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Argumentative Essay on Pros and Cons of Abortion. Thesis! Abortion is a very sensitive issue. Many people are constantly debating whether or not abortion should be allowed or not. Some people think abortion is very bad and that it should not be allowed at all. They think abortion is like committing murder as it is killing the human fetus. Others feel that the parents should have the right to choose and it is not murder until the baby is born. People who think it is bad say that the fetus is science something alive, a human being who is partly formed and to do abortion is to kill it and commit murder. The people who think it is ok say that it is not murder until and unless the child is born. I think that abortion has to be seen about which stage the thesis fetus is in. If it is in the very early stage, then it is not murder. But if it has already developed into a larger fetus, it can be considered as murder.
There are other times when abortion is also fine. For example if there is a complication in pregnancy and the mother can suffer because of the child, I think it is mas essay 2007 ok to do abortion. Starbuck Thesis! It is road essay important to understand the various ideas that go behind abortion. The right of an abortion for a mother should be left on her own decision as the mother knows best about her condition. She is going to be the starbuck 'host body' for the baby, even though her own, for nine months and according to Thompson, the mother should have the right to decide if she wants to foster and go through with the ordeal. Abortion should not be considered as murder in the early stage, which is the first ten to twelve weeks.
Scientific research has proven that even though the fetus starts to develop a face, arms, legs, etc by the tenth week, it does not have a consciousness and it does not constitute as a human being. There have been many arguments over what is right about abortion and what is not. The Pro-Life activists claim that it is an absolute crime to have an abortion at any stage of pregnancy while some of the extreme pro-abortionists believe that the mother should have the right to kill her baby even a week before full birth. These two extremes form the continuum over which all the mas essay 2007 debate has been made over the past few years over the topic of abortions and no concrete decision has been derived out of them. It is, however, common sense that prevails and leads a person to hold a position that a fetus is not exactly a human being during the first few weeks of conception and that a mother is thesis morally, ethically, and essay appropriateness of scoring medically permitted to undergo an abortion if she wishes as such (Niebuhr). Thesis! People who think like this, such as the National Organization for Women, want abortion to remain legal and ap literature poetry essay allowed as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to starbuck keep the baby or kill it.
I think it all comes down to realizing when exactly the paper act of abortion can become murder. Starbuck Thesis! For this, many people think of the outline paper ideas about exactly when the human fetus becomes a human being. Many people, those who are pro-life and against abortion, consider the starbuck thesis fetus as a human being, as a person from the moment that the cell is conceived. Paper! Thompson writes there are many people in this world who think that a fetus is a human being as soon as it is conceived, but that is starbuck not the case. A fetus is not human until very late in the pregnancy and in the first few weeks it is only a biological entity that is essay appropriateness amidst its developmental stage. It can be very difficult to exactly state at which point the embryo becomes human being. However, many people agree on the fact that the fetus takes up human form and starbuck becomes a human a long time before birth. If they think of the fetus as a human being right when it is conceived, then abortion at any stage would be considered as murder. But even then, is the baby not part of the mother?
And does she not have the right to essay choose to kill her baby if she wants to? Overall, throughout the many years of starbuck thesis American history, a constant debate has been made on finding out whether abortion is essay groups good or bad. The people who think that abortion is good are called abortionists and those who think it is bad are called non-abortionist. They have been debating for starbuck thesis, a very long time and they have protested strongly. In 2003, President Bush signed a law to prevent abortion procedures through out the country. This sparked a lot of controversy and organizations like National Organization for Women opposed this strongly.
They think it is the invasion of the rights of women. This group wants abortion to remain legal and accessible as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the 2007 baby or kill it. So, even though many people want abortion, and others do not want it, it is starbuck thesis not a clear line and essay groups and political no one has been able to find a decisive definition of when abortion becomes murder and starbuck when it should be allowed. Science Paper! All in all, it should be left up to the mother and the father to decide if they want to go abortion. But the choice should not be left up to them after the embryo has developed to a stage where it gets the human traits. Thesis! They should only be allowed to do abortion in on the appropriateness rubrics the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy and doctors should not allow them to do abortion if the fetus is in thesis the later stages of development. This should be the law in all states and it should be put into effect everywhere at once. This would make it equal in all states and no parents could cheat the law by driving to another state and getting abortion done there.
Abortion is mas essay a serious issue and it should be researched upon more. Thesis! The problems with the abortionists and the non-abortionists should be solved with active dialogue. Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and on interest groups and political Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932.
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1, (1). 1971.
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law essay exams In most law schools, the starbuck exam counts for mas essay competition 2007, the entire grade in a course. Your class participation might count only if it is extraordinary. It's entirely up to thesis the professor. Needless to say, this puts enormous stress on students to essay appropriateness of scoring perform, which is starbuck all the more reason to understand exactly how exams are given and what the professor is looking for. Law school exams pose a hypothetical problem and ask you to resolve the legal issues. Usually, the professor casts the question in mas essay competition the form of a dispute between two fictional parties. Your role in thesis the drama is to act as either a lawyer counseling one of the poetry essay responses parties or a judge deciding the case. The professor tests two skills . Issue spotting requires you to know what factual circumstances signal various legal problems for your client. Analysis requires you to apply the rule of starbuck thesis, law to the set of facts.
Some professors may want you to also recite the rule, but most schools don't test on rote memorization skills. After all, you can always look up the rule of law. Professors want to test whether you know when a problem is present (i.e. Essay On Someone. issue-spotting) and secondarily whether you have an understanding of the rule through your analysis. Usually, there is no right answer to the dispute. The professor draws up the question so that either party could win in order to see how well you can weigh the various factors. A good exam acts as a review of the entire course by starbuck thesis touching on each of the major issues. Since the exam is normally the essay on interest groups and political only grade for the course, the starbuck thesis professor wants to cover as much territory as possible. Needless to say, this doesn't allow for glory road, in-depth analysis given that the average exam lasts only three hours. Consequently you only have time for a big picture analysis. Thesis. Another way of putting it is that the writing should be wide and glory road shallow. You should hit on all of the issues covered in the course, but not spend too much time going into the details.
In the starbuck words of one professor, the best exams have the character of on interest groups, inspired superficiality . 1. 1 University of California, Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law Professor Willie Fletcher. The first principle of exam writing (or any writing for that matter) is to thesis know your audience, then write specifically for glory, that audience's level of understanding. Your audience is one person - the thesis professor. Every professor has different quirks and weighs the factors differently in deciding on a grade - much like different courts applying a common law rule. You should ask your professor what she values in an exam. Some will insist that you state the rule; others favor policy arguments. Some professors add and detract points for your use (or misuse) of the English language. Since the tools of a lawyer are briefs and contracts, a facility with the road language should be part of the overall test. Some professors are even irrationally quirky, such as the one who marks down for using black ink instead of blue.
Questions to ask your Professor before the exam: Do you want the starbuck thesis rule stated or should we incorporate the poetry essay rule into the analysis? How many questions will there be on the exam? What are the time restraints for each question? Can we bring in outlines or other source material? Do you want case names cited?
Do you have any formatting preferences such as double spacing instead of single spacing? How do you distinguish between an excellent exam and thesis a good exam? By listening closely during semester, you should have a good idea of what type of person your professor is. Does she list long-winded, detailed analyses that step through every nuance of a rule? Or does she like quick answers that are based on broad policy concerns? Realize that your professor may be reading as many as one hundred of these essays during the winter holidays after the fall semester or the essay on the appropriateness rubrics Memorial Day weekend that kicks off summer. Also realize that your professor has probably read essays like these for a long time.
In other words, your professor has seen it all. Starbuck Thesis. The point here is that it pays to be brief and to get to the point. You should avoid cute language or adoring passages on how well you liked the poetry responses class. Be thorough and touch on any issue you might see, but don't belabor the starbuck point. You only get so many points. Ultimately, professors have to glory essay come up with some sort of point system for grading; otherwise the subjective quality of essays would result in starbuck unfairness. The professor will develop a checklist and paper research just mark points as she reads the starbuck thesis exam. This means that you probably don't have to worry about stylistic issues, such as sentence construction and expository so on. The professor is looking for thesis, concepts, not grammatical mistakes. Be aware, however, that good writing is likely to be appreciated. The most conscientious professors will read the exams three times.
On the ap literature first pass, she roughly ranks the starbuck thesis essays to see how well the class did as a whole. This gives her a benchmark against which to grade each exam. On the second pass, the professor actually scores the exam. On the outline last pass she just flips through the exams to make sure that she got it right. Step One: Take three deep breaths . This not only calms you down, it literally brings oxygen to your brain, which helps you think more clearly. Step Two: Get the big picture . Spend one minute and flip through the entire exam to get the big picture. See how many questions there are and make some snap decisions on starbuck how to allocate your time based on the number of science, points assigned to each section. You should also note the nature of the starbuck thesis essay questions. For a Torts exam consisting of three questions, for instance, you know the teacher is likely to ask one question about each of the ap literature essay responses major areas - intentional torts, negligence and starbuck thesis product liability.
Confirm that this is the case so that you have a good sense of essay on interest and political, how to allocate your time. Step Three: Allocate your time . Starbuck Thesis. One of the on someone you admire big mistakes students make is to thoroughly answer the first three questions and leave only a scant answer on the fourth essay. Getting an overview and allocating your time allows you to pinpoint when you have to move onto the next issue. You should even allocate time within each essay question so you know how much time you have to spend on each major issue. Starbuck. For a one-hour essay, I suggest spending as much as ten to fifteen minutes reading and organizing the answer. Outline. For the writing section, make a decision of how much time you'll spend on each major issue or potential lawsuit. Just split the time evenly among the issues.
The idea here is to establish a strict time limit and keep your writing to that limit. Once, the time expires, move onto the next essay. Step Four: Read the first question twice . On the first pass, make notes in starbuck the margins of the big issues. Pay attention to mas essay 2007 the call of the question. Starbuck. What is the professor asking you to answer? Many students have programmed themselves to write a completely thorough answer the minute they spot an issue. Expository. However, sometimes the professor may provide enough facts to do a complete analysis but really only starbuck, want you to mas essay competition 2007 answer a specific question about the case. Be sure to note that one of the thesis things professors like to test is whether you can follow directions. Step Five: Outline an answer . Of Scoring Rubrics. See below. Most students start writing as soon as they read the question. They freak out because they spot a dozen issues and starbuck think that they won't be able to essay thoroughly address all of the issues in the time allotted.
It pays to starbuck thesis think before writing . Outlining helps you spot the glory issues. Even if you just jot down the major facts in a case, you will break the hypo into stages or elements. Starbuck. It will soon become apparent that the facts are meant to give rise to certain issues. Essay On The Rubrics. If your professor has constructed an issue-laden exam, then it's critical to thesis break the hypothetical into outline science research its component parts and organize the essay around the most important issues. How you outline an answer differs with each course.
In a Contracts exam, you usually write about events chronologically. Timing about what was said when is usually an important factor in Contracts, thus the best way to starbuck analyze is chronologically. In contracts, Torts exam are usually organized according to parties. Glory. In Torts, the big question is who is liable for starbuck, what harm? Consequently, there are usually many different people or companies that can sue one another. You can make the best sense of a Torts question by outlining according to the party. Another important step during outlining is to adopt a position . Unless your professor says otherwise, you should at this point decide which party you are going to argue for. You should have some flexibility to change your mind on essay on interest and political parties some issues, but you need to choose one way or the other.
Typically, the exam will be written in such a way that it's easy to go either way. One common trap for first year law students is to always want to prove the rule or legal theory to be true. Remember that you can find for starbuck thesis, either side. You need to adopt a point of view that you feel is strongest. Finally, remember that the exam outline is not something you hand in for credit. Consequently, don't spend time making it look pretty.
Rather, develop shorthand for the principle issues in the case law. For instance, in Contracts, you might use. for the issues of Offer, Acceptance and Consideration, which are the outline science principal building blocks of starbuck thesis, a valid contract. Professors usually pack more issues into poetry essay responses an exam than anyone can reasonably answer within the time allotted. Always address every issue even if only one or two elements are proven by the facts.
Although there may not be enough evidence to prove guilt or liability, you should still spot the issue for the professor. Starbuck Thesis. Professors purposefully make an issue ambiguous to see if you will bring it to science research her attention. Of course, you need to starbuck rank the issues according to importance. Road Essay. Write thoroughly about those issues that are more prominent or may have a greater impact. The sub-issues you can deal with in one or two sentences as you move through the analysis. Another problem that arises is differentiating between issues of fact and issues of law . In issues of fact, the question is merely whether there is enough evidence to satisfy one of the elements of an starbuck established rule. Appropriateness Of Scoring Rubrics. Here, it is up to a trier of fact - usually a jury - to decide which party is starbuck telling the truth. Depending on the nature of the rule, one of the outline paper research parties may bear the burden of proving the truthfulness of the fact. These conditions should be apparent from the starbuck thesis statement of the rule in poetry the case law. An issue of law is one in which the facts are undisputed. The parties agree on what happened.
The disagreement is on how the law should interpret these particular facts. Judges -not juries - rule on questions of starbuck thesis, law. One of the best ways to issue spot is to expository essay on someone you admire outline or diagram what happens in the hypothetical. Thesis. By identifying the parties involved or breaking major facts out of the research hypo, you get a sense of where to focus your analysis. First impressions are important. Professors can usually tell the quality of the exam from the first paragraph. There are two different methods for writing the first paragraph: Summary of Outcome paragraph Or Issue Identification paragraph. In the thesis summary of outcome paragraph, you tell the professor the bottom line - i.e. your resolution of the case - and why. It helps to give a framework for the rest of the paper. The problem with the summary of the outcome paragraph is that students sometimes change their mind on the conclusion of the problem in the middle of the essay.
In the process of the analysis, they see something that leads them to another way of thinking. However, if you've already written your first paragraph, that realization makes for a lot of stress since you're now defending a position you don't think is correct. The second technique is to mention the general framework of the issues but not give any specifics on your conclusions. This method is particularly useful if you don't quite know where you're going in science paper the analysis before you start writing. One technique that many students use is to leave space in the exam booklet for the first paragraph, but write that paragraph last.
By leaving a space, you give yourself some room to change your mind on the outcome while writing. Unless your professor says otherwise, jump right into the analysis of the problem. Don't recite the starbuck thesis facts of the hypothetical as you would for a case memorandum in essay on someone a legal writing class. Starbuck. It's a common mistake for first year students to apply the techniques of their legal research and writing course to exam writing. It's natural to think that there should be only one way to write in the legal field and to adopt those techniques for outline science paper, the exam. However, the exam tests different skills. Thesis. The professor doesn't require that you repeat the facts. After all, she wrote up the competition 2007 hypothetical. However, this doesn't mean that you don't mention the facts.
Use the starbuck thesis facts to prove or disprove the rule. (See below.) Furthermore, don't spend a lot of time stating the rule. Up until now, we have placed a lot of science paper research, emphasis on breaking the starbuck thesis rule into its component parts (or terms of art) and then proving the rule through tests, etc. One mistake that most students make in mas essay an exam is to spend most of their time citing the rule of law in order to prove to the professor that they know the law. Most professors know that you know the law and know that you know how to thesis look up the law. Glory Road Essay. What they want to test is thesis your ability to analyze.
Make the following your maxim for exam writing: Use the rule to focus on the analysis, but don't make the expository rule the focus of your exam. Go to the heart of the issue by focusing on the ambiguous elements that have to be proven. Ask yourself what is the question on which the resolution of that problem turns? If there is something central to starbuck thesis the fact situation that most of the elements are easily present for the rule to apply except for one element, don't spend a lot of time on the elements that are present.
Analyze the one missing element by getting into glory essay the heart of the analytical proofs that are required. Successful exam writing can be a formula. You can save time and thesis earn stylistic points by pre-writing your exam. This involves setting up an analytic formula and having set phrases that you can plug into the essay as you come to the relevant issue. Use the following formula to pre-write your essay. State the issue. Identify the rule, but don't waste time stating the essay on the appropriateness of scoring rule. 2. Summarize the elements of the rule that are easily satisfied by starbuck the facts.
State the sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in the facts that makes it a difficult question. Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to the problem. Contrast conflicting authority. What are the defenses? Make a conclusion. Go to the next issue. To illustrate the process, here is a sample exam question. EXAMPLE ESSAY QUESTION.
Peter Plaintiff and David Defendant are neighbors who bear each other a grudge. One day David is hammering boards together on the public sidewalk outside of science, his house. Peter sees David hammering and walks behind him in starbuck thesis order to avoid talking with him. As Peter walks behind David, David brings his hammer back to hammer the boards and hits Peter in the head causing substantial injury. Step One: State the issue . Write one sentence that identifies the issue as suggested by the facts. Get used to stating the issue by using every fact that you can. The key issue is whether battery occurs when a defendant with a grudge who is hammering nails hits the plaintiff walking behind him as he swings the hammer. Step Two: Identify the rule , but don't waste time analyzing the rule.
Rather, incorporate the essay on the appropriateness of scoring rule into your analysis of the facts. Thesis. 3. The governing law on the issue of battery depends on the jurisdiction, though most commonly the Common Law rule suggests that the key elements are intent, harm and causation. Step Three: Summarize the elements of the rule that are easily satisfied by the facts . Make sure that you don't make up or infer facts from the hypothetical. It's a common mistake to just insert an inference of a harm done in order to satisfy the rule. If you do make an assumption on a factual situation then be sure to state that you are making that assumption. Here, the element of harm is satisfied since the plaintiff suffered severe trauma to his head. Competition 2007. Furthermore, the starbuck thesis element of causation is proven because but for the defendant's swinging the hammer, the plaintiff would not have been harmed. Step Four: State the road sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in the facts that makes it a difficult question.
The real question in starbuck thesis this suit is whether the essay defendant intended to hit the starbuck plaintiff on the head. Although there was animosity between the two parties, the facts suggest that this may have been an accident. Step Five: Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to the problem. Contrast conflicting authority. Use one or more of the four types of proof to prove or disprove the rule. Reasoning by analogy: Case law suggests that these facts (would/would not) satisfy the (element). Balancing Test: The following factors weigh in mas essay competition 2007 determining whether the (element) is satisfied. Judicial Test: Courts have applied the following test to prove whether the (element) is satisfied. Policy: The underlying policy of the rule (is/is not) furthered by its application in this scenario. (Cite policy.) EXAMPLE - Judicial Test.
The standard test that courts apply for the general intent necessary to hold the defendant liable is that he knew with substantial certainty that harmful consequences would result from his action. Here, the defendant must know both that swinging a hammer with someone behind him would result in harm and that the person was, in fact, behind him at that point in time. Whether the defendant knew with substantial certainty is an issue of fact that is starbuck thesis up to a jury or judge to decide. Animosity by itself, or even a motive, does not prove intent. Step Six: Contrast conflicting authority . Some jurisdictions rule that in circumstances where there is an on interest groups unlikely accident, then motive alone might infer intent. Here, the suspiciousness of the accident and the deep hatred between the defendant and plaintiff suggest that the defendant may have faked an accident in order to harm the plaintiff. Step Seven: What are the defenses ? Be sure to recognize that defenses are also rules that require analysis using one of the four reasoning methods.
The defendant has the affirmative defense of self-defense. If the defendant had a reasonable belief that the plaintiff was about to be attacked from behind, then he could assert self-defense. However, the defendant has the burden to prove he used only as much force in swinging the hammer as was reasonably necessary to protect himself from starbuck potential injury. Step Eight: Make a conclusion . In writing the Conclusion you want to hedge. Language you could use would be as follows: The court would probably hold as follows.
A probable result would be. Given the facts, it is highly likely that. Do pre-write your exam by having formulaic answers to key issues ready to spit out. The conclusion of the competition issue should nearly always be stated as a probability. Since different courts can come out different ways you want to make sure that you leave room for a different interpretation. There usually is no right answer. The art is in the analysis.
In all likelihood, the defendant will not be able to assert a credible defense of self-defense because there is no evidence that the plaintiff was going to attack the defendant. However, the defendant may not need a defense since I think it is also unlikely that the plaintiff can prove battery under these facts since he has not shown that the defendant had the requisite intent to commit battery. Consequently, the defendant will probably not be held liable for battery and the plaintiff will have to seek relief under a negligence theory. Step Nine: Go to the next issue . Peter will seek to recover damages in negligence if he can prove. Proceed through each issue methodically and with as much analysis as you can. Try to use every fact to either prove or disprove an starbuck issue. 2 Unless your professor says otherwise. 3 Unless your professor says otherwise.
One of the most frequently asked questions that students pose prior to an exam is whether they have to remember case names. The answer is that it entirely depends on the professor. Remembering case names will get you some points but usually isn't critical. Most professors prefer that you use case names to illustrate an analogy rather than in showing how much you remember. If you do want to cite a case, just be very sure that you have the name attached to the right case. And Political Parties. If you are citing a case for some principle and end up citing the wrong case, the professor may think that you have not learned the principle correctly. You should make liberal use of starbuck, headlines in your essay to signal the start and competition end of sections.
By making the essay easier to read, your exam will have the appearance of being better organized than others. Do pre-write your exam by having formulaic answers to thesis key issues ready to spit out. Do outline your answer using about ten minutes for an hour-long answer. Do leave space at the beginning to write a summary paragraph after you've written the expository on someone you admire entire essay. Do jump right into the analysis of the major issues.
Do mention every issue even if it's an ambiguous result or if no liability is likely. Do use every fact as proof or disproof of the starbuck validity of a rule. Do pay attention to the call of the question . Do state assumptions you've made in writing the answer to ambiguous fact situations. Outline Paper Research. Do leave your biases at home . Thesis. Do write legibly . Don't restate the facts of the problem. Don't answer questions the professor doesn't ask about. Don't repeat yourself with an analysis that applies equally well in one scenario as another. Make the mas essay competition distinction then refer back to a previous analysis. Don't waste time on starbuck your outline making it look pretty.
You don't get credit for an outline. Don't spot issues that are not suggested by the facts just because you studied it in class. Take a break. Don't start studying for glory road, your next exam right away. Schedule yourself some down time to have fun and starbuck thesis clear your mind. You may be tempted to jump right into the next subject, particularly if you think you didn't do well in the last exam. Expository On Someone. However, you run the risk of diminishing returns. Tests take a lot out of you physically and mentally.
If you don't give your body and mind a chance to rest, you'll end up expending more energy to go a shorter distance than if you rest to recharge your stamina.
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William Shakespeare essays for beginners. Reading Shakespeare is difficult, if not to tell about comprehending and analyzing it. This is a rather frustrating experience for students, who attend literature classes. The point is, works written by Shakespeare are beautiful, of course, but they are created in starbuck such a manner, that even native speakers of English language face difficulties with realizing the meaning of certain phrases that the on the appropriateness of scoring, author uses in his works. Coping with this deal requires lots of experience and making of significant efforts together with spending much time and patience. Thesis? As long as we understand how hard it may be for students, who are overwhelmed with numerous assignments, we created a service that helps them deal with writing papers for various subjects, including Shakespeare. Below, you will find helpful information and tips in regard to this matter.
You have probably realized already that this is a confusing and tough deal to read the plays written by essay responses Shakespeare. However, if you take into consideration some guidelines and follow them thoroughly, you will be prepared and equipped to deal with this sort of literature. Starbuck Thesis? Besides, if to get acquainted with creative work of this outstanding English writer, you will have an opportunity to make a remarkable impression on people you meet by using appropriate citations. Therefore, read the following information in order to be able to understand Shakespeare and write a William Shakespeare essay . Pick up a good play. Shakespeare has written a number of significant plays, although we suggest selecting the shortest one, so you could analyze it more precisely. Also, consider choosing a play that enlightens issues that you are personally interested in. Pay attention to the edition that you choose. It has to appropriateness be a good edition providing certain piece of literature without mistakes and gaps and including explanation of thesis, difficult phrases, giving essential notes and mas essay competition so on. Look for a synopsis. Starbuck Thesis? At first sight, it seems to ap literature poetry be not important at all, but in fact, it is helpful for comprehending the play. As a rule, a synopsis is written in thesis the beginning of every scene.
It's purpose is to give you, the reader, enough of information. Glory Road Essay? This information will help you understand better the play. Practice reading the piece of writing out loud. Starbuck? Sometimes things become clear when you pronounce them out essay on interest groups and political, loud. More than that, the plays of Shakespeare are all written and meant to starbuck be performed. That is why you need to essay on interest and political parties pretend like you are an actor and take part in a performance in order to get the meaning and moral of starbuck, that or another play. Find out when and where the groups, plays of Shakespeare are performed and starbuck thesis attend the play. However, you can watch the film adaptation of a certain play, although it will never be that good as the performance in poetry responses a theatre is. This is helpful for your visualization and starbuck getting involved into the plot of the play.
Consider reading a special book providing the works of road, Shakespeare with translation into contemporary and more understandable language. Keep in mind, however, that this will take away your opportunity to get acquainted with the real art of Shakespeare writing. How to get pleasure from reading Shakespeare. Not only reading and understanding of the literature written by Shakespeare is important, but also the ability to starbuck get pleasure from the very process of doing it. This is a kind of art, which requires to be learned and competition 2007 practiced. Starbuck Thesis? Try to glory road essay look at Shakespeare's works as at the source of inspiration, as a portal to another era. Thesis? In order to enjoy his writings, you need to do the following: Find out and realize the differences between genres of literature, such as romance, comedy, tragedy and of course, history.
This will help you get ready for paper research, the reading and thesis let you know what to expect from it. Learn the science, specificities of the culture of England at that age. The world today differs obviously, from the world that people lived in hundreds of starbuck, years ago. If you get acquainted with its history, traditions and culture, you will find it easier to essay understand the thesis, literature of that period of time. Glory Road Essay? Use a dictionary as you read. Starbuck? Never ignore words the meaning of which is not familiar to you. Glory Essay? This will only get you confused and frustrated. Instead, write down all the words that seem new to you and learn their meaning with the help of dictionary. Even if you cannot get what you are reading about, keep reading and stay focused on the plot. Struggling with the plays of Shakespeare is a common occurance and you are not the only one who deals with it. Don't give up and keep reading anyway.
Join a club where the fans or William Shakespeare's works get together. Thesis? Communication with other people and getting involved into particular discussions will help you learn new important issues and understand a lot. Besides, if you are writing an essay William Shakespeare , you can always ask curious questions people who are experts in the area of Shakespeare literature. They will readily explain you everything that you need and even give you a piece of good advice. Additionally, you can ask them for some good and interesting William Shakespeare essay topics . Remember that apart from all the mas essay competition 2007, mentioned above methods to deal with paper on Shakespeare, you can also turn to our help. We will provide you with great Shakespeare essay topics and necessary assistance. Help with a thesis theme . Provide the best paper writing service . Write a remarkable dissertation conclusion . Help with writing an apa essay . Support with writing an starbuck effective cover letter . Reading Shakespeare is difficult, if not to tell about comprehending and mas essay competition 2007 analyzing it. This is starbuck a rather frustrating experience for students, who attend literature classes. The point is, works written by Shakespeare are beautiful, of course, but they are created in such a manner, that even native speakers of English language face difficulties with realizing the meaning of certain phrases that the author uses in his works.
Coping with this deal requires lots of experience and making of significant efforts together with spending much time and patience. As long as we understand how hard it may be for students, who are overwhelmed with numerous assignments, we created a service that helps them deal with writing papers for various subjects, including Shakespeare. Below, you will find helpful information and tips in regard to this matter. You have probably realized already that this is a confusing and essay appropriateness of scoring rubrics tough deal to read the plays written by Shakespeare. However, if you take into thesis consideration some guidelines and follow them thoroughly, you will be prepared and equipped to deal with this sort of literature. Besides, if to get acquainted with creative work of this outstanding English writer, you will have an opportunity to make a remarkable impression on people you meet by using appropriate citations.
Therefore, read the following information in order to be able to understand Shakespeare and write a William Shakespeare essay . Pick up a good play. Shakespeare has written a number of significant plays, although we suggest selecting the shortest one, so you could analyze it more precisely. Also, consider choosing a play that enlightens issues that you are personally interested in. Pay attention to the edition that you choose. It has to be a good edition providing certain piece of literature without mistakes and gaps and including explanation of difficult phrases, giving essential notes and so on. Look for a synopsis. At first sight, it seems to be not important at essay groups parties all, but in fact, it is helpful for comprehending the play. As a rule, a synopsis is written in the beginning of every scene.
It's purpose is to give you, the reader, enough of information. This information will help you understand better the starbuck thesis, play. Expository You Admire? Practice reading the piece of writing out loud. Sometimes things become clear when you pronounce them out loud. Thesis? More than that, the plays of Shakespeare are all written and meant to on someone you admire be performed. That is why you need to thesis pretend like you are an actor and take part in essay a performance in order to starbuck get the meaning and moral of that or another play.
Find out when and where the plays of Shakespeare are performed and essay you admire attend the thesis, play. However, you can watch the film adaptation of a certain play, although it will never be that good as the ap literature responses, performance in a theatre is. This is helpful for your visualization and getting involved into the plot of the play. Consider reading a special book providing the thesis, works of Shakespeare with translation into contemporary and more understandable language. Keep in mind, however, that this will take away your opportunity to get acquainted with the real art of Shakespeare writing. How to get pleasure from reading Shakespeare.
Not only reading and research understanding of the literature written by Shakespeare is important, but also the ability to get pleasure from the very process of starbuck thesis, doing it. This is a kind of art, which requires to expository be learned and practiced. Try to look at Shakespeare's works as at the source of inspiration, as a portal to another era. In order to enjoy his writings, you need to do the following: Find out and realize the differences between genres of literature, such as romance, comedy, tragedy and of course, history.
This will help you get ready for the reading and let you know what to expect from it. Learn the specificities of the starbuck, culture of England at that age. The world today differs obviously, from the world that people lived in hundreds of years ago. If you get acquainted with its history, traditions and culture, you will find it easier to understand the paper, literature of that period of time. Use a dictionary as you read.
Never ignore words the meaning of which is not familiar to you. This will only get you confused and frustrated. Instead, write down all the words that seem new to you and learn their meaning with the help of dictionary. Even if you cannot get what you are reading about, keep reading and stay focused on the plot. Struggling with the plays of Shakespeare is starbuck thesis a common occurance and you are not the only one who deals with it. Don't give up and keep reading anyway.
Join a club where the fans or William Shakespeare's works get together. Communication with other people and getting involved into particular discussions will help you learn new important issues and understand a lot. Besides, if you are writing an essay William Shakespeare , you can always ask curious questions people who are experts in the area of Shakespeare literature. They will readily explain you everything that you need and even give you a piece of good advice. Additionally, you can ask them for some good and interesting William Shakespeare essay topics . Remember that apart from all the mentioned above methods to deal with paper on Shakespeare, you can also turn to of scoring our help. We will provide you with great Shakespeare essay topics and thesis necessary assistance. Help with a thesis theme . Provide the best paper writing service . Write a remarkable dissertation conclusion . Help with writing an apa essay . Mas Essay 2007? Support with writing an effective cover letter . Reading Shakespeare is difficult, if not to tell about comprehending and analyzing it. This is a rather frustrating experience for students, who attend literature classes. The point is, works written by starbuck thesis Shakespeare are beautiful, of course, but they are created in such a manner, that even native speakers of English language face difficulties with realizing the meaning of certain phrases that the author uses in his works.
Coping with this deal requires lots of experience and making of significant efforts together with spending much time and patience. As long as we understand how hard it may be for students, who are overwhelmed with numerous assignments, we created a service that helps them deal with writing papers for various subjects, including Shakespeare. Below, you will find helpful information and tips in regard to this matter. You have probably realized already that this is a confusing and tough deal to expository read the plays written by Shakespeare. Starbuck? However, if you take into consideration some guidelines and follow them thoroughly, you will be prepared and equipped to deal with this sort of literature. Besides, if to competition get acquainted with creative work of this outstanding English writer, you will have an opportunity to make a remarkable impression on people you meet by using appropriate citations.
Therefore, read the starbuck thesis, following information in order to be able to understand Shakespeare and write a William Shakespeare essay . Pick up a good play. Shakespeare has written a number of significant plays, although we suggest selecting the shortest one, so you could analyze it more precisely. Also, consider choosing a play that enlightens issues that you are personally interested in. Pay attention to the edition that you choose. It has to be a good edition providing certain piece of literature without mistakes and gaps and including explanation of on the appropriateness of scoring, difficult phrases, giving essential notes and so on. Look for a synopsis.
At first sight, it seems to be not important at all, but in fact, it is helpful for comprehending the thesis, play. As a rule, a synopsis is written in the beginning of every scene. It's purpose is to give you, the reader, enough of information. This information will help you understand better the play. Practice reading the piece of writing out loud. Sometimes things become clear when you pronounce them out loud. More than that, the plays of 2007, Shakespeare are all written and starbuck meant to be performed. That is glory essay why you need to pretend like you are an actor and take part in a performance in order to get the thesis, meaning and moral of that or another play. Find out when and where the plays of Shakespeare are performed and attend the play.
However, you can watch the mas essay competition 2007, film adaptation of a certain play, although it will never be that good as the performance in a theatre is. This is helpful for your visualization and getting involved into the plot of the play. Starbuck Thesis? Consider reading a special book providing the works of Shakespeare with translation into contemporary and more understandable language. Keep in mind, however, that this will take away your opportunity to get acquainted with the real art of Shakespeare writing. How to get pleasure from reading Shakespeare. Not only reading and understanding of the literature written by Shakespeare is important, but also the ability to get pleasure from the very process of doing it. This is a kind of art, which requires to be learned and practiced. Try to look at groups and political parties Shakespeare's works as at the source of inspiration, as a portal to another era. Starbuck? In order to enjoy his writings, you need to do the following: Find out and realize the differences between genres of literature, such as romance, comedy, tragedy and of course, history. Ap Literature Poetry? This will help you get ready for the reading and let you know what to expect from it.
Learn the specificities of the culture of England at that age. Thesis? The world today differs obviously, from the world that people lived in expository essay you admire hundreds of years ago. If you get acquainted with its history, traditions and culture, you will find it easier to understand the literature of that period of time. Use a dictionary as you read. Never ignore words the meaning of which is not familiar to you. This will only get you confused and frustrated. Starbuck? Instead, write down all the words that seem new to you and learn their meaning with the help of dictionary. Even if you cannot get what you are reading about, keep reading and stay focused on the plot. Outline Science Paper Research? Struggling with the plays of Shakespeare is a common occurance and thesis you are not the only one who deals with it.
Don't give up and keep reading anyway. Join a club where the fans or William Shakespeare's works get together. Communication with other people and getting involved into particular discussions will help you learn new important issues and understand a lot. Essay And Political Parties? Besides, if you are writing an essay William Shakespeare , you can always ask curious questions people who are experts in the area of starbuck, Shakespeare literature. On The? They will readily explain you everything that you need and even give you a piece of good advice.
Additionally, you can ask them for thesis, some good and interesting William Shakespeare essay topics . Remember that apart from all the mentioned above methods to groups parties deal with paper on Shakespeare, you can also turn to our help. We will provide you with great Shakespeare essay topics and necessary assistance.
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essay number system Following are some of the different number systems discussed in the history of mathematics. The number sense is not the ability to count, but the ability to recognize that something has changes in a small collection. Starbuck! Some animal species are capable of this. The number of young that the mother animal has, if changed, will be noticed by all mammals and expository you admire, most birds. Mammals have more developed brains and raise fewer young than other species, but take better care of their young for a much longer period of starbuck, time.
Many birds have a good number sense. If a nest contains four eggs, one can safely be taken, but when two are removed the mas essay competition 2007 bird generally deserts. The bird can distinguish two from three. 1. An experiment done with a goldfinch showed the ability to distinguish piles of seed: three from one, three from two, four from starbuck thesis, two, four from three, and six from three. The goldfinch almost always confused five and four, seven and five, eight and six, and ten and glory, six. Another experiment involved a squire who was trying to starbuck, shoot a crow which made its nest in the watchtower of his estate. The squire tried to surprise the crow, but at his approach, the crow would leave, watch from a distance, and not come back until the man left the tower. The squire then took another man with him to the tower.
One man left and mas essay, the other stayed to get the crow when it returned to the nest, but the crow was not deceived. The crow stayed away until the other man came out. The experiment was repeated the next day with three men, but the crow would not return to the nest. The following day, four men tried, but it was not until that next day with five men that the crow returned to starbuck, the nest with one man still in the tower. 2. In the 2007 insect world, the solitary wasp seemed to have the best number sense. ?The mother wasp lays her eggs in individual cells and provides each egg with a number of live caterpillars on which the young feed when hatched. Some species of wasp always provide five, others twelve, and others as high as twenty-four caterpillars per cell. The solitary wasp in the genus Eumenus, will put five caterpillars in the cell if it is going to be a male (the male is smaller) and ten caterpillars in a female?s cell. Starbuck Thesis! This ability seems to be instinctive and not learned since the wasp?s behavior is connected with a basic life function.? 3. One might think people would have a very good number sense, but as it turns out, people do not. ?Experiments have shown that the average person has a number sense that is around four.? 4.
People groups in the world today that have not developed finger counting have a hard time discerning the quantity four. They tend to use the quantities one, two and many-which would include four. ?Small children around fourteen months of age will almost always notice something that is missing from a group that he or she is familiar with. The same age child can usually reassemble objects that have been separated into one group again. Competition 2007! But the child?s ability to starbuck, perceive numerical differences in the people or objects around him or her are very limited when the ap literature responses number goes beyond three or four.? 5. So what separates people from the thesis rest of the glory essay animal kingdom? It may include many things, but the ability to count is very much one of them.
Counting, which usually begins at the end of our own hands or fingers, is thesis, usually taught by another person or possibly by essay, circumstance. It is something that we should never take lightly for it has helped advance the starbuck human race in expository on someone, countless ways. The number sense is something many creatures in this world have as well as well as we do. Thesis! Although, as we can see, our human ability is not much better than the common crow?s ability. We are born with the number sense, but we get to essay on the appropriateness of scoring rubrics, learn how to count. Contributed by Bruce White. Imagine, if you will, a highly advanced civilization. Starbuck! This civilization rules over essay on interest groups parties, a million or more people, they built vast cities, developed extensive road systems, treated their citizens fairly and starbuck thesis, constructed stone walls so tight not even a knife blade can pass between the glory road essay huge boulders. Now imagine being able to do all this without a written language. This was the ancient South American civilization of the Inca Empire. A highly developed civilization able to track all important facts required to rule such a vast empire.
They did this using a memory tool made of knotted strings called a quipu. The men in charge of maintaining the starbuck quipu were known as quipu camayocs or keeper of the quipu. Since they had no written language and very few ancient quipu are left, we can only speculate what the quipu was actually used for. It's fortunate quipu are still used today, so we may be able to learn about the ancient ones by seeing how the modern ones are used. Mas Essay Competition 2007! Combine this with oral traditions and starbuck, it appears they were used to keep records on the number of things. Another mystery which remains is, what base did the you admire Inca use ? All their neighbors used a base 60, but it appears the Inca used base 10. Recent discoveries, as yet unsubstantiated, back this theory. For our purpose, we will assume it was base 10. Making a quipu was easy. Thin strings were looped around a larger cord.
Knots of colored thread or string were then tied around the starbuck thesis thinner strings. Mas Essay! Where the knots were placed indicated the value. The closer to the large cord a knot was placed, the greater its value. They way a knot was tied and the color used may be significant, but without a written language, we just don't know. Some quipu found were several feet in length, so it was very important for the quipu camayocs to remember the who, where and starbuck thesis, what of poetry essay, each string and its placement on the larger cord. Contributed by Steven Tuck. McIntyre, Loren. The Lost Empire of the starbuck Incas, National Geographic, Dec.
1973, 729 - 766. Ancient Egyptians had an understanding of fractions, however they did not write simple fractions as 3/5 or 4/9 because of restrictions in notation. The Egyptian scribe wrote fractions with the numerator of 1. They used the hieroglyph an open mouth above the number to indicate its reciprocal. Road Essay! The number 5, written , as a fraction 1/5 would be written . There are some exceptions. There was a special hieroglyph for 2/3, , and starbuck thesis, some evidence that 3/4 also had a special hieroglyph. All other fractions were written as the sum of unit fractions. For example 3/8 was written as 1/4 + 1/8. The Egyptians had a need for fractions, such as the division of food, supplies, either equally or in a specific ratio. For example a division of 3 loaves among 5 men would require the fraction of 3/5.
As new situations arose the Egyptians developed special techniques for dealing with the notation they already had, which meant the fraction was expressed as a sum of the essay on interest groups and political parties unit fraction. Today as new concepts arise, mathematicians devise n new notation to deal with the situation. Fractions were so important to the Egyptians that of the 87 problems in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus only six did not involve fractions. Because the Egyptians performed their multiplications and divisions by doubling and halving, it was necessary to be able to double fractions. Thesis! The scribes would create tables with calculations of fractions along with integers. These tables would be used as references so that temple personnel could carry out the essay on interest fractional divisions on the food and starbuck, supplies. Contributed by Audrey Smalley.
Gillings, Richard J. On The Appropriateness Of Scoring! Mathematics in starbuck, the Time of the outline Pharaohs. Starbuck! (1982), Dover. The Mayan number system dates back to the fourth century and was approximately 1,000 years more advanced than the Europeans of that time. This system is unique to our current decimal system, which has a base 10, in responses, that the Mayan's used a vigesimal system, which had a base 20. This system is believed to have been used because, since the starbuck Mayan's lived in such a warm climate and there was rarely a need to wear shoes, 20 was the total number of expository essay on someone you admire, fingers and toes, thus making the system workable. Therefore two important markers in this system are 20, which relates to the fingers and toes, and five, which relates to starbuck, the number of digits on one hand or foot. The Mayan system used a combination of two symbols.
A dot (.) was used to represent the units (one through four) and a dash (-) was used to represent five. It is thought that the Mayan's may have used an abacus because of the use of their symbols and, therefore, there may be a connection between the Japanese and certain American tribes (Ortenzi, 1964). The Mayan's wrote their numbers vertically as opposed to horizontally with the lowest denomination on the bottom. Their system was set up so that the first five place values were based on the multiples of 20. They were 1 (20 0 ), 20 (20 1 ), 400 (20 2 ), 8,000 (20 3 ), and 160,000 (20 4 ). In the Arabic form we use the place values of 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000. Science Research! For example, the number 241,083 would be figured out and starbuck thesis, written as follows: This number written in Arabic would be 22.214.171.124.3 (McLeish, 1991, p. 129). The Mayan's were also the first to symbolize the concept of nothing (or zero). Essay! The most common symbol was that of a shell ( ) but there were several other symbols (e.g. Starbuck Thesis! a head).
It is interesting to learn that with all of the great mathematicians and scientists that were around in ancient Greece and ap literature poetry essay, Rome, it was the Mayan Indians who independently came up with this symbol which usually meant completion as opposed to zero or nothing. Below is a visual of different numbers and how they would have been written: In the table below are represented some Mayan numbers. Starbuck! The left column gives the decimal equivalent for each position of teh Mayan number. Remember the numbers are read from bottom to top. Below each Mayan number is its decimal equivalent.
It has been suggested that counters may have been used, such as grain or pebbles, to represent the units and on interest parties, a short stick or bean pod to represent the fives. Through this system the starbuck bars and essay on the rubrics, dots could be easily added together as opposed to such number systems as the Romans but, unfortunately, nothing of this form of thesis, notation has remained except the number system that relates to essay on the appropriateness of scoring rubrics, the Mayan calendar. For further study: The 360 day calendar also came from the Mayan's who actually used base 18 when dealing with the calendar. Each month contained 20 days with 18 months to a year. This left five days at starbuck thesis the end of the expository essay you admire year which was a month in itself that was filled with danger and bad luck. In this way, the Mayans had invented the starbuck thesis 365 day calendar which revolved around the solar system.
Contributed by Mikelle Mercer. McLeish, J. (1991). The story of outline science paper research, numbers. New York, NY: Fawcett Columbine. Ortenzi, E. C. Starbuck! (1964). Numbers in ancient times. Portland, ME: J. Road Essay! Weston Walch. Roys, R. L. Starbuck! (1972).
The Indian background of colonial Yucatan. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Thompson, J. E. S. (1967). The rise and fall of road essay, Maya civilization. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Trout, L. (1991). The Maya.
New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers. How do we know what the starbuck thesis Egyptian language of numbers is? It has been found on the writings on the stones of monument walls of on the appropriateness, ancient time. Numbers have also been found on starbuck thesis, pottery, limestone plaques, and on the fragile fibers of the road essay papyrus. The language is composed of heiroglyphs, pictorial signs that represent people, animals, plants, and numbers. The Egyptians used a written numeration that was changed into starbuck, hieroglyphic writing, which enabled them to note whole numbers to 1,000,000 . Essay On Interest And Political! It had a decimal base and allowed for the additive principle. In this notation there was a special sign for every power of ten. For I, a vertical line; for 10, a sign with the shape of an upside down U; for 100, a spiral rope; for 1000, a lotus blossom; for 10,000 , a raised finger, slightly bent; for 100,000 , a tadpole; and for 1,000,000, a kneeling genie with upraised arms. This hieroglyphic numeration was a written version of a concrete counting system using material objects.
To represent a number, the sign for starbuck thesis each decimal order was repeated as many times as necessary. To make it easier to on interest, read the repeated signs they were placed in groups of two, three, or four and arranged vertically. In writing the thesis numbers , the largest decimal order would be written first. The numbers were written from glory road, right to left. Below are some examples from tomb inscriptions. Addition and Subtraction. The techniques used by the Egyptians for these are essentially the thesis same as those used by modern mathematicians today.The Egyptians added by glory road essay, combining symbols.
They would combine all the units ( ) together, then all of the tens ( ) together, then all of the hundreds ( ), etc. If the scribe had more than ten units ( ), he would replace those ten units by . He would continue to do this until the number of units left was les than ten. This process was continued for thesis the tens, replacing ten tens with , etc. For example, if the scribe wanted to road, add 456 and 265, his problem would look like this. The scribe would then combine all like symbols to thesis, get something like the following. He would then replace the eleven units ( ) with a unit ( ) and a ten ( ). He would then have one unit and twelve tens. The twelve tens would be replaced by two tens and one one-hundred. When he was finished he would have 721, which he would write as. Subtraction was done much the same way as we do it except that when one has to borrow, it is done with writing ten symbols instead of research, a single one. Egyptians method of multiplication is fairly clever, but can take longer than the modern day method.
This is how they would have multiplied 5 by 29. 29(5) = 29(1 + 4) = 29 + 116 = 145. The way they did division was similar to their multiplication. For the problem 98/7 , they thought of starbuck thesis, this problem as 7 times some number equals 98. Again the problem was worked in columns.
This time the the numbers in the right-hand column are marked which sum to ap literature poetry essay, 98 then the corresponding numbers in the left-hand column are summed to get the quotient. So the answer is 14. 98 = 14 + 28 + 56 = 7(2 + 4 + 8) = 7*14. Boyer, Carl B. - A History of Mathematics, John Wiley, New York 1968 Gillings, Richard J. - Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs, Dover, New York, 1982 Jason Gilman, David Slavit, - Ancient Egyptian Mathematics., Washington State University, 1995. The Greek numbering system was uniquely based upon starbuck their alphabet. Essay On Interest Groups And Political Parties! The Greek alphabet came from the thesis Phoenicians around 900 B.C. When the Phoenicians invented the alphabet, it contained about 600 symbols. Those symbols took up too much room, so they eventually narrowed it down to 22 symbols. The Greeks borrowed some of the symbols and made up some of their own. But the Greeks were the first people to have separate symbols, or letters, to represent vowel sounds.
Our own word alphabet comes from the first two letters, or numbers of the Greek alphabet -- alpha and beta. Using the letters of their alphabet enabled them to ap literature, use these symbols in a more condensed version of their old system, called Attic. The Attic system was similar to other forms of numbering systems of that era. It was based on symbols lined up in rows and took up a lot of thesis, space to write. This might not be to bad, except that they were still carving into stone tablets, and the symbols of the alphabet allowed them to stamp values on coins in a smaller, more condensed version. For example, represented the number 849. The original Greek alphabet consisted of 27 letters and was written from the left to the right. These 27 letters make up the essay groups parties main 27 symbols used in their numbering system. Later special symbols, which were used only for mathematics vau, koppa, and sampi, became extinct. Starbuck! The New Greek alphabet nowadays uses only 24 letters. If you notice, the Greeks did not have a symbol for zero.
They could string these 27 symbols together to represent any number up to 1000. By putting a comma in front of any symbol in essay appropriateness of scoring, the first row, they could now write any number up to thesis, 10,000. Here are representations for 1000, 2000 and the number we gave above 849. This works great for smaller numbers, but what about larger numbers? Here the Greeks went back to the Attic System, and used the symbol M for 10,000.
And used multiples of 10,000 by on the rubrics, putting symbols above M. Burton, David M. Starbuck! The History of Mathematics - An Introduction. On Interest Groups! Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown, 1988. The Babylonians lived in Mesopotamia, which is between the starbuck thesis Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They began a numbering system about 5,000 years ago.
It is one of the oldest numbering systems. The first mathematics can be traced to the ancient country of Babylon, during the essay responses third millennium B.C. Tables were the Babylonians most outstanding accomplishment which helped them in calculating problems. One of the Babylonian tablets, Plimpton 322, which is dated from between 1900 and 1600 BC, contains tables of thesis, Pythagorean triples for the equation a 2 + b 2 = c 2 . It is currently in a British museum. Nabu - rimanni and Kidinu are two of the only known mathematicians from Babylonia. Essay On The Rubrics! However, not much is known about them. Historians believe Nabu - rimanni lived around 490 BC and Kidinu lived around 480 BC. The Babylonian number system began with tally marks just as most of the ancient math systems did. The Babylonians developed a form of writing based on cuneiform. Cuneiform means wedge shape in Latin.
They wrote these symbols on starbuck, wet clay tablets which were baked in the hot sun. Many thousands of these tablets are still around today. The Babylonians used a stylist to expository on someone you admire, imprint the thesis symbols on the clay since curved lines could not be drawn. The Babylonians had a very advanced number system even for today's standards. It was a base 60 system (sexigesimal) rather than a base ten (decimal).
Base ten is what we use today. The Babylonians divided the day into twenty-four hours, each hour into sixty minutes, and each minute to essay, sixty seconds. Starbuck! This form of counting has survived for four thousand years. Any number less than 10 had a wedge that pointed down. The number 10 was symbolized by a wedge pointing to the left. Numbers less than 60 were made by combining the symbols of 1and 10. As with our numbering system, the Babylonian numbering system utilized units, ie tens, hundreds, thousands. However, they did not have a symbol for zero, but they did use the outline science idea of zero. Thesis! When they wanted to express zero, they just left a blank space in the number they were writing. When they wrote 60, they would put a single wedge mark in the second place of the 2007 numeral.
When they wrote 120, they would put two wedge marks in the second place. Following are some examples of larger numbers. history/HistTopics/Babylonian_and_Egyptian.html 6-12-00 6:00 pm URL:http://www.angelfire.com/il2/babylonianmath/mathematicians.html 6-12-00 6:00 pm Boyer, Merzbach. A History of Mathematics. John Wiley Sons, 1989. Second Edition. Bunt, Jones, and Bedient. The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics. Thesis! Dover Publications.
1988. Thousands of years ago there were no numbers to represent ?two? or ?three?. Science! Instead fingers, rocks, sticks or eyes were used to represent numbers. There were neither clocks nor calendars to help keep track of time. The sun and moon were used to distinguish between 1 PM and 4 PM. Most civilizations did not have words for numbers larger than two so they had to use terminology familiar to thesis, them such as ?flocks? of sheep, ?heaps? of glory road, grain, or ?lots? of people. There was little need for a numeric system until groups of people formed clans, villages and settlements and began a system of starbuck, bartering and trade that in turn created a demand for currency. How would you distinguish between five and fifty if you could only glory use the above terminology? Paper and pencils were not available to transcribe numbers. Starbuck Thesis! Other methods were invented for essay appropriateness means of starbuck thesis, communication and teaching of essay of scoring, numerical systems.
Babylonians stamped numbers in clay by using a stick and depressing it into the clay at different angles or pressures and the Egyptians painted on pottery and thesis, cut numbers into stone. Numerical systems devised of symbols were used instead of numbers. For example, the Egyptians used the following numerical symbols: From Esther Ortenzi, Numbers in Ancient Times. Maine: J. Weston Walch, 1964, page 9. The Chinese had one of the essay groups parties oldest systems of numerals that were based on starbuck, sticks laid on mas essay 2007, tables to thesis, represent calculations. On The Appropriateness! It is as follows: From David Smith and Jekuthiel Ginsburg, Numbers and starbuck thesis, Numerals. W. Outline Paper! D. Thesis! Reeve, 1937, page 11.
From about 450 BC the Greeks had several ways to write their numbers, the most common way was to use the first ten letters in expository essay, their alphabet to represent the first ten numbers. To distinguish between numbers and letters they often placed a mark (/ or ?) by each letter: From David Smith and Jekuthiel Ginsburg, Numbers and Numerals. W. D. Reeve, 1937, page 12. The Roman numerical system is still used today although the symbols have changed from time to time. The Romans often wrote four as IIII instead of starbuck thesis, IV, I from V. Today the Roman numerals are used to represent numerical chapters of books or for the main divisions of outlines. The earliest forms of expository on someone, Roman numeral values are: From David Smith and starbuck thesis, Jekuthiel Ginsburg, Numbers and Numerals.
W. D. Reeve, 1937, page 14. Finger numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, Romans, Europeans of the Middle Ages, and later the on the appropriateness of scoring Asiatics. Still today you can see children learning to starbuck, count on our own finger numerical system. The old system is as follows: From Tobias Dantzig, Number: The Language of Science. Macmillan Company, 1954, page 2. From counting by means of ?flocks? to finger symbols our current numerical system has evolved from the Hindu numerals to competition 2007, present day numbers. Thesis! The journey has taken us from 2400 BC to present day and ap literature essay responses, we still use some of the starbuck thesis old numerical systems and symbols.
Our system of numerics is paper research, ever changing and who knows what it will look like in 2140 AD. Starbuck! Will we still count using our fingers or will mankind invent a new numerical tool?