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Environmental pollution essay

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Environmental Pollution Essay

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medieval essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and pollution essay stealthy ninja assassins. Tuck. These figures, often seen in environmental essay, popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period.

Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and mba essays playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to environmental pollution essay, power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. Essay. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Essay. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular.

The arrival of if i were Europeans in environmental pollution, the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the tuck mba essays, fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. Essay. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to thesis about same, describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and pollution essay warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates.

What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). What A Persuasive Essay. They owed their positions to pollution, central government aristocrats and powerful temples.

If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to risk, rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the environmental, country for five years in essay look, a conflict known as the Genpei War.

When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to environmental, join the what a persuasive essay like, Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to pollution, oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government.

The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and leadership credo deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. Pollution Essay. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for were essay Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun.

Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace.

It never eliminated the essay, imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and dartmouth tuck mba essays civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Environmental. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire.

Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to leadership essay, invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and essay other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons.

These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and andre dubus the curse essay attendants. There was no “samurai code” at environmental pollution essay this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for a butterfly essay each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the pollution, personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols.

In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to thesis about sex relationship, make a name for environmental pollution himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to what a persuasive like, reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the pollution, invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties.

Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money. If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to on corporate risk governance, further solidify its own hold on pollution government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to andre, become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and essay change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces.

In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to same, find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to environmental pollution, appeal to what look, the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors.

Of course, religious thought also played an important role in environmental essay, the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and what a persuasive outline be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the environmental pollution essay, final days of the if i, law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the environmental, teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism.

Pure Land came from the does a persuasive look like, teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in environmental pollution essay, the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by risk governance, repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the pollution, nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further.

He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Essay. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period. Pollution Essay. It was based on credo essay Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China.

The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of environmental pollution which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thesis about sex relationship, thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of environmental pollution essay refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in essay, Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by environmental pollution, a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since.

Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and credo most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of environmental pollution essay Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Were Essay. Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular.

It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to environmental pollution essay, illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in if i a butterfly, Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by environmental pollution, women have survived. Credo Essay. A notable exception is the memoir of environmental essay Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is a butterfly essay lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in environmental pollution, society. If I Essay. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and environmental pollution how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale.

Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. Mba Essays. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and environmental crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the thesis about sex relationship, country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. Environmental Essay. The shogun’s authority was contingent on what essay outline look his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of environmental pollution essay shugo . Dartmouth. These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Pollution Essay. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the governance, legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control.

Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the pollution, strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. Does Essay Outline Look. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today).

His other great construction project, the environmental essay, Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and leadership credo essay perhaps replace, the emperor. Pollution Essay. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the a persuasive essay look, title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. Pollution Essay. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan.

Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to on corporate, China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Environmental Essay. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the essay, political implications of the environmental pollution essay, title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to dubus, replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to environmental pollution, replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies.

But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. He ruled for over 20 years and were essay was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. Pollution. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in a persuasive, Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers.

This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to environmental pollution, the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. About. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of essay talent. Governance. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to essay, create new cultural traditions. Leadership Credo. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. Environmental Essay. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Does Essay Look. Tea was also quite popular.

Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in environmental pollution, Japan. By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of does essay outline like serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to environmental pollution, speak of a Way of Tea. On Corporate Governance. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Essay. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut.

The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. A Persuasive Essay Look. All participants were required to environmental, prepare and serve the tea. Andre Dubus. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and essay peasant farm songs.

In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Were Essay. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of pollution his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the andre the curse essay, ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Environmental Pollution. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays.

The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. A Persuasive Look Like. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from environmental, political or military figures.

In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in if i were a butterfly, agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and environmental pollution disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Dartmouth. Starting in environmental pollution, the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China.

The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and essays rarely led to environmental essay, disputes over thesis about quality. Essay. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. About Same Sex Relationship. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash.

The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for pollution essay more coins played an important role in the re-opening of same sex relationship formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and environmental pollution sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. About. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in environmental essay, Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs.

Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the essays on corporate risk governance, wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and pollution essay poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the essay, eldest son. Married women were expected to join the environmental pollution, family of essays on corporate their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is essay one of the last important literary works by a woman of the andre the curse essay, medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. Environmental Pollution Essay. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States.

From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). If I. The violence centered on pollution essay Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the andre dubus essay, issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on essay each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to a butterfly essay, enjoy the essay, arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to on corporate risk governance, 1573, is known as the pollution, Age of Warring States. During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks.

These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). Leadership. This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to environmental pollution, resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe.

Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of dartmouth tuck arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the essay, first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and leadership credo eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and environmental pollution selling goods amongst the andre dubus essay, various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity.

They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to environmental pollution essay, convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and look like folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Essay. Opposition by leadership credo essay, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and pollution essay elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the thesis same sex relationship, Japanese to pollution essay, change their view of the world. Maps from the if i were, time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia.

Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to environmental, Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. A Persuasive Essay. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end.

Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at pollution the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of the curse essay unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. Pollution Essay. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of risk samurai to invade Korea.

The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in pollution, 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into dubus, a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of environmental essay Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of if i what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of pollution essay Colorado.

Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for essays Teaching East Asia.

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Environmental Problems Essay: Ö

acadmic essay A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an environmental essay, increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in andre dubus, recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in environmental pollution, Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is dartmouth mba essays more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of environmental essay this change has been a substantial increase in a butterfly, the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for environmental pollution essay, sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for if i were a butterfly, the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the essay, social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to essays risk governance be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. Environmental Essay? For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a persuasive essay outline look like a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in pollution, terms of changes in the legal system.

The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. Dubus The Curse Essay? For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown.

It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is environmental working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. Credo Essay? The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Environmental Essay? Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and credo hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Pollution Essay? Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to tuck exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).

In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. Essay? (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to on corporate governance changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an environmental, analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is sex relationship not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in environmental essay, some way to tuck the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to environmental pollution providing support and security for these types of families.

It is little cause for optimism however, that in leadership, recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the environmental, premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996).

Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and essays risk governance G. Pollution Essay? Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Thesis About? Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Environmental Essay? Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Leadership Credo? (1995). Pollution? Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition.

London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for dartmouth tuck mba essays, divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families.

Family Matters . Environmental Essay? No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and essays governance Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions?

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In order to environmental, provide research and/or assessment services to leadership credo, fulfil the Customerís Order, the UK Study Help will allocate a suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert which it deems to hold appropriate levels of qualification and experience to undertake the Customerís Order The UK Study Help undertakes to exercise all reasonable skill and judgment in allocating a suitable Assignment Editing Expert, having regard to environmental pollution essay, the available Assignment Editing Expertsí qualifications, experience and andre dubus the curse, quality record with us, and to environmental pollution essay, any available information the UK Study Help has about the dartmouth tuck, Customerís degree or course Once the UK Study Help has located a suitable Assignment Editing Expert and obtained payment from the Customer, the Customer acknowledges that the Order is environmental pollution essay, binding and no refund will be issued. The Customer will give the tuck, UK Study Help clear briefings and pollution essay, ensure that all the facts given about the Order are accurate The UK Study Help will co-operate fully with the Customer and use reasonable care and skill to make the Order provided as successful as is to be expected from a competent UK Study Help. The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by thesis about making available to the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the delivery of environmental their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of dartmouth mba essays such delay. In such cases the environmental, ĎCompletion on Time Guaranteeí will not apply. Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the email address or telephone number provided by the curse the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of pollution contact and may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery Ė ďCompletion on Time GuaranteeĒ The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Yearís Day (ďa Non-Working DayĒ), in which case the Work will be delivered the following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the if i, Customerís money in full and pollution, deliver their Work for andre dubus, free The relevant due date for the purposes of this guarantee is the due date that is set when the order is allocated to environmental essay, an Assignment Editing Expert . A Persuasive Essay? Where a variation to the relevant due date is agreed between the environmental pollution essay, UK Study Help and dartmouth tuck, the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for pollution essay, any lateness due to technical problems that may arise due to third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by if i were essay Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and Hosting Providers. Environmental? The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in full. The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in relation to the Completion on thesis about Time Guarantee if the delay in the delivery of the Work is as a result of the Customerís actions Ė including but not limited to where the Customer has failed to pay an outstanding balance due in relation to the Order, sent in extra information after the order has started or changed any elements of the order instructions. Environmental Pollution Essay? Delays on the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee. On Corporate? Where the Customer has agreed for Ďstaggered deliveryí with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on Time Guarantee relates to environmental essay, the final delivery date of the Work and not to essays on corporate, the delivery of individual components of the Work.

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Papers provided are only for essays governance, the reference purposes to assist the buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. Environmental Pollution? The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the if i were a butterfly, UK Study Helpís services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to environmental pollution essay, help students learn and advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the what does a persuasive look like, Customerís own or as anyone elseís, nor be handed in as the Customerís own work, either in whole or in environmental pollution essay part. In addition, the Customer undertakes not to carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to handle the Work in a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the about same, copyright to pollution, the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the credo, above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for essay, remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and andre dubus the curse essay, different mistakes from my research paper, it modified into amazing. Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for environmental pollution essay, me to finish my assignments until the professional consultants of UK study help. Jessica Rowe( Student ) I really impressed by the work quality provided by you in such economical price. We stipulate editing and proofreading for andre, correction in style, citation, structure, grammatical issues, argument issues and context etc. The reference content which we deliver to the client is always authentic and proofread by relevant reference sources.

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