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books in essay It is internet and advantages, hard to find in comparison high school, minds otherwise formed [viz., people who have not read the classics], either a real love of internet and advantages excellence, or a belief that any excellence exists superior to their own. (Hazlitt, Round Table.) An art which must be acquired if one is to how many a dissertation, advance himself or herself, no matter the area of pursuit, is to make a list of the best reading material on the subject. Knowing how to read is fundamental, but knowing what to and advantages essay, read is desk clerk cover letter, just as essential. Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading. ( Trevelyan.) No matter the subject, then, the first question, always is -- What shall I read? Read no mean books, said Emerson who then proceeded to lay down three rules: 1. Never read any book that is essay, not a year old. 2. Never read any but famed books. 3. Never read any but what you like. Comparison Contrast High School Vs College? In short, every book that we take up without a purpose is an opportunity lost of taking up a book with a purpose. One should not be a desultory reader; one should be a purposeful and internet essay, organized reader. The world is precision essay archive, much too full of internet essay books: trivial, enervating, inane, and, even noxious.
It is the case with literature as with life; wherever we turn we come upon the incorrigible mob of humankind, whose name is Legion, swarming everywhere, damaging everything, as flies in a level, summer. Hence the multiplicity of bad books, those exuberant weeds of and advantages literature which choke the essay true corn. Such books rob the public of time, money, and attention, which ought properly to belong to good literature and noble aims, and they are written with a view merely to make money or occupation. They are therefore not merely useless, but injurious. Nine-tenths of disadvantages our current literature has no other end but to inveigle a thaler or two out of the public pocket, for which purpose author, publisher and printer are leagued together. A more pernicious, subtler, and bolder piece of trickery is that by which penny-a-liners and your england, scribblers succeed in destroying good taste and real culture. . Internet Disadvantages Essay? Hence, the paramount importance of acquiring the art not to read; in other words, of not reading such books as occupy the public mind, or even those which made a noise in the world, and reach several editions in how many references should a dissertation, their first and last years of existence.
We should recollect that he who writes for fools finds an enormous audience, and we should devote the ever scant leisure of our circumscribed existence to and advantages essay, the master spirits of all ages and nations, those who tower over research paper humanity, and whom the voice of Fame proclaims: only such writers cultivate and instruct us. Of bad books we can never read too little; of the good never too much. The bad are intellectual poison and undermine the disadvantages understanding. Because people insist on reading not the best books written for essay archive all time, but the newest contemporary literature, writers of the day remain in the narrow circle of the same perpetually revolving ideas, and the age continues to wallow in its own mire. . Mere acquired knowledge belongs to us only like a wooden leg and wax nose. Knowledge attained by means of thinking resembles our natural limbs, and is the internet only kind that really belongs to us.
Hence the difference between the comparison contrast essay high vs college thinker and the pedant. The intellectual possession of the independent thinker is like a beautiful picture which stands before us, a living thing with fitting light and shadow, sustained tones, perfect harmony of color. That of the merely learned man may be compared to a palette covered with bright colors, perhaps even arranged with some system, but wanting in harmony, coherence and meaning. Disadvantages And Advantages? . Only those writers profit us whose understanding is quicker, more lucid than our own, by whose brain we indeed think for how many be in a dissertation a time, who quicken our thoughts, and lead us whither alone we could not find our way. (Richardson, op. cit. And Advantages? , pp. 63-5.) Birrell in another of essay his essays, Is It Possible to Tell a Good Book from a Bad One? writes as Richardson wrote, the output of books is extraordinary and their numbers destroy their reputation. But not only is the outpoint enormous, and what may be called the undergrowth rank, but the treatment is too frequently crude. Penmen, as bookwriters are now pleasingly called, in and advantages, their great haste to england essay, carry their goods early to market, are too apt to gobble up what they take to be the results of internet disadvantages essay scientific investigation; and stripping them bare of the conditions and qualifications properly belonging to scientific methods, to england your england, present them to the world as staple truths, fit matter for aesthetic treatment. There is something half comic, half tragic in internet essay, the almost headlong apprehension of half-born truths by half-educated minds. Whilst the serious investigator is carefully sounding his dim and perilous way, making good his ground as he goes, 'Till captive Science yields her last retreat', these half-inspired dabblers, these ready-reckoners, are already hawking the discovery about the streets, making it the motif of their jejune stage-plays and the text of their blatant discourses. (Birrell, op. cit. at p. 291.) The choice of precision essay books would be greatly aided if the reader, in taking up a volume, would always ask himself just why he is going to read it, and of what service it is to be to him. It should always be borne in mind that the busiest reader must leave unread all but a mere fraction of the good books in the world. I quote, once again: Only a creature possessed of Macaulay's reading power and the leisure of St. Simeon Stylites could keep his head above the stream of contemporary literature.
Yet even he could be in miserable case. There is 'our magnificent heritage' to be dealt with - the accumulation of classical English literature. And, vista behind vista, one sees the internet disadvantages literature of other European nations, stretching back to the Greek and Roman classics and frowned over by those august nightmares, the should Sacred Books of the East. Internet? What is to be done about It? Even if we allow no time for frivolities and read only precision essay those works which 'you really must read,' it has now become impossible for the longest-lived, the most methodical and resolute mortal to get through the excellent literature which stares at him from the shelves with mute entreaty and reproach. [Too Many Books, Selected Modern English Essays (Oxford University Press, 1927).] For the important question of what to internet disadvantages and advantages essay, read, one may profitably turn to lists which have already been prepared, provided that such a list has been prepared by a respected authority. For example, for the lawyer, who finds his free time to desk letter, be at a premium, one might look to the article written by the American legal scholar, John H. Wigmore wrote, A List of one Hundred Legal Novels [ Illinois Law Review (1922), # 17, p. 26] to be of immeasurable help. Wigmore prepared the list with lawyers in mind, his thinking being that lawyers could learn much from the great novel writers of the past. Disadvantages Essay? Wigmore broke his list down into four categories: (A) Novels in which some trial scene is described - perhaps including a skilful cross-examination; (B) Novels in which the typical traits of front clerk no experience a lawyer or judge, or the internet essay ways of professional life, are portrayed;
(C) Novels in which the methods of contrast essay law in the prosecution and punishment of crime are delineated; and. (D) Novels in which some point of law, affecting the rights or the conduct of the personages, enters into the plot. Internet Disadvantages Essay? Though elsewhere I have set forth Wigmore's list let me give an example from each of his categories, as follows: (A) Eliot's Adam Bede (1859); (B) Thackeray's The History of Pendennis (1850); (D) Balzac's Pere Goriot (1834). I might venture to say that a lawyer who has not read at least some of the novels on Wigmore's list is probably going to comparison school, have a more difficult time trying to size up people, and sizing up people is one of the principle tasks of a practising lawyer. Emerson, recognizing that during our short life we face a sea of internet and advantages essay books, recommended that many might well be read by paper builder proxy, if we had good proxies. Internet And Advantages? I have developed the practice to take up with eagerness any book on references should be in a dissertation books where it has been written by an established author. Something I picked up years ago was Great Novelists Their Novels , a book by W. Somerset Maugham. In this book, Maugham, with great authority, dealt with, among others, Tolstoy, Austen, Stendhal, Bront#235, Flaubert, Dickens, Dostoevsky Melville; together with reviews of each of their great works. Internet And Advantages? Another example of such a book is precision, one that was written by internet and advantages Arnold Bennett Books and Persons . In this book Bennet deals with, among others: Wordsworth, Conrad, Anatole France, Poe, Wells, Meredith, Trollope, Chesterton, Kipling, Galsworthy, and references should be in, Henry James.
Another, which I have in internet disadvantages and advantages essay, my library is a book by Walter Bagehot (1826-77, a Scottish lawyer to whom, because of his writings, I own much) Literary Studies ( Shelley, Gibbon, Sterne, Scott, Macaulay, Tennyson, Browning, et al.). I leave you, for precision archive now, with a thought from Thoreau, How many a man has dated a new era in his life from the reading of a book!
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nonscannable resume This application is a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S. Pat. App. Ser. Internet Disadvantages And Advantages. No. Help. 09/468,759, filed Dec. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. And Advantages. No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.
Ser. A Dissertation. No. 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of which are incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to the field of testing dynamic logic and related logic families such as N-NARY logic.
More specifically, the present invention relates to scan testing of dynamic logic and N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Disadvantages. Description of the Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of transistors, has created a need for precision essay archive, sophisticated test methodologies to insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and disadvantages and advantages, during their operating life to england england verify continuing operability. Disadvantages And Advantages Essay. One of the problems encountered in archive, testing is the difficulty in accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to disadvantages and advantages some extent by help with a level, implementing scan access testing techniques. Internet. Scan access refers broadly to the use of specialized serial shift registers (“scan registers”) to deliver stimulus vectors from a stimulus pattern generator to research paper circuit nodes of interest, and to retrieve response data from circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to allow propagation of data directly from register to register upon assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and internet, whereby response data may be retrieved directly from help with a level history coursework internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to isolate sections of logic for testing.
The benefit of scan access increases as the proportion of and advantages essay, circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and front desk clerk, outputs increases. “Full scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein every register on a chip is accessible through scan. “Partial scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein some subset of the registers on a chip is accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of and advantages essay, interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in nature. Essay High School. The number of clock cycles needed to load or unload the scan chain is equal to internet and advantages the number of registers in the chain. Gaining access to internal nodes is therefore accomplished only at the cost of very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to remedy the test time problem caused by the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in essay, a fixed order. This adds greater flexibility to the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only and advantages essay, when writing or reading some subset of the clerk, registers. Random access scan does not decrease the total number of clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.
Placing circuitry on chip eliminates the need to develop specialized test hardware, and potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the chip under special clock conditions, or in situ following the integration into a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and hence the cost of the disadvantages and advantages, semiconductor die. When test circuitry is incorporated into a semiconductor, the benefit gained by increased test coverage must be traded off against the increased die area and associated cost. Moreover, the test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the chip. Because of these constraints, the ratio of circuitry under test to test circuitry in current semiconductors is relatively high. Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the primary inputs and outputs of relatively large blocks of logic. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to capitalize on its potential to facilitate chip debug during the design process.
In general, most test points on a chip can only be scanned when the chip is in a “scan mode,” meaning that the clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the machine is given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the logic, and outputs are then scanned and analyzed to determine whether the contrast high school vs college, logic is operating properly. Essay. Thus, when a chip is in scan mode the contrast school, information in a scan register is somewhat artificial, in that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and internet disadvantages essay, it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on help a level, the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at operating speeds. A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in the supply network due to the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into internet disadvantages and advantages essay, what is happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at precision, key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. However, this solution is less than ideal, particularly for internet, highly complex designs, in that it requires up-front identification of precision essay archive, points of interest. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and internet disadvantages essay, I/O limitations.
The present invention is an your essay, improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to internet essay provide visibility into essay archive, even deeply embedded logic within a chip. While the present invention can be applied to implement scan in any dynamic logic design, the advantages of the present invention are best realized in a design wherein the internet disadvantages and advantages, logic is precision essay, synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in U.S. Pat. Disadvantages. No. Research. 6,118,304, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Logic Synchronization” (hereinafter, “the Logic Synchronization Patent”). In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the present invention allows the processor to be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to be modified, and operation to be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.
In addition, the present invention is capable of “freezing” certain gates for scanning when the processor is running at operating or near-operating speed, without the internet disadvantages, use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in the context of a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in a U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,965, titled “Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals” (hereinafter, “the N-NARY Patent”). The N-NARY patent is incorporated by reference for all purposes. Your England Essay. Those skilled in the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the present invention, that the present invention can be implemented in other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is and advantages essay, also related to the following copending U.S. Patent Applications and U.S. Patents: U.S. Pat.
No. 6,118,716, filed Sep. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. References Be In. Ser. No. Internet. 09/206,900, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. High. Pat. App. Ser. No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Internet Disadvantages Essay. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. 13, 1998; U.S. Pat. Research. App. Disadvantages. Ser. No. Essay Archive. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and internet disadvantages, U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,972, filed Dec. Front Desk Cover Letter. 21, 1999.
These six documents are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus for random-access scan of a network of dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and one or more scan gates. And Advantages. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an precision, evaluate circuit, and one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and couples to internet essay one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to capture the how many references, state of the output buffers of the essay, scan gate and provide that state to one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to force the output buffers of the research builder, scan gate to a preselected level, which then propagates through the network to create an output state on the next scan gate in the network, which can then be read and compared to an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in understanding the invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the invention and the following is and advantages essay, a brief description of the attached drawings: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit.
FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. 4 illustrates a series of logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.
6 is an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in builder, the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.
9 shows a network of internet, gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. 10 shows the paper builder, relationship between the internet disadvantages, logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for at-speed state capture, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. How Many. 11 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention.
FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 shows the disadvantages, relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and the scan control signals for desk clerk letter, scan according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in and advantages essay, the present invention. FIG. 16 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan write process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
17 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan read process, according to research the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to internet disadvantages the third embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus to scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and careful control of the clock input to selected scan gates. This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.
N-NARY logic is a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of N signal, to convey information. Comparison School. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and produces an disadvantages, output signal. A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of N encoding to indicate multiple values of information conveyed by the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal where at most one and only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of precision essay, N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. Additionally, the internet disadvantages and advantages essay, 1 of N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.
1 is research builder, a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of N-NARY logic using two sets of 1 of 4 signals for the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is internet and advantages, a 2 bit input, and O is a 2 bit output. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to desk clerk letter the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input signal A, which is internet essay, a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and research builder, their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Additionally coupled to internet disadvantages and advantages essay the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is another 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit output O, which is a 1 of contrast high, 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and internet disadvantages essay, O 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on a plurality of input signals that could comprise a variety of functions, for example, the Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the logic tree circuit.
Each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to the precharge circuit 31 is the references, clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the internet disadvantages and advantages essay, P-FETs to charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to the logic tree circuit and controls the evaluation of the logic tree circuit. And, coupled to the evaluate circuit 36 is the how many references be in, clock signal CK where a high clock signal on CK will cause the N-FET in the evaluate circuit to evaluate. As shown in FIG.
1, output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the and advantages essay, plurality of england england, output signals. Essay. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of clerk, buffer device 34 used in N-NARY logic. Disadvantages And Advantages. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on an output logic path. FIG. 2B shows an embodiment of comparison contrast essay, output buffer 34 that is preferred for most N-NARY gates that includes the disadvantages and advantages essay, CMOS inverter that inverts the signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the a level, level of the dynamic node before the signal evaluates.
The PFET keeper transistor gives the logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of output buffer compensates for and advantages essay, parasitic leakages and allows for low speed functionality. The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. 2C shows another embodiment of output buffer 34 that is known as a “full keeper buffer.” As shown in how many be in a dissertation, FIG.
2C, a full keeper buffer includes the inverter, the internet essay, PFET keeper feedback transistor, and an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. 2D is simply another schematic representation of the FIG. England England. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. Essay. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the OR/NOR function. One skilled in front clerk cover letter, the art will appreciate that one function is the inverse of the other function. To reduce adding additional capacitance to the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for evaluating the function of the logic circuit and for disadvantages and advantages essay, generating the plurality output signals coupled to how many references should be in a dissertation the logic circuit. Internet Disadvantages. The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in essay, the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the internet disadvantages essay, clock cycle. As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.
Clock signal CK is coupled to the precharge circuit 31 . When the clock signal is england england essay, low, circuit 31 precharges the N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the and advantages, device and helps avoid races between other devices. Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in FIG. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . When the clock signal is high, the evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of with coursework, logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the internet and advantages essay, clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the signals through the network. For example, the precision essay, datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Additionally, the input signal 162 and the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.
The series of logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 coupled in series to the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the preferred timing and logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.
In FIG. Internet And Advantages Essay. 5, te is the evaluate phase of the clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the research paper, clock cycle. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the disadvantages and advantages essay, different clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the research paper, phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount approximately equal to the amount it overlaps of the phase of the internet disadvantages and advantages essay, next clock signal. FIG. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . England Essay. Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the “wave” of the evaluate cycles of the different clocks. For further background and detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the internet essay, reader is referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in FIG.
4, the logic circuits are coupled together such that, in archive, general, the input of a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to the next logic circuit that receives the immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is internet, supplied to the network from a central bus structure referred to in this specification as the “clock spine.” The M logic clock signals are generated at your england essay, one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. In other embodiments, the clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for essay, example, the inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of logic gates such as that depicted in FIG. 4 wherein the logic propagation is synchronized using an how many be in a dissertation, evaluate “wave” produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in FIG. 5, is referred to as a “sequentially clocked precharge logic network,” the gates therein are referred to as “sequentially clocked precharge logic gates,” and disadvantages, the clock signals are “sequentially generated” with a “sequential delay” between the archive, individual clock signals. Essay. Similarly, when referring to individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the first clock signal that rises and falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to “immediately follow” that specific clock signal; the signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and falls is said to precision essay archive “immediately precede” the specific logic clock signal. In other words, in FIG.
5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and internet essay, falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and falls after CK 1 falls. Finally, as explained in more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the rising edge of precision essay, a master clock signal (not shown in internet disadvantages essay, FIG. 5) and some of the england, individual clock signals are triggered from the falling edge of the internet and advantages essay, master clock signal. Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a “wave” of evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and described in the Logic Synchronization Patent.
FIG. 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the research paper, present invention requires the internet disadvantages essay, precharge clock CK(P) to be controlled separately from the how many be in, evaluate clock CK(E). Internet Essay. By convention, the help a level history, phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and CK(P). One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is internet disadvantages essay, possible to essay school vs college use other conventions for essay, logic synchronization, for help, example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 . Similarly, it is possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is one embodiment of the present invention that comprises an N-NARY logic circuit 300 . N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on the two N-NARY input signals A and disadvantages essay, B to generate an england essay, output N-NARY signal Z. The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the N-NARY input signal B comprises the input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the internet disadvantages and advantages, output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 and their associated wires. The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the comparison, precharge circuit 31 that receives the and advantages, precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the logic circuit 300 comprises the evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to how many references should the wires of the output signal Z. As shown in internet, FIG. 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to each wire of output signal Z around the output buffers 34 . With A Level Coursework. Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to a scan control circuit (not shown in internet and advantages, FIG.
6 ), and also to paper builder one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the internet and advantages, ability to stress test the england england essay, N-NARY circuits. And Advantages Essay. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stress testing is your england essay, generally unrelated to scan. However, the stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the scan circuits 306 to produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in internet disadvantages and advantages, the Stress Mode patent. FIG. Precision. 7 shows one embodiment of internet and advantages essay, a scan circuit 306 . The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Scan circuit 306 couples to your essay output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.
Write transistor 400 is controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Read transistor 402 is controlled by internet disadvantages and advantages, scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into front desk clerk cover letter, and out of the scan circuit 306 over scan data lines 412 . FIG. 8 shows one embodiment of the complete architecture of the internet disadvantages and advantages essay, present invention, in the context of a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is referred to as a “scan gate.” In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for the next gate. By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. As shown in precision essay, FIG. And Advantages. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on how many references should be in a dissertation, its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 couple to N-NARY logic tree 502 . A full keeper output buffer 34 and internet and advantages essay, a scan circuit 306 couple to each output wire. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and inverter 404 . Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to how many be in the scan register 416 in internet disadvantages and advantages essay, an arrangement similar to commonly-known RAM architecture. Precision. As shown in FIG. 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and internet disadvantages and advantages essay, 412 c also connect to the output wires of other scan gates in other rows on a device that employs the present invention scan architecture and methodology.
The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is asserted when the system is in scan mode to control the timing of the scan gates, as explained in more detail below. Write signal 406 is essay archive, asserted when the system is in scan mode and the wires of the output signal Z are to be forced to the value in the scan register 416 . Read signal 410 is internet disadvantages and advantages essay, asserted when the system is in essay school vs college, scan mode and the value on each wire of the output signal Z is to be loaded into the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Reset signal 407 is asserted during the reset sequence to and advantages essay reset the circuit for normal operation, as described in research, further detail below. Scan Precharge signal 418 is asserted to precharge the scan gates for writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and disadvantages and advantages, the current state of the output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is asserted to drive the evaluate nodes high.
When the Read signal 410 is low, Reset 407 is contrast essay high vs college, low, and Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon the bit value in the scan register 416 . Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. The voltage on disadvantages and advantages essay, the scan data lines 412 is inverted by inverters 404 , and front clerk no experience, the value of the internet and advantages essay, evaluate node E 0 is forced to the inverted value on the scan data line 412 a , the value of E 1 is forced to the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of E 2 is forced to the inverted value on 412 c . These inverted values are then inverted once again in output buffers 34 , and the values of how many should be in a dissertation, Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to the low state. This is one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on all scan gates. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and internet disadvantages, relationship between the various clock signals during scan is discussed in detail below), a full keeper holds the front clerk cover letter, evaluate nodes at the state they were in when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in internet, the scan circuit 306 coupled to output wire Z 2 is driven by help a level coursework, the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in the other scan circuits 306 are driven by internet, the Write signal 406 . As shown in precision, FIG. 8, the WOR signal 408 is generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is asserted and neither the write signal 406 nor the disadvantages essay, read signal 410 is help a level, asserted, only the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. The resulting output condition is defined by convention to be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. Disadvantages And Advantages Essay. The present invention requires that one and only one output wire of the N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is driven by research, the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the output lines of each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.
For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. Internet Disadvantages And Advantages. 8, the system is reset by forcing Z 0 and archive, Z 1 , low and Z 2 high. This is accomplished by first precharging the evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and internet essay, then asserting the WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. England Your. The output buffers 34 then invert the state of the essay, evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is Z 0 and Z 1 low and Z 2 high. When every scan gate is in this output state, the system is reset. FIG. 9 shows a network 560 of archive, N-NARY gates, much like FIG.
4, except that in FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by internet, CK 0 , designated 168 and research builder, 180 in internet disadvantages and advantages, FIG. How Many Should Be In A Dissertation. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in network 560 and thus include the extra scan-related components and circuitry on their output lines as shown in FIG. 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to internet disadvantages and advantages gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in england england essay, FIG. 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to CK 0 , the scan related circuitry is disadvantages and advantages essay, quiescent, and the network 560 behaves the same as network 160 in FIG.
4 . FIG. 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of precision archive, logic that is clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into scan mode to scan the output state of the scan gates. FIG. 10 and the following text demonstrate how the output state of each scan gate can be captured when the internet and advantages essay, network is references should a dissertation, running at operating speed. As noted above, the ability to internet essay capture the output state of gates that are running at operating speed is an paper, important performance improvement over existing scan methods and architectures. FIG. Internet Disadvantages. 10 shows the global clock signal, CLK, at the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the front clerk letter, propagation of signals through the networked logic gates. In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and CK 1 , CK 2 , and internet and advantages essay, CK 3 are triggered from the rising edge of CLK. As discussed above, CK(P) and your england essay, CK(E), the two signals at the bottom of FIG.
10, start out identical to internet essay CK 0 . Help With. FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and 608 . As explained in disadvantages essay, further detail below, the “capture” cycle in the sequence depicted in FIG. 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of a dissertation, latches or static registers that fan out over the design. The final level of essay, SEN arrives at the input to the clock generation logic of all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at this input when the Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at research builder, 614 . The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in FIG. Essay. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in paper, the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. Internet Disadvantages And Advantages Essay. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on the clock spine, SEN is research builder, further latched to produce SENP and SENE. Internet Disadvantages And Advantages. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. SENP is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is high. SENE is latched from how many be in SENP by CK 1 going low at 622 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E). Thus, CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 624 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Therefore, at the beginning of the capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is “frozen.” SEN, SENE, and SENP are all asserted. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and evaluating again because CK(P) is internet essay, latched high and CK(E) is latched low. The value on each output line of each scan gate is thus available for scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to help with a level toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to hold the state that they were in at the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is low. Stopping CLK at 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in precharge and provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and writing. Although not shown in FIG.
10, if the network is running at speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the clock rate should be ramped down over internet and advantages essay a number of phases to avoid overload problems caused by clerk no experience, a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in disadvantages and advantages essay, FIG. Research Paper Builder. 10 is intended to illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are all low, corresponding to and advantages the precharge state for research builder, Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Disadvantages And Advantages. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at clerk cover letter, 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the internet disadvantages, scan registers can be read and the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Additionally, if desired, the state of the your, scan gate outputs can be modified by writing to the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the ability to write to the scan gates during the internet and advantages, scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.
8) into precision essay archive, the scan gates' structure. To write to a selected row of scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and then conditionally discharged via the internet, scan write transistors 400 . This is accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for the row of scan gates to be written to. Precision. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and and advantages, preventing the scan gates from precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the CLK can be restarted. To continue at cover letter, operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over a number of cycles, this time to avoid source the essay, creation of high school, undesired speed paths due to large di/dt. When CLK is started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and disadvantages and advantages essay, the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the a level history coursework, Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is deasserted. Disadvantages And Advantages Essay. This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to the rise of CLK. Because CK(P) is created by OR'ing CK 0 and SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.
Similarly, after SEN is deasserted, SENE will fall after the next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the master clock CLK falls. When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and the Phase 0 scan gates return to normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. 11 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when “stepping through” operations, as might occur when the england, scan gates are read or written to internet disadvantages and advantages essay at each step. This single-step mode of operation is research builder, most useful for internet and advantages essay, examining or troubleshooting specific areas in the logic, and for loading and executing test vectors. In this mode, the master clock CLK toggles very slowly and irregularly. For convenience only, FIG. Precision Essay. 11 shows CLK and its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in disadvantages and advantages, reality, the shaded region (where CLK is help with history, low during scan) will be a much longer period of time than other parts of the waveform. In addition, since CLK in this mode is very slow compared to normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and disadvantages and advantages, the rising edges of CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.
11 as in FIG. 10, where the clock signals are intended to front desk represent full speed operation. The same is true regarding the derivative clocks CK(P) and internet and advantages essay, CK(E) and the other CLK-related signals SENE and SENP. In single step operation, SEN is toggled every clock cycle. SEN goes high at the input to the scan gates' clock generation logic when the comparison contrast high school vs college, Phase 1 clock goes low at disadvantages and advantages essay, 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . Comparison Contrast High School Vs College. As in full speed operation, SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 718 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Again as in full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is disadvantages, high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the be in a dissertation, previous discussion, is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at 722 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of internet and advantages essay, SENE is help with coursework, ANDed with CK 0 to internet and advantages produce CK(E), CK(E) is help a level history coursework, high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 724 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and optional writing of the state of the essay, scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on FIG. 11 ). As discussed above, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in FIG. 11, SEN is deasserted at 732 , just after the Phase 1 clock goes low at 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . SENE and SENP stay high during the scan period (recall that SENP is latched by a Phase 1 high clock, and precision essay, SENE is latched from SENP. When CLK is stopped during the scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.
Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and SENP SENE, CK(P) and CK(E) to toggle as shown in FIG. Internet Disadvantages Essay. 11 and as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in FIG. 11 . Therefore, in paper, single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to every second clock cycle. This allows logic to propagate from a Phase 0 gate through the rest of the gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. This is accomplished by reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and internet, then writing an input vector to the gate. The clock is then restarted, and the vector propagates state through the Phase 1 - 5 gates to the next Phase 0 scan gate. Builder. The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of that gate read and compared to the expected result.
FIG. 12 shows an alternative embodiment of internet and advantages, scan gate 500 , designated 800 . FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the comparison school, scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. CK(P) and CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and internet and advantages essay, WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and 818 , and england england, two PFET transistors 812 and 814 . Disadvantages And Advantages Essay. When the read signal 410 is how many references be in a dissertation, high, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is disadvantages and advantages essay, provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and england your england, 412 c. When WRITE 406 is high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.
If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and disadvantages and advantages, the output buffer 34 will invert the low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in FIG. Builder. 12, in internet disadvantages and advantages, particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the help with history coursework, need to internet disadvantages and advantages precharge the gate to desk clerk cover letter drive high evaluate nodes to a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is no longer needed. As was the case previously in scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an internet and advantages essay, N-NARY scan gate 800 is connected to your essay a scan circuit 806 wherein the gate of the write transistors couples to internet disadvantages and advantages essay the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . In the embodiment shown in FIG.
12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the write transistors 814 and 818 to write to the gate, and to reset the system, as described previously. While FIG. 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an input to the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. With A Level History Coursework. 8, these clock signals to the precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on the clock spine. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only and advantages, a single clock input, CKS, that is the same as CK 3 , which is basically an inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.
10 and precision essay, 11. CKS enters scan gate 800 and is inverted to precharge the logic tree 502 . CKS is also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to the same time that CK 0 is low) CK(P) is low and the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is disadvantages essay, enabled or high, CKS and paper builder, CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. And Advantages. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the references should, clocking arrangement described in internet disadvantages and advantages essay, conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. Your England. 8 and disadvantages and advantages essay, the clock signals shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, except that in this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.
13 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG. 13 is similar to FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and 880 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 800 shown in FIG. 12 . Precision Essay Archive. Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9) have been replaced by CKS. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 has some advantages over that shown in FIG.
8 . First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the scan logic from the Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon the scannable bit population of each physical row. Internet Essay. Also, the distribution of SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and help with coursework, high-speed. However, the architecture and internet disadvantages and advantages, clocking arrangement shown in FIG. Research Builder. 12 only allows for the at-speed capture of the internet disadvantages and advantages, state of the scan gates if the paper, design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by disadvantages and advantages, a high negative di/dt.
In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to prevent CK(P) from precharging the help with coursework, logic tree and destroying the output state of the scan gate. The FIG. 12 architecture and clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in conjunction with FIG. 11, although the and advantages essay, behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in paper builder, FIG. Internet And Advantages Essay. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the scan architecture shown in FIG. 12 . Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in conjunction with FIG.
11, the should a dissertation, duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. Disadvantages Essay. 14 . In single step operation, during the how many be in, scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. Likewise, as described previously, the scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the internet and advantages essay, master clock and high school vs college, the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and writing to the scan gates. CLK and the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to the CLK and Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the “Phase 0 ” reference clock shown in FIG. 11 has been replaced, in FIG. Disadvantages Essay. 13, with the CKS signal that is the clock signal input to the scan gate 800 . FIG.
14 shows the behavior of clerk cover no experience, CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and disadvantages and advantages, deasserted for scan. As shown in FIG. 14, CK(P) is an inverted version of CKS, and continues to toggle as CKS toggles. Essay Archive. CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is deasserted and CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of internet, scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and read/write drivers 414 shown and research, described previously. FIG. Internet. 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the master clock signal, CLK, which is provided to the clock spine 902 . As shown in FIG.
15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to the clock spine 902 . History Coursework. Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the operation of some of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during the and advantages essay, write process, as explained in further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. 15 is england your england essay, identical to scan gate 800 shown in FIG. 12, except that in this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by the clock generation circuit 904 that is used to time and synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . Internet. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. For example, a designer could designate some or all of the phase 3 gates—gates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signal—as scan gates, rather than the how many should be in a dissertation, phase 0 gates as described herein. Internet Disadvantages. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the need to generate a clock signal uniquely for essay archive, scan. Scan gate 900 includes the same scan circuits 806 as described in the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to be precharged before writing to it in scan mode. In addition, as described in more detail below, the logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to precharge scan gate 900 for scan writing. As shown in FIG.
15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Internet And Advantages Essay. Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the help a level coursework, scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and precharges the logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and delaying CLK. CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 transition opposite CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in the order listed. The arrangement and behavior of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and during scan modes is shown and internet essay, described below, in connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.
To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is research paper, asserted and disadvantages essay, stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to desk letter the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to and advantages gates “downstream” of the scan gates that are high when CLK is stopped must be forced low, to england your force these downstream gates into a precharge mode. In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the internet disadvantages essay, input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to england england receive, as inputs, the test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and the results of internet and advantages, that test vector as it propagates through the gates along the datapath. Failing to clear out research builder state information on the inputs to and advantages essay downstream gates could result in errors or invalid inputs to england essay the downstream gates. Internet. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the gates immediately upstream of the scan gates are in how many references should a dissertation, precharge, causing the disadvantages essay, input lines to the scan gates to be clear even though the scan gates are in the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to circuit testing using scan is to stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the clock and let the test vector propagate through the logic to how many references the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the output state of the downstream scan gate, and compare it with the expected output state, given the internet essay, value of the input test vector and precision essay archive, the functionality of the gates between the two scan gates. However, if the inputs to any of the gates between the two scan gates are not cleared properly and contain stale state information, the disadvantages and advantages essay, output at the downstream scan gate on the next read may not conform to expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.
To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is asserted, causing WOR 408 to go high, and ZWRITE 826 and essay, ZWOR 824 to go low. Inside the local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to clear out stale information in downstream gates along the datapath. While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the essay, write, to correctly pass data after CLK is help with a level history coursework, restarted. Internet Disadvantages And Advantages. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and 818 then function as described above, in connection with scan gate 800 and FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. Research Paper. If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is internet, low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on essay, the corresponding scan data line will be high and and advantages, transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the comparison contrast essay high, low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire.
If the phase 0 scan gate is to disadvantages be read instead of written to, there is no need to force CK 1 and CK 2 low. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is asserted and england your england essay, stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. Internet Essay. READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is paper, provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. FIG.
16 illustrates the relationships between the internet disadvantages, sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of scan gate 900 and a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the phase 0 gates are the scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates via the clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and precision, CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and internet disadvantages, CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Also, in FIG. 16, the network of synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is assumed to be originally in normal, at speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. To write to the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to clerk cover letter stop after its next rising edge, shown on internet, FIG. 16 at 959 , which also stops all the builder, sequentially generated logic clocks. The WRITE signal is then asserted at 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at internet, 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and contrast high school vs college, CK 2 low at 966 and 968 , respectively. At this point, the write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is deasserted at internet disadvantages essay, 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and comparison essay school vs college, CK 2 high at internet essay, 974 and england, 976 , respectively.
SEN is deasserted at 980 to restart CLK. When CLK falls at 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in accordance with the failing edge of CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the clock signals during the read process is internet, shown in FIG. 17 . The system is originally in england essay, normal operation, and internet disadvantages, then SEN is asserted at should be in, 961 . Essay. Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the sequentially generated clocks. READ is asserted at 965 , the read proceeds as described above, and READ is then deasserted at 967 . SEN is deasserted at 971 to restart CLK, and again, the sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in no experience, normal operation upon the falling edge of CLK at and advantages, 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in clerk, a network of dynamic logic. FIG.
18 is similar to FIGS. Internet And Advantages. 9 and 13, except that in how many references should a dissertation, FIG. 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and 994 , which are implemented in internet disadvantages and advantages, the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Accordingly, the desk cover, clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9, and CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the alternative embodiments described above, stopping the clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is running at speed. The architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIGS.
15 and 16 - 17 therefore only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to internet disadvantages toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the your england essay, scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is disadvantages, used in how many should a dissertation, a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the clocks when the logic is internet disadvantages and advantages essay, running at speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the user is ready to capture the references should, output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and essay, apparatus for how many should, scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the logic circuit receives one or more input signals and internet and advantages essay, a clock signal having an evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. Research. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to the scan control circuit, the scan register, and the output buffers such that when the scan circuit receives scan control signals, the and advantages essay, state of the output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by help a level history, information in the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the input signals of internet disadvantages and advantages essay, a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the paper, immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and disadvantages and advantages, the output signals of the gate that receives the essay, particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.
In this case, the internet, sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by front letter, a clock generation circuit coupled to a clock spine. The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of disadvantages, a particular logic clock signal overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the same amount of time that the a level history coursework, evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the output state generated by internet disadvantages essay, the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the evaluate phase, providing the england, read signal to internet disadvantages and advantages the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to the scan circuits and to a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the output state of a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to a user-selected state, by loading the scan register with the user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and one or more write signals, stopping the essay archive, sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by gates downstream of the scannable logic circuit to the precharge phase if they were in the evaluate phase when the disadvantages and advantages essay, clocks were stopped, providing the write signals to the scan circuits and to one or more of the read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to the evaluate phase if they were forced to the precharge phase, and restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the disclosed invention.
The specification and examples above are exemplary only, with the true scope of the invention being indicated by references be in, the following claims.
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A* GCSE Art Coursework: Sense of Place. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This Edexcel GCSE Art Coursework project was completed by disadvantages Samantha Li, while studying at West Island School, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Samantha gained full marks (120/120 and 80/80) for both her Coursework and Examination. This article contains images of Samantha’s GCSE Art sketchbook pages: outstanding observational drawings of essay architectural spaces, artist research, development of ideas and internet disadvantages essay experimentation with media. England Essay? In an internet disadvantages and advantages, interview with the Student Art Guide, Samantha shares the themes she explored – a reflection of daily life and busy routines – and provides insight into how she developed a high level of artistic skill and the ability to work with speed.
Her descriptions of the places depicted within her work are breathtaking: indicating a deep connection and understanding of her subject matter – something all IGCSE / GCSE Art students should aspire to. How Many References A Dissertation? These sketchbook pages show highly accomplished sketches: tone applied with gestural hatching and disadvantages and advantages a overlaid wash. The figures are captured in motion: the contrast high vs college viewer immediately drawn into the scene. The immediacy the stunning attention to light and internet and advantages shadow in the figure to the right show indicate exceptional drawing skill. What was your GCSE Art Coursework topic and why did you select this? Samantha : My coursework topic was ‘Sense of place’ and, for me, this is expressing culture and sense of belonging through touch, sight, taste, smell, and your sound. The first two can easily be communicated through texture and colors, and disadvantages a combination of these creates an atmosphere that bursts into life.
The city scenes are of Sham Shui Po, Central, Aberdeen and Causeway Bay, all in Hong Kong. For my artwork, I used reference photos I took myself and england also drew from internet disadvantages life. I was lucky to be living in Aberdeen during that time and your england often went to the marketplace to buy groceries. Internet And Advantages Essay? It felt good to be part of the busy, yet simple routines. The woman with the red gloves speaking in Cantonese while I just pretend to understand by nodding#8230;the smell of flowers interrupted by the metallic smell of front desk clerk cover letter fish. There was so much going on!
As I twisted through the lanes searching for the perfect potato, what visually appealed to me the most were the dripping, grungy walls hidden behind the stalls. A mix between the disadvantages essay freshness of vegetables, combined with what looked ancient, seemed somewhat natural, which makes it beautiful. It’s like that feeling when looking at the hands of an aged farmer, it’s beautiful ! This International GCSE Art sketchbook page is filled with rich mixed-media experimentation: layered mediums encouraging the exploration of front cover letter shape, pattern, detail and form. Your Coursework project contains exceptional gestural drawings. Drawing quickly is and advantages, something that many students struggle with. How did you develop this skill? Samantha : When sketching without resources, I rarely think and just jump straight into research paper, it.
Thinking too much restricts your mind’s ability to use the information it has gathered through experience, so I try to just trust my instincts and adjust it afterwards if it doesn’t look right. I have done a lot of drawing as a hobby ever since I could hold a pencil. Essay? I only started to develop my techniques professionally during the summer of 2012 (towards the end of first GCSE year) when I was introduced to a small, unfamiliar art group by an ex-graphic designer. The building was impoverished, with broken stairs, peeling walls (my favorite!) and a level coursework small rooms with no fans or air conditioning. The tropical climate didn’t help much either. However the intensity of the essay atmosphere distracted me completely from the stickiness of the sixty people around me and the sweat continuously dripping from my forehead.
This goes on how many should, for nine hours, from 8am to 11:30pm (I try to disadvantages and advantages essay, use only paper, 3hrs per piece), not including lunch and dinner breaks in between. Absent of superfluous decoration (distracting headings and disadvantages essay borders), this sketchbook page is an desk clerk cover letter, excellent example of mixed-media exploration. Layers of newspaper, torn paper, ink and internet disadvantages and advantages earth-coloured washes are combined to create a rich and be in varied sketchbook page. The other artists were older and more skilled than me. Disadvantages Essay? That gave me pressure and the drive to surpass the person beside me. They were all using the building as a studio and practice for art exams to get into help a level history coursework, universities, so competition was everywhere. I also made a lot of friends that gave me tips and also taught me how to internet disadvantages essay, play basketball and pool!
The other artists focused completely on the examination system (which I don’t really understand at all, to be honest) so the sketching ‘rules’ were strict and didn’t have room for essay archive, imagination. Nearly all the students there had no interest in art and and advantages were simply there to get into a university. I guess this was the difference between us that made me improve at such a rapid speed in a short period of time: passion. I just keep reminding myself of with history coursework my dream, which is to become someone who adds respect to the art world and reduces the stereotypical belief that #8216;people become an artist as last resort#8217;, which is, unfortunately, a common thought among many people I’ve met. These International GCSE Art sketchbook pages contains analysis of artist work and first-hand drawings of architectural structures on a ground of torn newspaper. Other than that summer experience, I draw a lot at home for fun, creating dynamic poses and internet looking up tutorials for interesting techniques. I used to draw for a few hours right after I got home from school, stopping only when my wrist ached. Desk Cover Letter? Now, I have an exciting International Baccalaureate life with subjects I enjoy and I spend less time doodling and more time studying and hanging out with friends. The main things I learned through my experiences: We are extremely lucky to live with such great conditions to internet disadvantages essay, help reach our full potential (especially if we have air-conditioning). Front Desk Clerk? Focus on the big picture first, add the internet and advantages details later. Art is art, not a photograph!
My journey not only helped me improve technical skill, it helped me build more confidence and develop experiences that are not so art-related. Again demonstrating an with, intimate understanding of her subject matter, these drawings instantly capture the bustling everyday life of urban spaces. Which artists did you study as part of your project? Samantha : During the disadvantages essay project, the artists I studied use very different styles and mediums. Most of GCSE was experimentation, so our class was encouraged to front desk cover letter no experience, try a wide range of internet disadvantages essay techniques, such as pen pressure, layering… Ian Murphy was the first artist I studied.
He came to england england, our school and taught us lots of methods of creating backgrounds, linework, and and advantages his art-making process. It opened a whole new world of possibilities in my mind when expressing directional movement and creating effects the traditional way (I was a digital art addict)! While most of Ian Murphy’s artwork creates a reminder of culture and age by emphasizing the textural attributes, Jasper Knight’s artworks have a more modern and graphical look. His distinctive style includes using solid colors (usually primary) and bold lines that drip. What captures me the most about Jasper Knight’s work is the combination of geometrical features and help with a level history coursework playfulness, similar to De Stijl and Memphis. Internet And Advantages Essay? As a digital art lover, I was attracted to Margaret Preston’s color schemes and printmaking technique, which is quite similar to cel-shading.
Her artwork express complexity through few colors and strong borders which makes it eye-catching. Kurt Schwitters was an artist I studied while I was experimenting with collage and composition through basic shapes and materials. I became more open-minded about precision essay different materials such as rope, wires, and aluminium foil, all which I have never used before in internet and advantages essay a painting. His work also gave me ideas on the use of front desk clerk cover letter no experience levels (height and density of materials) when printmaking. This series of work shows the development towards Samantha#8217;s final piece. With cast light falling upon intersecting, geometric, architectural forms, this final piece reminds us that the very best high school Art projects respond to meaningful, personal, first-hand experience: an exploration of the world we find ourselves in. Samantha is a multi-talented student: someone to watch.
If you enjoyed this article, you may also wish to view Samantha#8217;s International GCSE Art Examination or other exemplary high school Painting and Fine/Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of and advantages essay Art and Design work in research two high-achieving Auckland schools. Internet Essay? Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.
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