. Findings from our Research. In our research we found that students often did not think about the credit rating of their dissertation and actually spent more time working on it than they should have! They saw it as such an emission on a important part of their degree that they wanted to put more into essay on pollution, it: It [the dissertation] took up more of my time . Once you get into emission, it, you have to out in obesity the effort.

It’s 8000 words, plus there’s so much to on a tout essaye, do. Obesity Education Essay? When you’re doing it, it seems so much more that the rest of your work (Todd, Bannister and Clegg, 2004, p341). However, this can have a detrimental effect on your other modules - one student said ‘I did the dissertation and left the other work’ - don’t make his mistake. All the modules in on a tout the final year are important. You will find that once the final year begins, the weeks go by very quickly, and you will need to organise your time well from the start so that the ongoing preparation of your dissertation continues alongside work for the taught units you are studying.

Once you have a workable plan it is much easier to plan the work in sequence and to set yourself targets for the completion of the separate parts (see the section on Getting started with the Dissertation). Allow plenty of time for final revisions after your tutor has seen a complete draft. If you are taking a dissertation over two semesters, you should aim to spend the equivalent of reduce global warming one full half-day per week working on your dissertation during each semester of your final year if it is worth 20 credits - nearer twice that amount of time if it is a 40-credit dissertation. You will decide with your supervisor precisely when to produce drafts, but if you are taking a dissertation module over one academic year then by the end of the first semester you would normally expect to produce a proposal or abstract and a first draft of one or two chapters. You would then produce the drafts of the remaining chapters and complete the process of revision and writing-up during the emission on a, second semester. In the second semester, when drafting the remaining main chapters of the dissertation, you will follow the practice established in writing the first semester of submitting the drafts to your supervisor for on a tout comments and writing essays guide, advice. You should take advantage of the period between the tout essaye, first semester and guide, the start of the emission, second semester to write a draft of a chapter, and you should plan to have produced first drafts of all the main chapters by at least four weeks before the reduce global warming essay, submission date (also allowing for any vacation periods when staff may not be available). If, however, you are taking the dissertation module over one semester, you will need to adjust this time frame accordingly. The introduction to your dissertation should explain to the reader what you are going to investigate. It should describe the dissertation's topic and scope. You should explain your reasons for emission investigating your chosen topic by referring to and contrast essay - fresh food, the appropriate literature.

Having completed the work on the main substance of your dissertation, you should have a much clearer idea of its nature and on a tout essaye, scope than you did when you wrote your preliminary abstract or proposal. The introduction to your dissertation should explain to the reader what you are going to investigate. It should describe the dissertation's topic and scope. You should explain your reasons for investigating your chosen topic by referring to the appropriate literature. It is global important, however, to tout essaye, write the introduction as though you are setting out on a process of pr resume investigation. You need to emission, emphasise the exploratory nature of your work. You should also avoid anticipating the methodology, discoveries and conclusions that you have made in the course of your investigations. So, you might simply say that you have identified certain common features in emission on a the relevant literature, or a particular issue that it deals with, and that your dissertation will examine the literature closely in order to demonstrate the relationships between treatments of the issue in the sample texts. When you have completed the main body of the case study of research methodology, work and emission on a, your tutor has commented on your complete draft, you may well wish to essays guide, revisit the introduction to take into on a essaye, account your findings and your tutor's comments on their significance.

Your dissertation is a substantial piece of written work that ideally should conform to a number of for university academic conventions. On A Tout Essaye? One of the most important of these academic conventions is the literature review. In short, the literature review is a discussion or 'review' of secondary literature that is of general and central relevance to the particular area under investigation. Often students ask how long a literature review should be. This is a difficult question given that the template, total length of your dissertation might be anything from five to twelve thousand words. Obviously your supervisor may be able to give some indication of the approximate length of your literature review. However, don't become pre-occupied with word length, the main thing is that your literature review should capture the general and specific aspects of the literature of your subject. Why is a literature review necessary? The literature review is an important device in your dissertation as it performs a number of related functions: It demonstrates to whoever reads the dissertation that the author of the work has read widely and is aware of the on a tout, range of debates that have taken place within the given field.

It provides the proof that you have more than a good grasp of the breadth and depth of the topic of the dissertation - your dissertation gives you the opportunity to and contrast essay - fresh and canned, show off how clever you are! The literature review is a great place to start, because it should demonstrate that you know what you are talking about because you have read everything that is relevant to your dissertation. It can provide the tout essaye, rationale for the research question in the study. This can be done by highlighting specific gaps in the literature Äď questions that have not been answered (or even asked), and areas of research that have not been conducted within your chosen field. Pr Resume Template? In this way the literature review can provide a justification of your own research. It can allow you to emission tout essaye, build on work that has already been conducted.

For example you might adopt a similar methodological or theoretical approach in your work to pr resume template, one that exists within the literature, yet place your actual emphasis elsewhere. In this way you are building on work that has already been conducted by adopting similar strategies and concepts, yet focusing the question on something that interests you. It helps to define the broad context of your study, placing your work within a well defined academic tradition. Poor dissertations often fail to relate to emission on a tout, broader debates within the academic community. They may have a well defined research question, yet without placing this question in reduce global warming the appropriate context, it can lose its significance. The literature review therefore can add weight to your question by framing it within broader debates within the academic community. Writing a literature review is not as simple as at first it may seem.

What follows is on a a step by step guide on how to go about conducting and presenting your literature review. The first stage of your literature review is to collect a list of literature that is relevant to your study. You have already seen in the section Help with Finding Literature and Research how you can get a list of useful references. Once you have a list of references for your dissertation, you now have to access and read this material. This is time consuming because you will be reading a large amount of essay in urdu language material. Once you start you might find that some literature is of little relevance to your study. This is something that many researchers and dissertation students go through and is often a necessary part of the process. It is on a essaye better to reduce global, read something that is not central to your dissertation than miss something that might be an important and tout, relevant contribution to the field.

Make notes about the central themes and arguments of the book, chapter or article. These notes can then be incorporated into the finished version of your literature review. Compare And Contrast Essay Food And Canned Food? Try and get a sense of the theoretical perspective of the author, this will be of use when you organise and present your literature review. Also, emphasise the way in which the piece of literature you are reading seeks to set itself apart from other literature. On A Essaye? Importantly, start to think critically about the on pollution in urdu language, piece you are reading; ask: what is this person trying to say and emission tout, why? How is it different from the way others have dealt with this issue? This critical component is very important as it demonstrates that you are engaging with relevant literature in an appropriate manner and that you can discriminate between different perspectives and approaches that exist within your chosen field. Once you have generated a large number of notes around your reading you might start to feel overwhelmed by the literature. In terms of the organisation and presentation of your literature review, it is case worth dividing your review into two main areas: general reading and literature that is of central importance. You will also need to further divide the literature into emission on a tout, specific areas relevant to your study for e.g. Method Methodology? theories and concepts; policy analysis; empirical studies and so-on. What follows are some general guidelines on how you might do this.

It will be clear that some of the reading you have done is of more relevance than others. On A Tout Essaye? It is essay on pollution important, however, that you do not discard the emission, less relevant work; instead this can form the broad background of your discussion of the more relevant literature within your field. Essay Food? For example you may mention different authors that have dealt with a question related to your field but may not be central to it. Highlight these in broad terms, state how these works have impacted on your particular area. Tout Essaye? You need not go into great detail about these more general works, but by highlighting these works you are demonstrating your awareness of the scope and limits of your study and how it touches upon other areas of study. Once you have discussed the essays guide, range of literature that is only of emission tout essaye general interest to your study, you can then go into pr resume template, more detail on the literature that more sharply focuses on the questions that are of on a tout interest to you. And Contrast And Canned? Devote more detail to these particular works as they are more important to your topic. Indeed they may highlight the gap in the literature that exists that you seek to fill; they may provide the on a tout essaye, basis on which you seek to build, or they might be works which require some critique from your particular perspective.

When you have divided your literature review into general works and works of central importance, you should also further divide the literature into sub-categories. By further dividing your literature in this way, you are adding more organisation into your literature review by providing specific sub-categories of relevant literature. For example in childhood education the general works section of on a your literature review, you might want one sub-heading on the main theoretical debates, one on empirical studies and maybe one on policy. With reference to the more central literature, you could organise this more important reading in essay language a similar way. For example, if relevant, you could have a section on emission essaye competing theoretical perspectives; a section on obesity and physical the main findings of important empirical studies; a section on policy implementation and its impacts. See the table below. Breakdown of Literature Review. Detailed analysis of theoretical and conceptual debates.

Discussion of emission on a tout essaye main findings of important empirical studies and their critiques. Focused analysis of policy implementation. If appropriate you might also want to divide your sub-headings further. One final note on the more central literature is that this more focused analysis can also serve to bring your empirical or theoretical work into sharper focus. Essays? In this sense you are prefacing your work and emission on a tout essaye, how it relates to other academic studies by on pollution your discussion of it in your literature review. One thing to remember however is emission on a that just because you talk about an author's work in your literature review, doesn't mean you never mention it again in childhood education your dissertation. In the discussion section of your study you will necessarily relate your findings to those central studies that you have highlighted in your literature review. When you have written your literature review, this is on a tout not the end of the writing for university guide, process. Throughout your dissertation process, you will come across literature that is of relevance to your area of study, do not ignore this material, you can always add more literature to your review as you come across it. Finally, make sure that you keep a record of all your references, even the ones that have been of little use. This will help you organise your bibliography and reference list.

You may even need to go back and look over something that you looked at emission tout earlier in your studies that may have more relevance than you first thought. This must clearly identify the epistemological (i.e. your stance on what should pass as acceptable knowledge) basis of the and contrast essay food, study and demonstrate a good working knowledge of the methods to be employed. It should include good coverage of the process of the fieldwork and on a essaye, indicate how the analysis was undertaken. As well as covering the ethical issues it should also contain an pr resume template element of reflection on the research process. Many students confuse findings with discussion and it is important to keep them separate. The findings are often presented in charts and tables (even from qualitative data). Verbatim references to participants' comments are particularly helpful. It is important to ensure that findings are truly analysed, rather than described. On A Essaye? Finding ways of cross relating the findings is therefore important. Traditionally, the discussion links findings to the literature presented in the literature review. There are arguments for extending the coverage of literature in this section but only in exceptional circumstances.

The discussion should be precisely that: an on pollution opportunity to raise the different voices of interest in the research question and to explore the findings in the light of the literature and different perspectives within it. The main chapters of your dissertation will have focused on particular topics or issues. For example, each chapter may have focused discussion on a particular text. On A? Alternatively, you may have structured your work so that each chapter is writing essays for university guide devoted to discussion of a particular aspect of your overall topic. The conclusion offers the opportunity to on a, review your work as a whole, to case method, identify the points of comparison and contrast the various texts you have examined, and to show that, in the process of your study, you have developed a more precise, critical understanding of the way they deal with your topic. This is also an appropriate place for you to emission tout, point to the limitations of small-scale research of this kind and to indicate possible avenues for researchers to childhood education essay, address the issues in on a essaye the future.

Before you submit the and physical education, dissertation, you should check that the final version of the on a essaye, title is an accurate reflection of what the dissertation is about and, if not, change the title. The process of preparing your dissertation for essay in urdu language submission begins with a careful final drafting of on a essaye all your chapters and sections. Here you have the opportunity: To ensure that your argument is childhood education essay clearly developed from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. Emission Essaye? To check the accuracy of your spelling and punctuation - do not rely on spellchecker software!

To make sure that your sentences are well constructed and that you are expressing yourself clearly, precisely and fluently. To ensure that you have not contradicted or repeated yourself. You need to check that your quotations from and references to both primary and secondary texts are clearly and consistently identified according to the conventions of the HARVARD referencing systems (or whatever system your department requires). There is more about this in the section on Plagiarism. You will check that your bibliography is properly presented and contains all sources cited throughout your work.

You should refer to the guidance provided by your own department, but in general you should think about the following: Your dissertation must normally be typed or word-processed on A4 paper. Your own text must be double-spaced. Indented quotations must be single-spaced. The pages of the template, dissertation must be numbered. It must have a title page.

It must have a table of contents. Submitting the completed dissertation. The completed dissertation should be submitted in emission the form set out by your department. If there are no formal styles, submit the dissertation in a format that makes it easy for compare and contrast essay food food the examiner to handle - avoid complicated spring-back or ring-backed files. Abstracts of sections and emission tout essaye, of the dissertation as a whole will help to focus your writing and direct your thoughts. Set yourself deadlines for childhood education drafting chapters. Agree these with your supervisor if you think that will motivate you.

Depending on tout essaye the rules and essays for university, regulations of your own institution, give your supervisor drafts of chapters as you write them, and try to be responsive to criticism. Revise chapters as soon as you get them back. Read through each completed chapter. Check that your argument flows logically. Even if you write the introduction last, write it as if you have yet to find the answers to your questions. Don't give away the emission on a tout, ending! Finally, check that the in urdu language, title refers accurately to emission on a, the finished dissertation. If it does not - change the title!

Follow some basic rules: Type or word-process your dissertation - do not write it out. Use double line spacing for your own writing. Use single line spacing for indented quotations (and footnote these!) Number the pages. Food? Include a title page and a table of contents. Remember to adhere to any format stipulated by your department. Emission Essaye? IMPORTANT: Check how many copies your department requires. How long is your dissertation going to - fresh and canned food, be? Have you mapped out the content of each of your chapters? In what order will the content flow best?

Is your evaluation doing its job? Likewise, is emission on a essaye your conclusion suitably conclusive? Is the order of the chapters logical and for university guide, coherent, will it make sense to the reader? Are the beginning, middle and end clear? Do your sentences and paragraphs make sense? Do you know someone else who can proof-read the emission tout essaye, dissertation for case you?

Have you allowed enough time to proof-read properly? BRYMAN, A. (2004). Social Research Methods. 2nd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, chapter 26 - Doing a research project. DENSCOMBE, M. (2003). The Good Research Guide for Small-scale Social Research Projects.

Maidenhead, Oxford University Press, part III. HART, C. (2000). Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Imagination. London, Sage. Writing up your dissertation:

Conducting a literature review: 1. Tout Essaye? © Dr Malcolm Todd (Leeds Met), Ian Baker (Sheffield Hallam University), Professor Chris Winch (NCU), Andy Pilkington (NCU), Dr John Steel (University of Sheffield), Dr Anne Hollows (Sheffield Hallam University) © This resource has been developed in partnership by the Higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.

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5 Easy Tricks to Help You Write Catchy Headlines. On the average, five times as many people read the on a tout, headline as read the and physical education essay, body copy. Emission On A. When you have written your headline, you have spent eighty cents out of your dollar. In a world full of noise, how do you get people to actually read what you write? It takes more than good content or great design.

The most important part of writing an article is the headline. The same principle applies to blog posts, book chapters, and childhood obesity and physical education, so on: The title is where your focus should be. You should begin and emission on a, end every article with the question: #8220; Would this make me want to read on?#8221; If not, don#8217;t publish until you#8217;ve got a catchy headline. Concentrate on this, and pr resume, you#8217;ll get more readers, more buzz, and more love. Emission. Too often the headline is the food and canned, most neglected part of emission on a tout writing an pr resume template, article. People just gloss over it without taking much time to emission, consider it. In their minds, it#8217;s the cherry on top. No, friends; it#8217;s not. The headline is the sundae.

I sometimes deliberate over titles for 30Ė60 minutes before settling on one that works. And I often go back and change them. Compare And Contrast Essay. This is what it takes to write a good headline. If you need some help concocting catchier headlines, here are a few simple tricks (you can also watch me walk you through this in the free video and checklist. that accompanies this post). There#8217;s a reason why so many copywriters use numbers in their headlines.

It works. Do an emission essaye, experiment: Go to the grocery store, and scan the magazines in the checkout lane. Look at essay language, the front-page article headlines. It doesn#8217;t matter if it#8217;s a fitness magazine or a tabloid; many of emission tout them will be using numerals to education essay, start off the headline. Essaye. There aren#8217;t really any rules (as far as I know) regarding what numbers work best, but people typically only remember three to five points. That said, sometimes a really obscure number like 19 or 37 can catch people#8217;s attention. Case Method Of Research Methodology. Here are some examples: If you#8217;re going to tout, do a list post, be original. For example consider the following: If possible, never use things . Please, for the love of Pete, don#8217;t use things . Method Methodology. You can do better than that. These are trigger words. Emission On A Tout Essaye. I typically use #8220;why#8221; and compare essay - fresh and canned, #8220;how#8221; the most, because I#8217;m often trying to persuade or enable someone. Emission Essaye. Typically, you#8217;ll use either a trigger word or a number.

Rarely does it sound good to do both. Obesity Essay. Promise your reader something valuable. On A. Will you teach her how to learn a new skill? Will you persuade her to food, do something she#8217;s never done before? Will you unlock an ancient mystery?

What you want to do is on a essaye, dare your reader to global warming essay, read the emission on a essaye, article. Without over-promising, be bold . Childhood And Physical Education Essay. Be seductive (in the emission tout essaye, most innocuous way possible, of course). Be dangerous . And then deliver what you promised. Method Of Research Methodology. Here#8217;s a simple headline-writing formula: Number or Trigger word + Adjective + Keyword + Promise. Example: Take the subject #8220;bathing elephants.#8221; You could write an tout essaye, article entitled, #8220;How to on pollution language, Bath an Elephant#8221; or #8220;Why I Love Bathing Elephants.#8221; Or you could apply this formula and emission essaye, make it: #8220;18 Unbelievable Ways You Can Bathe an Elephant Indoors#8221; Another (more serious) example: Take a bold promise like #8220;selling your house in case study method of research, a day.#8221; Apply the emission essaye, formula and template, you get: #8220;How You Can Effortlessly Sell Your Home in emission on a tout, Less than 24 Hours#8221; People don#8217;t want to and canned food, be tricked into on a tout, reading something boring; they want to be drawn into something exciting.

Make it worth their while. Writing. Take extra long time to consider what headline will grab people#8217;s attention the emission, most, and make sure that it describes your content in global warming essay, an honest, but attractive, way. They won#8217;t regret it, and neither will you. You can go grab the downloadable checklist that accompanies this blog post right here. What tricks for emission on a tout writing catchy headlines do you use? Share in reduce global warming, the comments. I write books and help writers get their work out into emission on a tout, the world. I am the best-selling author of four books, including The Art of and physical education essay Work . Tout Essaye. Each week, I send out a newsletter with free tips on reduce global warming writing and creativity. Ever Wonder If Your Blog Post Is Good Enough? We built a free tool so you don#8217;t have to worry about that ever again. 1. Pick your goal of the post.

2. Answer 5 basic questions. 3. It tells you if itís good enough and essaye, how to make it better. Great tips! I#8217;ll be sure to study method, try out your formula when creating headlines! These are really great tips on emission essaye writing catchy headlines. Great advice and tips ! Thanks for sharing. Great advice Sir. I always like the way you write.

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???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????. ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????. ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????, ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ???????. Tout. ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????. ?????????, ?? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ? ??? ???. Guide. ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????. ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???. Emission On A Tout Essaye. ????? ??????? ???????. ????? ?????? ? ? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ? ? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ? ? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???. Template. 3 essential alterations necessary for successful Native living. Am talking about Native Americans and essaye, need a catchy title to impress my panel. What do u think?

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Essay: Evaluating compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the UK and implications for nursing practice: An Extended Literature Review. This literature review aims to evaluate hospitalsí, and essaye more particularly nursesí capacity to comply with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK, as SSC guidelines have proven to increase sepsis survival rates when implemented properly. Using LibrarySearch, a methodical review of the existing literature was performed. A variety of health related databases and journals were searched and Boolean logic was applied to specific search terms (Lobiondo-Wood and writing essays for university guide Haber, 2014). Eight relevant articles were then appraised for quality and on a tout essaye the findings discussed. A lack of resources such as equipment and supplies, lack of appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and nursing staff, and the inconsistent use of SSC guidelines are all associated to with generally poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in the UK.

Overall, the extent of hospitalsí compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the availability of the resources and equipment, education of medical and nursing staff, and consistent use of the SSC guidelines. Importantly, eight articles evidence that SSC awareness by medical and nursing staff plays a vital role in overall compliance. Chapter 1: Introduction. Hart (1998, p. 26) defines a literature review as a summary and Ďcritical analysis of relevant availableí studies related to the chosen topic being reviewed. A literature review can aid in improving nursing practice in particular, by essay on pollution in urdu identifying themes and on a essaye causation around a given issue in the field of writing essays, nursing (Moule and Goodman, 2014). Emission On A Tout? Hence, it is case methodology, critical to gather evidence-based information through a literature review of the emission latest available research to help improve oneís practice and make decisions that is essay, based on emission on a, the best available evidence (Aveyard, 2014). Florence Nightingale (1860) emphasised that nurses are knowledgeable when it comes to patientsí care.

Therefore, in the nursing profession there is no way to stop learning, but instead there are ways to update what has been learned from the past according to for university present conditions, and to gain new insights in order to provide the emission on a best available evidence-based practice to patientsí care (NMC, 2010; CRD, 2007). Moreover, it is the responsibility of a nurse to learn new information concerning his or her patients and the environment he or she directly works in, in order to compare and contrast essay food food be prepared for new challenges and changes in delivering evidence-based nursing care to patients (Spencer, 2011). The next chapter will briefly discuss the background and rationale of the focus question of this literature review, which is: ĎTo what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and tout what are the implications for nursing practiceí? The following chapter will outline the methodology of research, including how relevant literature was searched, tabulated, and pr resume template analysed, and how the three themes emerged from the on a essaye chosen articles (Parahoo, 2006). This is followed by the discussion and analysis of themes that arose from the chosen articles, and the implications and recommendations for reduce global warming essay, nursing practice.

Lastly, conclusions drawn from the chosen articles reviewed will be made. Chapter 2: Background and Rationale. 2.1 What is Sepsis? Sepsis is the reaction of the emission tout body to an infection, meaning that the Ďbody attacks its own organs and global essay tissuesí as defined by on a essaye UK Sepsis Trust Organisation (2014). Sepsis was previously known as septicaemia or blood poisoning (Bone, 1991). It starts from an uncomplicated infection that develops into severe sepsis, wherein the reduce essay infection becomes associated with organ dysfunction and leads to an increased risk of death (Mackenzie and Lever, 2007). According to the UK Sepsis Trust Organization (2014), sepsis can quickly lead to shock, multi-organ dysfunction and essaye eventually results in death if the sepsis is not detected immediately and not treated promptly.

Sepsis is one of the primary reasons of death worldwide. This is why Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines have been introduced worldwide. 2.2 Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles. In 2004, Dellinger et al. launched Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) international guidelines in the United States for compare - fresh food, the management of severe sepsis as an effort to reduce the mortality rate associated with sepsis (Dellinger et al., 2004a). It encompasses the creation of evidence-based guidelines sponsored and endorsed by 11 international organisations. It was revised in 2008 and the latest revision was in 2013. Subsequently, numerous research studies worldwide had proven its success in reducing mortality rates. The SSC guidelines are composed of 3-hour, 6-hour, and emission tout 24-hour resuscitation bundles for managing severe sepsis and septic shock (Dellinger et al., 2013c), which need to be delivered within a certain timeframe immediately following the food food identification of sepsis symptoms.

These bundles are a group of emission tout, three or more elements of reduce global essay, care specifically related to the disease, that when implemented together will improve patient outcomes (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b; Institute for emission on a tout essaye, Healthcare Improvement, 2014; Dellinger et al., 2013c; Daniels et al., 2011). 2.3 SSC guidelines and United Kingdom. In 2005, the United Kingdom launched the SSC guidelines in an attempt to reduce the sepsis mortality rate in the UK (Bray and Murphy, 2006). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2007) recommended to pr resume carry out a set of observations or vital signs systematically using the Early Warning Score (EWS) and the SSC resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c) for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. These are currently recommended on emission tout essaye, a national scale to address the issue. However, despite of the introduction of the writing essays for university campaign a decade ago, the mortality rate in UK remains unacceptably high, ĎThere are 102,000 cases of sepsis arise annually, 36,800 deaths every year as a result of severe sepsisí (Daniels et al., 2011, p. 508). Emission On A? ĎPutting this into perspective, lung cancer (the biggest killer after cardiovascular disease) claims just fewer than 35,000 lives per writing essays for university year, bowel cancer 15,000 and breast cancer 9,000? (Richards, 2013, p. Emission Tout? 3).

Hence, it is important to identify the limitations to compliance and determine how medical and nursing staff can best help patients survive sepsis (NPSA, 2007). Compare Essay - Fresh Food And Canned? In any hospital setting, there are different patients with many different kinds of illnesses, and emission on a tout essaye nurses play a vital role in ensuring that patients receive the best and most appropriate possible care, thus preventing patientsí deterioration (Aitken et al., 2011). Moreover, rapid diagnosis and treatment saves lives when done as quickly as possible (Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, 2013). Thus, the aim of this literature review is to evaluate hospitalsí compliance to for university SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the on a essaye UK as well as to identify the role of the compare and contrast and canned food nurse in helping to improve overall SSC compliance (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). The following focus question was formulated to address the emission on a abovementioned concerns and to guide the literature search of this review: ĎTo what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for nursing practiceí? The next chapter will discuss in further detail the for university guide methodology used for conducting research in tout order to address the childhood obesity essay most appropriately respond to this question.

Chapter 3: Methodology. This chapter will discuss the tout selection criteria, search strategy, and childhood obesity education essay the search outcome of the literature search. How and why the articles were chosen to be included in emission this literature review will be explained. 3.1 Selection Criteria. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined using the Population, Intervention, Comparison or Comparator and Outcome (PICO) tool. The PICO acronym is used to articulate the research question and structure the writing guide search strategy (CRD, 2007; Higgins and Green, 2008; Whitlock et al., 2010). Studies evaluating compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across hospitals in the United Kingdom (UK) were considered. Hospital settings allow for on a tout essaye, a wider sample in evaluating nursing and essay medical staffís adherence to emission the guidelines of the and physical SSC rather than in specialist clinics or GPs settings. Emission Tout? Articles focusing on adult hospital settings across the United Kingdom, and written in the English language were included. Studies evaluating the use of sepsis resuscitation bundles in paediatric and maternity settings were excluded, as these are less relevant to the adult field of nursing, and paediatrics and maternity wards require different interventions for in urdu, the treatment of sepsis recommended by the SSC. Many studies started within different timeframes in emission tout different places when the SSC guidelines had been introduced worldwide; hence, studies outside United Kingdom were excluded.

The literature review focuses solely on the UK, since it is easier to recognise the limitations of the sepsis care bundles when evaluating sample populations in one country rather than across many countries. Studies assessing the compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines (Dellinger et al., 2013c) comprising severe sepsis, septic shock resuscitation care bundles and pr resume template early goal directed therapy (EGDT) were included, as these are elements of the established bundles and interventions used to manage patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Studies assessing severe sepsis and septic shock cases without using the recommendation of SSC guidelines were excluded, as this paper aims to identify issues and determine possible reasons as to why and tout how non-compliance is writing essays for university, occurring despite the proven effectiveness of sepsis resuscitation bundles under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (Daniels et al., 2011). As the United Kingdom launched its Surviving Sepsis Campaign in 2005 (Bray and Murphy, 2006), only studies assessing compliance to the SSC guidelines to address severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK from 2005 onward were included in this literature review. Studies evaluating the relationships between awareness, resources, and compliance to emission on a essaye the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as well as correlative evidence of compare essay food and canned, decreasing mortality rates associated with compliance in sepsis were included. 3.1.4 Study Design. Due to the nature of the focus question, which is to on a tout evaluate the compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, quantitative studies were included that include prospective observational studies, retrospective cohort studies, questionnaires, and surveys. The focus of pr resume, this paper is on a tout, across the United Kingdom in order to language establish general determining factors regarding the limitations, barriers, and solutions for successful implementation of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). Case reports and case series were excluded because they tend to focus on emission tout, one case study, which is more likely to be very specific and less widely applicable than evidence across a more random sample population (Jolley, 2013).

The SSC guidelines were published in 2004, hence, publication dates from the years 2004 to December 2014 were included, and dates before 2004 and beyond 2014 were excluded from this literature search. In terms of hospital studies in the UK, only articles published between 2005 and 2014 were included, since the SSC guidelines were launched in the UK in writing guide 2005. 3.2 Search Strategy. After establishing the emission essaye focus question this paper aims to answer, the first step was to identify the necessary databases for accessing a wide range of data sources in the Internet (Younger, 2004). University librariansí assistance was sought to pr resume template access different e-journals. Upon learning the emission on a tout essaye ways to access databases, the researcher used a range of databases from the essays for university LibrarySearch engine. LibrarySearch is the Universityís search and retrieval tool designed to search for databases and emission tout essaye e-journals. This search was performed to case reduce bias of the review, and to retrieve articles containing the search terms used. Minimising bias was endeavored by using many appropriate databases to broaden the selection criteria (Newell and Burnard, 2006).

A worldwide search was not included, as only the population of the United Kingdom was relevant to the research question and only articles written or translated in English were considered for review in the study. However, this risk bias, resources for translating articles are not accessible (Khan et al., 2003). Jolley (2013) explains how accessing a wide-range databases aids in acquiring the emission best and most current research articles. The chosen databases used in this literature search are the British Nursing Index, Internurse, Medline (Ovid), Pubmed, SAGE journals, and Wiley Online Library. The British Nursing Index was chosen because this database covers all aspects of childhood obesity essay, nursing from 1994 to present, which meets the inclusion criteria for articles from 2004 to 2014. Internurse database was chosen, as it is the UKís largest collection of nursing journals. Furthermore, as the UK is home of the British Journal of Nursing, the journal was used for its main focus on research conducted in emission tout essaye UK.

The Medline and Pubmed databases were included, as these two cover academic journals from medical, nursing and health care publications. Wiley online library was used since it provides over 4 million articles from across different countries that include the language United Kingdom. Lastly, the SAGE online journal database was included, as it is the worldís independent academic and professional publisher of over 560 journals (SAGE Publications, 2014). After selecting databases, the on a tout essaye next step was to decide which search terms were to be used in accessing literature that would provide the most appropriate evidence for pr resume template, the research question. The following are the search terms that were used: UK, surviving sepsis campaign, compliance, severe sepsis, nurses, impact, and implementation. To increase the search sensitivity, Boolean logic was applied using the words ĎAND,í ĎORí and ĎNOTí (Khan et al., 2003). 3.3 Search Outcome. This section will describe which databases successfully produced relevant results based on the search terms and selection criteria. It will further illustrate the number of articles retrieved, and of the emission on a tout essaye articles retrieved, which were identified as the pr resume most relevant to the focus question.

This literature search took place between October and December 2014. Using the Search Scope in emission on a essaye LibrarySearch engine, six databases were selected to gather articles by applying various search terms relevant to the focus question of this paper. University journal archives and case study method online access privileges, such as subscribing for essaye, a free 14-day trial were also used to essays obtain relevant literature. Initially, the first group search terms used were ĎSurviving Sepsis Campaign,í Ďcomplianceí ĎANDí, Ďimpact,í and ĎUKí. From these search terms, 694 items resulted, with different material types, any year, and any language type (Figure 1). This was then narrowed down from on a tout essaye 694 to 3 items by applying the template selection criteria wherein the emission tout publication date range of the retrievable articles was limited to reduce warming filter inclusion of only literature relevant for the review, given that Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines were first published in 2004. Therefore, only articles published between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2014 were considered in order to on a tout essaye filter the most current available evidence. Reduce Essay? Moreover, English language type, and articles as the material type were chosen (Figure 2). The next group of tout, search terms used were ĎSurviving Sepsis Campaign,í ĎANDí, Ďnursesí and ĎUK.í From these search terms, 4 articles were chosen as the most relevant to the focus question. Furthermore, from these 4 articles retrieved using the selection criteria as shown in Figure 3, these were narrowed down from 4 to reduce global 1 article, as the other 3 were not research articles. ĎSevere sepsis,í Ďguidelines,í ĎANDí, Ďnursesí and tout ĎUKí were the third group of search terms used in the LibrarySearch engine that resulted in 69 articles (Table 4).

To filter results to match the most relevant criteria of the focus question of this review, the subject was refined to ĎGreat Britain,í hence the search was narrowed down from 69 to essay 2 articles (Table 5). Finally, the following search terms: ĎSurviving Sepsis Campaign,í ĎANDí, and ĎUKí were used to find further literature, which resulted in 1,295 items (Figure 6). A collection of journals Ď namely: Intensive Critical Care Journal, Journal of Clinical Nursing, and Nursing Critical Care Journal Ď were chosen to narrow down the search from 1,295 to 6 articles (Figure 7). In total, 12 articles were retrieved utilizing the search terms relevant to the focus question. These were then evaluated for relevant titles and abstracts. Two of the articles retrieved had no full text access and the other two articles were duplicated using different search terms (Khan et al., 2003). The eight articles were tabulated that met the emission on a tout selection criteria. The reviewer found that seven articles have used additional and often overlapping sepsis research studies as references.

For example, 6 articles referenced Gao et al. (2005), 1 referenced Simmond et al. (2007), and 1 referenced Robson et al. Childhood Essay? (2007) which were also helpful in emission tout determining the for university guide academic legitimacy and on a essaye relevance of the articles (Polit and Beck, 2006; Whittaker and Williamson, 2011). In order to minimise bias, Glasziou et al. (2001) suggest having a second reviewer, however this was not feasible in this literature review. Finally, quantitative research was included as it relates to the focus question of the review, which is to evaluate the compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles as recommended by Dellinger et al. (2013c). Evaluation is primarily conducted with the use of quantitative targets and compare and contrast - fresh food measurements (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2007). Ultimately, eight articles were included in this literature review. Emission On A? These eight articles are primary articles, published in United Kingdom between 2005 and for university guide 2011.

All of these studies concern hospitalsí implementation and compliance to the Ďsepsis resuscitation bundles adapted from the tout essaye Surviving Sepsis Campaigní (Dellinger et al., 2013c; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b), particularly for adult patients identified as having sepsis in the UK. 3.4 Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Hierarchy of obesity education, Evidence. Reviewing research is a Ďmechanism used to provide feedback for improvementí as noted by Polit and emission essaye Beck (2006). After articles were selected, a CASP framework was chosen to critically appraise each article according to its validity, credibility, and implication to practice by following the Case-control and childhood education essay Cohort Studies Appraisal Checklists (CASP, 2013). This helped the reviewer to scrutinise the individual work and to underline the on a strengths and compare and contrast - fresh and canned weaknesses of each article in order to identify the best examples of evidence-based practice (Coughlan, Cronin and essaye Ryan, 2007). The Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination in late 1979 was the first to disseminate the Hierarchy of Evidence, until which point different, hierarchies had been established and used (The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, 1979; Evans, 2003). Hierarchy of Evidence is a tool used in determining the effectiveness, appropriateness, and feasibility of evidence (Evans, 2003). It additionally identifies evidence in order to rank the articles according to the research method most relevant to the focus question. Of the eight articles, five articles employ cohort studies and the other three articles use case-controlled studies.

All of the of research methodology articles chosen were published in the United Kingdom and are peer-reviewed. The Systematic Review is the highest level of hierarchy, followed by the Random Controlled Trial (RCT) as the second level of evidence. Emission Tout? All of the articles collected within this study are ranked level three according to the Hierarchy of Evidence because the methods used are Cohort Studies and Case-controlled Studies. 3.5 Themes for analysis. The next step after determining the appropriate literature for this review was an for university guide, analysis of the emission tout literature. Upon undertaking the compare and contrast essay - fresh food food analysis, three themes have been identified: equipment and supply limitations, a lack of appropriate referrals due to poor education of medical staff and nurses on SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and the inconsistent use of emission essaye, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to hospital. The following chapter critically discusses the three themes that emerged from the essay literature analysis of the eight selected articles, as well as the implications for the field of nursing as related to the SSC. Chapter 4: Literature Analysis. This literature analysis will critically consider the eight articles in emission order to judge the strengths, weaknesses, and the significance of each study (Burns and Grove, 2009) in addressing the case study methodology research question: ĎTo what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for nursing practiceí? The first theme that emerged from the literature analysis will be examined below.

4.1 Resource limitations. Compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles requires that serum lactate be obtained and that this is measured using an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) machine (Dellinger et al., 2013c). Other requirements include the use of an ultrasound scan for Central Venous Pressure (CVP) insertion; blood cultures to on a tout be sent to case study method methodology Pathology before starting antibiotics; crystalloid or colloid intravenous fluid challenge, and resuscitative medicines such as steroids, vasopressors and inotropic therapy (Dellinger et al., 2013c). However, five of the articles reviewed evidence that this necessary equipment is lacking in a number of emission on a essaye, hospitals in the UK. 4.1.1 Equipment and essays for university guide medication. Three of the research articles specify that in some cases there has been lack of necessary resources that are used to meet compliance to emission tout the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. This not only case study method, limits the ability of medical and nursing staff to manage sepsis, but it also limits the reviewerís ability to evaluate compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al.ís (2005) study aligns with previous studies that demonstrate how compliance with evidence-based SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles significantly reduces mortality. The study comprises Ď101 consecutive adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock on medical or surgical wards, or in accident and emission emergency areas at two acute National Health Service (NHS) Trust Teaching hospitals in Englandí (Gao et al., 2005, p. R764). Essay On Pollution In Urdu? The findings evidence poor ward care in emission tout critically ill patients, evidencing that eight percent of patients had no oxygen administrated, fourteen percent had no IV access, and fourteen percent of patients Ďhad no observation monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, urine output, or conscious levelí (Gao et al., 2005, p. R766). Since the aim of Gao et al.ís (2005) study is to assess the relationship between compliance with SSC guidelines and a decreased sepsis mortality rate, reasons for for university guide, non-compliance are beyond the scope of this study.

However, the authors importantly note that the hospitalís resource limitation led to a deviation from the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle Ďin the short termí (Gao et al., 2005, p. R764). This includes limited Ďultrasound-guided access, training and staffing that prevented the safe and early placement of central venous catheters outside the critical care environmentí (Gao et al., 2005, p. R766). The ultrasound-guided access is essential to insert the CVP, therefore even if the staff has the knowledge to comply with SSC guidelines, with limited resources available, compliance is emission on a tout essaye, not possible. In hospitals such as these two NHS Trust Teaching hospitals, resource limitations forced the staff to deviate from Ďthe benchmark for persistent hypotension despite fluid resuscitation, adapting a target haemoglobin of 7 to 9 g/dl and/or vasopressors but exluding the on pollution language requirement to achieve a target of emission, 8mmHg and ScVO2 ofí 70% central venous pressureí (Gao et al., 2005, p. R768). Similarly, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkinsí (2008) study highlights the reduce issue of resource limitations. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) investigates the implementation of the 6-hour resuscitation care bundle as advocated by Dellinger et al. (2004) in 265 Acute Medicine Units (AMUs) in the United Kingdom. The research methodology is a questionnaire with 10 questions about the delivery of the 6-hour SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle, sent to each of the participating AMUs.

The data was collected and tabulated per percentage by region. Thirty-five percent of the on a 162 respondents claimed to have implemented the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle in their own hospital, although seventy-one percent had access to study of research outreach teams, and only forty percent had enhanced care beds. Moreover, Ďthe minimum facilities to on a essaye comply with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle were the availability of enhanced care beds, ability to reduce global measure arterial blood gas lactate, measure CVP and to on a administer inotropesí (McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, 2008, p. 164). These minimum facilities varied in different regions in UK. The findings of for university, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkinsí, (2008) study identified that only six hospitals had successfully implemented the complete sepsis resuscitation bundle and that thirty-five percent AMUs claimed to have implemented the SSC guidelines despite eighty-eight percent of AMUs lacking the minimum facilities to comply. Although resource availability is tout, not the main focus of either of the abovementioned studies, this emphasis on limitations indicates that the extent to which a hospital can comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends largely on the resources available. McNeill, Dixon and obesity and physical essay Jenkins, (2008) results indicate that in contrast to the evidence of resources limitations presented by Gao et al.ís (2005) study, it is apparently possible to comply even when there is a lack of resources. However, the respondentsí claims based on the questionnaire alone are unverifiable, as the results were based on participantís subjective responses. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) have no way of proving that the participants responses are honest, although they do suggest that clinical audits to be conducted for future studies. Nevertheless, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkinsí (2008) study identifies the importance of the facilities needed to effectively deliver the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle across AMUs in emission on a essaye UK, and finds that resources are lacking overall.

This includes sixty percent with no access to enhanced care beds, and case of research methodology only twelve percent of AMUs having the minimum facilities available to fully comply with SSC guidelines. Baldwin et al.ís (2007) audit in Kent determines compliance with the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle according to appropriate referrals between nurses and relevant medical staff. It finds that even where communication was adequate between nurses and doctors, Ďthere were instances when the appropriate antibiotics was out of stock in A#038;Eí (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. 255) particularly with a shortage of the antibiotic Tazocin. It is evident therefore, that compliance with the SSC guidelines not only requires that one follow all of the elements of the sepsis resuscitation bundle, but also that nursing staff monitor and communicate the need for essential medicine supplies more frequently. 4.1.2 Financial resources. Another significant resource limitation relating to SSC compliance is the financial capacity of a given hospital. Gao et al. (2005, p. R765) state that Ďsevere sepsis is expensive, such as in USA average cost per emission tout essaye is $22,100í. Even Ďin an age of financial austerity,í Page et al. (2011, p. 314) suggest on one hand, that a sticker and poster program could provide an affordable means of ensuring universal SSC compliance. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) on and contrast food, the other hand, suggest that there should be funds for nurse education and training as solutions to ensure compliance.

Regardless of which authors are more justified in their claims, both suggestions are made in reaction to resource constraints within hospitals in the UK. Page et al.ís (2011) study further implies that staffing levels particularly influence compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c). Essaye? The study notes that Ďcompliance was better in Accident #038; Emergency (A#038;E) than in the Clinical Decisions Unit (CDU) due to a sixty-three percent staffing level in A#038;E as compared to the low staffing level of thirty percent in CDUí (Page et al., 2011). A#038;E doctors moreover had Ďcontinuous support of their nurseí (Page et al., 2011, p. 314). This study therefore indicates that a major influencing factor for ensuring compliance is adequate staffing levels, which is pr resume, particularly challenging given hospitalsí current funding limitations (Hurst and Williams, 2012). Furthermore, findings suggest that compliance to tout the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the nurseís role in warming performing the initial triage for patients. 4.1.3 Implications for nursing practice.

The level of effectiveness of compliance to emission essaye SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in the UK is partially, but also significantly contingent on levels of resource availability. This integrates into nursing practice, as it is important for for university, nurses to know how limited resources can impact compliance to the sepsis resuscitation care bundles for on a tout, the management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, it is the nurseís responsibility to in urdu ensure that Ďmedication ordering systems are in place to minimize dose omissions and delay; utilize staff resource efficientlyí (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Prescribing Organisation, 2008). Assuring that there is proper inventory of medical supplies and medication, and that the proper equipment is in working order and emission on a tout essaye within easy access for use by medical staff are all within the scope of responsibilities and duties of a nurse. Essays For University? In essence, nursing is an act of utilising the environment to assist patientís recovery (Nightingale, 1860), and compliance with SSC guidelines to decrease patient mortality rates is no exception to this duty. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkinsí (2008) study highlights the essaye issue of resource limitations in addressing sepsis. However, further investigation is recommended to determine the writing essays reasons for the lack of resources and solutions as to emission on a essaye how resource availability could be improved to ensure that compliance is essay, feasible not only with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle, but also to identify sepsis in the first place. Additionally, an audit of the 265 AMUs surveyed is emission on a tout essaye, recommended in order to increase accuracy of results. This would also help to explain the reasons why despite having limited resources, some hospitals have found it possible to comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. The next section will discuss the second theme identified in addressing the research question, which is writing for university guide, a lack of appropriate referrals due to poor education of emission on a tout, medical and nursing staff on the implementation of essays, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.2 Lack of appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and nursing staff.

One of the evident reasons for general poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK is a lack of referrals for patients displaying symptoms of sepsis. Seven of the eight articles reviewed evaluated compliance of the medical and nursing staffís implementation of the sepsis resuscitation bundles as related to SSC education. Only one article evaluated the compliance of the medical staff alone. Emission On A Tout Essaye? The articles under review evidence that better compliance outcomes of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles relies largely on medical and nursing staff having a proper awareness of the study method of research SSC guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and on a septic shock, particularly in terms of identifying sepsis, and subsequently in providing appropriate referrals. 4.2.1 Identifying sepsis. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) audited seventy-three registered nurses in Ďmedical, surgical and orthopaedic wardsí in Chesterfield Royal Hospital. The audit took place in 2005 over essay on pollution, the three-month period and tout identifies the case study method methodology extent to which nurses understand Ďdefinitions of sepsis, and the recommendations for its initial managementí (Robson, Beavis and emission essaye Spittle, 2007, p. 86). It was reported as an essay on pollution in urdu language, audit because the nurses were tested against the Ďstandard definitions and evidence-based management guidelinesí of the SSC (Robson, Beavis and tout Spittle, 2007, p. For University Guide? 87). Similarly, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkinsí study evaluates the Ďkey critical care skills and knowledge required toí (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 22) implement the early goal directed therapy (EGDT) as recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Organization (2014b) in Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in anaesthetics, Ďgeneral surgery and general medicine throughout Scotlandí (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 22). However, this is the only article that does not include nursing staff in their study, amongst the tout essaye eight articles in this review. Seventy-three nurses from junior to essay on pollution in urdu senior grades completed the questionnaire created by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) in the form of test.

The questions included diagnosing patients with sepsis or severe sepsis based on the signs and emission tout essaye symptoms, five case studies to explain management plans, and obesity and physical education ten Ďtrue or falseí statements (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 86). In the first phase of the questionnaire, six systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria could indicate that a patient has sepsis. Essaye? Of the respondents, ninety-seven percent correctly indicated an increased temperature above 38??C and - fresh only nineteen percent correctly answered that higher than 4 white blood cell count is an indicator of sepsis. Moreover, ninety-one percent wrongly identified a suspected infection as an indicator (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007). On A? This study shows that ward nurses appears to have Ďgeneral lack of writing essays guide, awareness that low temperature, low white blood cells are signs of sepsisí (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. Emission On A Tout Essaye? 87).

McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkinsí (2007, p. 23) questionnaire Ďwas open for completion within a 3-month period and a single email reminder was sentí. This study aimed to Ďsurvey at least fifty percent of general surgical trainees and an equivalent number from other specialities, and a statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13 using the Chi-squared testí (McNally, MacKinnon and case methodology Hawkins, 2009, p. 23). The respondents were asked about the years of training, previous critical care experience, their attitudes towards the awareness of EGDT and on a tout the SSC guidelines. ĎA power calculation Ďindicated that 30 replies per specialty wouldí (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2007, p. 23) be required to detect a thirty percent difference between specialties. Overall, although McNally, MacKinnon and pr resume Hawkins (2007) did not focus on nurseís SSC protocol knowledge, they similarly found that medical staff in Specialist Registrars lacked knowledge of EGDT elements. A number of nurses surveyed by Robson, Beavis and emission on a tout essaye Spittle (2007) had reportedly taken some life-support courses such as the Acute Life-threatening Events Recognition and Treatment (ALERT) course by Smith, Osgood and Crane (2012) where any patient with low BP should receive 500-1000ml of fluid, and may be repeated as necessary. However, there is no specification on and physical essay, to the length of emission on a essaye, courses or the extent, which sepsis was studied. In the ALERT book, sepsis is discussed in a separate chapter, which means that nurses may not have been educated on reduce global warming, sepsis. According to McClelland and Moxon (2014), the nurseís role is vital in emission tout early detection and recognition of sepsis, hence nurses ought to possess a full awareness of essay on pollution in urdu, identifying sepsis and managing it beyond identification.

Since grade doctors provide immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) focused only on Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in anaesthetics, general surgery and general medicine. Although McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) suggest the development of working relationships amongst anaesthetic staff, trainee physicians and surgeons in order to ensure proper referrals and compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundes, nursing staff are absent from the study. This inaccurately assumes that only grade doctors can give provision of immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, despite the researchersí admittance that nurses are the first to identify a deteriorating patient and emission on a tout inform the doctors to come and see the patient. Page et al.ís (2011) study took place in obesity and physical education essay Blackpool Victoria Hospital, wherein it showed that within 48 hours of on a tout essaye, admission, there was a high patient mortality rate; hence SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented, which included a heavy focus on educating staff in their hospital. During the study, they introduced an education campaign to reduce global warming motivate the staff in implementing the on a tout sepsis resuscitation bundles. Activities within the education campaign included lectures for all the junior doctors, pocket cards detailing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and small group tutorials to all nurses. In addition, posters were placed in every department. Page et al. (2011) proved the effectiveness of this Ďsticker campaigní in improving the identification and treatment of sepsis by obesity essay comparing the emission essaye hospitalís sepsis compliance with nearby Preston Royal Hospital that did not implement the compare food and canned food same campaign, and where compliance with all the elements Ďwas not achieved in any patientí (Page et al., 2011). Emission Tout? The authors thus fail to provide a strong comparison based on controlled variables (examples are the number of pr resume, patients, staff members, and on a essaye sepsis protocols). Nevertheless, they propose that the sticker programme should be transferrable to and physical education almost any acute hospital and that the emission tout essaye SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles could be achieved in compare and contrast food a district general hospital. Page et al. (2011) started staff member SSC education during their study whilst Baldwin et al. (2007) indicated that there was education across their Trust, particularly for the critical care outreach nurses and emission on a essaye ICU consultants where educational sessions outlining the surviving sepsis campaign and its components were conducted.

Robson, Beavis and reduce warming Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2009); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) do not state if there were education campaigns occurring in the UK hospitals studied, despite the fact that they all suggest better staff education about sepsis and emission tout its management. Lack of staff education on sepsis is evident across all articles reviewed; however, the reason for compare food and canned, this lack is not clearly explained, and requires further research. 4.2.2 Critical care referral. None of the emission eight articles evidence a hospital that achieved 100% compliance with the SSC guidelines, and all reviewed articles mention the importance of education and awareness of the sepsis care bundle across all disciplines in terms of appropriate and timely patient management and referral. Simmonds et al.ís (2008) study took place in pr resume Queenís Medical Centre (QMC) in Nottingham, under informed consent by the Trust Audit Committee. The study comprises 229 adult patients with significant positive blood cultures. Simmond et al. Emission On A? (2008, p. 124) used an expanded version called the QMC Sepsis Measurement Tool, which includes: the Ďtiming of sepsis resuscitation bundles interventions, seniority of doctors and the level at which care was given.í The findings were that patients experiencing severe sepsis were only seen by any doctor after a median of 1.1 hours. Similarly, Cronshaw et al.ís (2011) study shows that patientsí waiting times exceeded an hour to see a doctor in the Emergency Department (ED).

Of the 255 severe sepsis patients (SS), seventy-one percent of SS had no documentation discussion regarding the ITU referral (Cronshaw et al., 2011), hence noted that communication between ED and intensive care colleagues need to childhood obesity develop. Ď[D]espite severely abnormal physiologyí (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. 125), only on a, sixty-one percent were referred for critical care opinions and only sixty percent of essay on pollution in urdu language, those patients were reviewed by a specialist in critical care within 12 hours of essaye, meeting severe sepsis criteria according to the SSC. Of the 46 patients, 19 received level 3 care (Intensive Care Unit) within a six-day median stay, and 19 received level 2 care (High Dependency Unit) within a five-day median stay. Thirty-three percent of the sepsis patients died within 90 days and thirty-five percent within a year (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. Essay And Canned Food? 126). This analysis of emission, different levels of care indicate that mortality is and physical education essay, higher outside of critical care and this correlates to the authorsí findings that there is emission tout essaye, a lack of sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance outside of critical care areas. Cronshaw et al.ís research study evidences that only twenty-nine percent of the patients were referred to ITU staff, and were considered not suitable or were labeled Ďdo-not attempt resuscitateí and seventy-one percent of severe sepsis patients had no documented discussions for referrals to the ITU (2011, p. 671).

Simmonds et al.ís (2008) and Cronshaw et al.ís (2011) findings therefore, demonstrate that a lack of referrals is one of the factors that contribute to poor SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance. Simmond et al. (2008) suggest that SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles are to be investigated beyond the essays for university intensive care in on a tout essaye order to improve the capacity of the compare essay - fresh and canned entire hospital system to address sepsis. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) study supports Simmond et al.ís (2008, p. 165) suggestion, because the findings of McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, indicate that only Ďfew AMUs across the UK hospitals can comply with the sepsis care bundle that have systems in place to resuscitate a patient with sepsisí. AMU is categorised as first level of emission tout essaye, care; therefore, it is essential to survey the compliance of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles at this level. Although SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles ought to theoretically be implemented in any level of care in the hospital setting, implementation at different levels of care does not guarantee overall compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as proven by Cronshaw et al. (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008); Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Page et al. (2011). Nevertheless, one essential factor for ensuring compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is the awareness of staff members on how and when to refer the patient as quickly as possible from the point at which the patient is diagnosed as having sepsis. 4.2.3 Communication between levels of care. Baldwin et al. Pr Resume? (2007) argue that the emission tout essaye reason fifty percent compliance to the administration of the antibiotics is due to poor communication between the prescribing doctor and the nurse who is meant to administer the antibiotics.

The study claims that some elements of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were not implemented due to issues around the doctors wherein junior medical staff were primarily attending to the patientsí treatment (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. Pr Resume? 255). 4.2.4 Implications for nursing practice. Robson, Beavis and Spittleís (2007) questionnaire particularly affirms that ward nurses generally fail to recognise patients as having severe sepsis or septic shock and are not confident to give intravenous fluid to those patients with lowered systolic BP or urine output as they may have fears of causing fluid overload for the patient. Simmonds et al. (2008, p. 127) recommend that this lack of awareness could be addressed through the recent advent of course initiatives such as the ĎIll Medical Patients Acute Care and Acute Care Undergraduate Teaching needs to be routinely part of postgraduate medical and nursing education.í Equally, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) suggest that education of nursing staff is needed, and similarly, Robson, Beavis and Spittleís (2007, p. 89) study identifies that a Ďdeficit in knowledge of nurses could leadí to poor compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. A nurseís capacity to render the best possible care for a patient with severe sepsis is achievable through education. This is a key to implementing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and patientsí survival relies on emission tout essaye, the healthcare professionals who will accurately execute the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Moreover, it is essential that a nurse has good communication skills (Webb, 2011) coupled with improved collaboration with multidisciplinary teams (Goodman and Clemow, 2010). Good communication skills and collaboration are the result of staff education and awareness on and contrast essay - fresh food and canned food, compliance to emission SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and are essential in ensuring the patientís continuity of care. Robson, Beavis and Spittleís (2007) evidence implies that nursesí awareness of sepsis management demonstrated limited awareness, with less than half of and contrast essay and canned, respondents knowing each of the emission on a tout essaye sepsis symptoms, however there is a lack of confidence on implementing the interventions specified in the SSC guidelines. Therefore, it is worth recommending that nurses require more exposure and opportunity to practice their skills on managing sepsis, through utilisation of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles.

Page et al. (2011) state that their sticker programme and posters may be an efficient alternative to costly education and essay on pollution in urdu language training programmes as these are affordable and consistent means of educating staff. However, the authors would have more effectively proven that their methodology was successful in emission on a tout preventing high sepsis mortality rates had the comparison between this campaignís compliance results been made with past SSC interventions in the same hospital rather than with a nearby hospital that did not undertake the same campaign. Whichever hospitals endeavour to implement the sticker programme should evaluate SSC compliance by comparing the present sepsis related mortality rate with the sepsis related mortality rate achieved through said programme in order to pr resume achieve more accurate measurements of compliance. Also there should be tangible training on how to use the sticker programme. McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2009) suggest that a minimum education on how to initiate EGDT is important, however what exactly covers a Ďminimum educationí ought to emission essaye be clarified. Hence this cannot be recommended. Awareness and education without good communication and on pollution in urdu language collaboration will affect the effectivity of tout, compliance to methodology the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, therefore, further study to on a evaluate the multidisciplinary team collaboration in case study method methodology relation to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is recommended. The next section will address the third and final theme, which is the inconsistency of the use of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.3 Inconsistent use of Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. The SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles compliance is evident when there is consistency on the use and implementation of the emission on a tout standard guidelines. Below are findings that indicate inconsistency in - fresh food the use of SSC guidelines as influencing factors on the extent to which compliance with SSC resuscitation bundles can be evaluated in the UK.

4.3.1 Management in addition to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Three of the emission on a tout articles reviewed that took place in hospitals across the global UK have added different forms of management to the existing SSC guidelines, which creates difficulty challenge in evaluating overall compliance. Simmond et al. Essaye? (2008, p. 125) used a ĎQMC Sepsis Measurement Toolí regarding the timing and seniority of doctors and the level of care given. The tool, which is not part of the SSC recommended guidelines, was used to writing essays for university determine the emission tout entry levels of care for patients suspected to have sepsis. Gao et al. Pr Resume Template? (2005) added to the SSCís Ď6-hour basic ward careí using the median Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) (Heart of England, 2010). Emission Tout? However, these authorsí modifications are helpful as far as the MEWS helped to identify that less than 15% of the patients received basic ward care. Cronshaw et al. (2011) followed the College of Emergency Medicine (CEM) guidelines to manage sepsis. The CEM require 1, 2, and 4-hour targets depending on the standard of care, and when a patient is within the 6-hour bundle, the practitioner then follows the SSC standard guidelines. The CEM standards for the management of severe sepsis (SS) and septic shock (SS) are Ďeight recommendations to the Emergency Department (ED) within 4-hoursí (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. 670). Additionally, 1-hour Ďsepsis sixí protocol comprises six standards: oxygen administration, serum lactate measurement, IV fluid administration, blood culture, IV antibiotics, and pr resume urine output measurement (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. 671).

Even if the CEM guidelines and emission on a tout essaye sepsis six protocol add incongruity to essay - fresh food to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, there is still consistency on implementation of the six-hour sepsis care bundle under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC). Nevertheless, none of the aforementioned studies are easily transferable across a range of hospitals in the UK, as they have all altered the SSC guidelines in on a essaye some way. 4.3.2 Modified elements under the compare essay - fresh SSC guidelines. Two articles were found to have changed particular elements within the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al. On A Tout? (2005, p. R765) used Ďhaemoglobin target instead of haematocrit and used remaining hypotension after fluid resuscitation for compare, threshold of inotropes instead of tout, central venous oxygen saturationí, which is the standard for the sepsis care bundle. Likewise, Page et al. (2011) mention that there were some doctors who opted not to apply certain elements of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, such as giving the full 20 ml/kg bolus to the patient, and documented the reason for not giving it as professional discretion. Gao et al. (2005) could have provided clarification as to the altered SSC guidelines by case study of research methodology providing rationale, such as the discretionary reasons distinctly explained by Page et al. (2011). In nursing practice, any decision about the care for emission essaye, individual patient must be evidence-based (Sacket et al., 1996) and any clinical judgment made by the doctor if agreed upon by the team and clearly documented is the right decision to template take.

This is evidently emphasized by the SSC, which states: Ďthese guidelines cannot replace the clinicianís decision-making capabilityí (Dellinger et al., 2008b, p. Emission Tout Essaye? 19) hence, clinician can use own discretion. However, the method extent to which a clinician alters the SSC care bundles either in emission on a tout writing or in practice will still have a significant impact on researchersí capacity to evaluate SSC compliance across hospitals in reduce global essay the UK, as is the discrepancy in emission on a tout this particular literature review. While three studies have used different formats of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and two studies modified the elements, five of the articles reviewed found overall consistency in the use of the SSC guidelines and have positive implications for compliance. Cronshaw et al. Warming? (2011); Baldwin et al. (2007); Page et al. (2011) adhere to emission on a essaye the SSCís 6-hour sepsis bundle guidelines, and McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkinsí (2009) study follows each element of Early-goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) (Rivers et al., 2001) through the reduce warming SSC. Finally, Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) test the Ďward nursesí knowledge of standard sepsis definitions according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign management guidelines. 4.3.3 Implications for nursing practice. In nursing practice, a systematic approach that comprises evidence-based management for patients suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock, or critically ill patients, that is universal and can be transferrable from on a essaye one hospital to another is desirable (Gerrish, 2010).

But given the compare food and canned apparent inconsistency of SSC care bundles due to different formats used and implemented beyond the SSC guidelines, nurses and on a tout medical staff will encounter difficulty in complying with SSC recommended sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to template hospital. Moreover, the continuity of on a tout essaye, care for the patient will not be consistent, especially in cases where a patient must be transferred from one hospital to another. An updating of skills and compare fostering nursing knowledge about SSC guidelines, sepsis recognition, assessment, interventions and management, is essential because most of the essaye time nurses are the bedside clinicians of the patients. It is therefore fundamental for nurses to language be given initiatives to update and enhance their knowledge and skills regarding the SSC guidelines. One hospital might have different sepsis management from another hospital as demonstrated by the studies of tout essaye, Gao et al. Global? (2005); Cronshaw et al. (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008). Hence the emission on a tout essaye health outcomes will vary from one hospitalís version of the SSC guidelines to anotherís. If the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented universally then it would be much easier to identify evidence and determine trends pertaining to compliance. Seven articles in this literature review have rated their study compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles by the use of percentage, whereas Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by the use of Ďallí or Ďnoneí as pass-fail for the elements of the sepsis care bundle. Had Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by the use of percentage, it would be easier to discern which criterion of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles needs to essay on pollution be implemented or may not work for patients with sepsis.

This would provide specific evidence of compliance and effectiveness according to the 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Despite adding inconsistency to on a tout essaye the SSC guidelines, Gao et al.ís (2005, p. R765) Ď6-hour basic ward careí using the median MEWS is particularly helpful. Because basic ward care is a crucial obligation that every nurse must undertake, and these include the ability to recognise and prevent delay in intervention or transfer of critically ill patient to obesity and physical education essay an appropriate place for patientís safety (NPSA, 2007). Moreover, the one-hour sepsis six protocol in Cronshaw et al. (2011) study, which was originally formed by Daniels et al. (2011) is worth recommending to include in the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles internationally as this protocol has already been implemented in some hospitals across the UK. The sepsis six management for patients is emission on a, also being taught in the ALERT course (Smith, Osgood and Crane, 2012) as part of the nursing degree final year curriculum in some universities across the and contrast - fresh and canned UK, hence a newly qualified nurse is expected to be knowledgeable on the sepsis management, particularly of sepsis six. Therefore, it is worth suggesting to conduct further enquiry into student nursesí knowledge towards SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK.

Chapter 5: Strengths and limitations of this extended literature review. The reviewer included articles measuring compliance of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK. The publications are recent articles and hence provide good evidence and insights of clinical practice regarding SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the emission UK (Aveyard, 2014). All articles included in the review are primary articles and represent a variety of hospitals across the childhood essay UK with larger sample sizes (Burns and on a tout Grove, 2009). Global Warming Essay? This includes adult patients with sepsis in on a essaye Birmingham, Blackpool, Derbyshire, Edinburgh, Kent, and writing essays guide Nottingham, thus helping to determine overall compliance trends across the UK. All eight articles reviewed suggested the importance of education and awareness of the essaye sepsis resuscitation bundles across all disciplines.

The overall strength of the findings from childhood obesity and physical education this review is that the evidence from the articles helped to emission on a essaye determine that nurses play a critical role in on pollution in urdu language improving the essaye Ďgolden hourí in the delivery of sepsis care bundles, in terms of on pollution, identifying, prioritising, and rapidly referring the patient diagnosed with sepsis (Lovick, 2009). Four articles have added some interventions aside from the on a essaye SSC guidelines. Furthermore, studies by reduce global warming essay Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNeill, Dixon and emission on a tout Jenkins (2008) stress that education is needed, but do not elaborate upon any specific training that the writing essays guide nursing and medical staff have undergone before the study, or what kind of education the emission tout essaye authors are recommending. Pr Resume? Page et al. (2011) claim that a sticker education program is equal to greater compliance; however, the authorsí fails to compare with past SSC compliance ratings within the same hospital, which weakens their argument and how responses to questionnaires regarding compliance cannot be verified, whereas an on a essaye, audit provides a more thorough indication of compliance in a given hospital. Chapter 6: Conclusions. The aim of template, this literature review was to evaluate hospitalsí compliance to emission on a essaye the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK as well as to identify implications for the role of the nurse in complying with the writing essays guide SSC guidelines. Three main factors that influence overall compliance with the SSC guidelines were found through a critical analysis of the studies included in this literature review. Essaye? Firstly, the availability of resources and equipment such as enhanced care beds and medicinal supplies within the hospital appears to be limited in Baldwin et al., (2007); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008).

Secondly, at essay - fresh and canned the very least, the lack of SSC awareness by hospital nursing staff is a significant concern, because nurses are the first point of contact for patients, and are therefore largely responsible for emission essaye, identifying sepsis. Trainee doctors and medical staff also need proper SSC education, as McNally, MacKinnon and essay - fresh and canned Hawkinsí (2009) evidence that only anaesthetic staff are sufficiently knowledgeable about emission tout essaye sepsis resuscitation bundles. Lastly, inconsistency in the use and subsequently in the implementation of the SSC guidelines Ď such as a change or elimination of certain SSC elements, whether due to lack of resources or practitioner discretion Ď significantly limit researchersí capacity to evaluate SSC compliance across the UK. If hospitals seek to demonstrate evidence of overall compliance with the SSC guidelines as compared with other hospitals in the UK, then the entirety of the SSC guidelines must be followed, even if Dellinger et al. (2008b) have only highly recommended it. A uniform reference to the entirety of the compare essay - fresh food and canned food criteria will help researchers to emission on a evaluate medical practitionersí and essay nursesí compliance with the SSC guidelines. Emission Tout? Moreover, adherence with the SSC guidelines will help hospitals to determine the on pollution relevance of each element for sepsis management, and therefore provide a rationale as to whether an element may be appropriate or not, rather than modifying the guidelines from the emission on a tout outset.

Nevertheless, since the SSC guidelines were published in 2004 and obesity education essay has been revised every two years, there is still time and opportunity to gather all current evidence-based data regarding the implementation of the SSC guidelines. Even in tout a time of essay on pollution in urdu language, economic austerity recommendations for sepsis management could be replicated in on a tout hospitals across the UK through the template appropriate and more consistent use of SSC guidelines by nursing and medical staff in order to on a essaye both benefit patientsí health conditions and decrease mortality rates. Search our thousands of obesity education, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on emission tout essaye, hand, waiting to help you.

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