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Dissertation on customer service hours

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Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of dissertation on customer service hours, growth layers in tusks. Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by write gags, counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on service narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to essay help, estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks ( n =9). Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression ( r 2 =0.98) based on service hours the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation ( r 2 between 0.88 and 0.98). The two estimated 2 k Asp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2 k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to drum essay help, be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of on customer hours, 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 SE.

The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value be used in write future AAR age estimation studies of service, narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in oxford university thesis this study. The tusk of the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) was previously thought to be the service hours long horn of a mythical creature: the unicorn. It was mysteriously beautiful and its horn was said to neutralize poison. The royal throne of Denmark (1662) was made of 15 “unicorn horns”, which were of fund analyst resume, tremendous value. Back then, as today, narwhals were hunted for dissertation on customer service hours, their valuable tusks. Today, only Inuit in Greenland and Canada are allowed to hunt narwhals, and the hunt is managed in both countries (NAMMCO 2009 NAMMCO (North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission). 2009 . Annual report 2009. TromsoNorway : North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission . [Google Scholar] ). Ongoing studies of migration patterns (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2003 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Dietz R . Laidre K.L . Richard P . Orr J . Schmidt H.C . The migratory behaviour of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2003 ; 81: 1298 – 1305 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), population sizes (Heide-Jorgensen et al.

2010 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Laidre K.L . Burt M.L . Chicano Studies Research Paper? Borchers D.L . Marques T.A . Hansen R.G . Rasmussen M . Fossette S . Abundance of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) on the hunting grounds in Greenland . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1135 – 1151 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Service? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Richard et al. 2010 Richard P.R . Laake J.L . Oxford University Thesis? Hobbs R.C . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Asselin N.C . Cleator H . Baffin Bay narwhal distribution and service hours, numbers: aerial surveys in the Canadian High Arctic, 2002–04 . Arctic. 2010 ; 63: 85 – 99 . Chicano Paper? [Google Scholar] ) and life history (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) of dissertation on customer, narwhals contribute to war of 1812 essays, understanding the dissertation on customer underlying population dynamics of chicano, this exploited species (Reeves Heide-Jorgensen 1994 Reeves R.R . Service? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 119 – 134 . [Google Scholar] ). Sustainable harvest levels are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions, are vital (Kingsley 1989 Kingsley M . Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti: Monodontidae) . Fund Analyst? Journal of Zoology. 1989 ; 219: 201 – 208 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Estimation of life history parameters for narwhals has been hindered by the lack of a reliable age estimation technique. Without such a technique, it is difficult to parameterize rates of dissertation service hours, body growth, age at sexual maturity, longevity and hackers hacking, survival rates of the whales.

Traditionally, ages of marine mammals have been estimated by counting dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) in teeth, usually consisting of an dissertation on customer hours opaque and a translucent layer deposited annually (Dietz et al. 1991 Dietz R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Harkonen T . Teilmann J . Valentin N . Age determination of chicano studies paper, European harbour seals Phoca vitulina L . Sarsia. Service? 1991 ; 76: 17 – 21 . Write? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from hours, Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ; Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Oxford University? Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . On Customer Service? Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. Studies Paper? 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Dissertation On Customer Service Hours? Narwhals are born with two maxillary, elongated teeth embedded in the upper jaw. The left tooth erupts through the lip in males, and as the whale grows older this becomes a long, spiralled tusk (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . How To Gags? Mansfield A.W . Dissertation On Customer Service Hours? Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Handbook of marine mammals.

Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Drum Major? Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Normally, the dissertation service hours right tooth remains inside the maxilla in males. In females, both teeth usually stay embedded in chicano studies research the maxillae. Dissertation On Customer Service? Anomalies such as females with tusks or males without a tusk or with two tusks are reported in the literature but occur infrequently in narwhal populations (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Handbook of marine mammals. Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Besides being expensive to purchase and difficult to fund analyst resume, prepare for counting GLGs, tusks almost exclusively represent only the male part of the population. Attempts have been made to estimate age by counting GLGs in on customer hours embedded teeth. Oxford? However, due to occlusion of the pulp cavity and thereby cessation of deposition of growth layers, only a minimum estimate of age can be obtained from these teeth for adults; reliable estimates can be obtained only for young individuals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the dissertation on customer narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue.

1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). A different method is needed to obtain age estimates for the mature component of the narwhal population, including both males and females. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in several age estimation studies of cetaceans (Nerini 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of analyst, fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon dissertation on customer service aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ; George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Studies Research? Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . On Customer Service Hours? Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . [Google Scholar] ; Olsen Sunde 2002 Olsen E . Sunde J . Age determination of minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) using the aspartic acid racemization technique . Sarsia. 2002 ; 87: 1 – 8 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Oxford? This technique relies on on customer hours the fact that in oxford metabolically inactive tissues, the on customer l -form of aspartic acid converts to the d -form at a constant rate over time, a process known as racemization (Masters et al. 1977 Masters P.M . Bada J.L . War Of Essays? Zigler J.S . Aspartic acid racemization in the human lens during ageing and in cataract formation . Dissertation On Customer? Nature.

1977 ; 268: 71 – 73 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The age of an individual can be estimated when the essay rate of racemization, the dissertation service hours initial ( d/l ) 0 value for the species and the individual d/l ratio are known. War Of Essays? The most stable proteins of the body are found in on customer hours teeth and eye lens nuclei, and fund, that is why these tissues are often used in AAR age estimation studies (Bada et al. 1980 Bada J.L . Brown S . Masters P.M . Age determination of marine mammals based on aspartic acid racemization in the teeth and on customer, lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 113 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ). Bada et al. Studies Research? ( 1983 Bada J.L . Dissertation On Customer Service? Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature. Hacking? 1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and on customer, remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . University Thesis? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used AAR to estimate ages of on customer hours, narwhals from teeth and eye lens nuclei. Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature.

1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used the chicano studies research paper human racemization rate in teeth, whereas Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . On Customer Service? Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated a rate based on a combination of narwhal and fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) data. The rate of racemization has been shown to differ among species, mainly driven by core body temperature (Garde 2011 Garde E . Drum? 2011 . Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros . PhD thesis, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen . [Google Scholar] ; Rosa et al. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours? 2012 Rosa C , Zeh J , George J.C , Botta O , Zauscher M , Bada J . O'Hara, T.M . 2012 . Age estimates based on aspartic acid racemization for bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) harvested in 1998–2000 and the relationship between racemization rate and body temperature . Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). It is therefore important to fund analyst resume, estimate a specific racemization rate for the narwhal based directly on narwhal data. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for the narwhal by regression of GLGs in tusks against aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. We anticipate that this rate will be useful in future large-scale studies of life history and population dynamics of narwhal populations. Tusks and both matching eyes from 11 narwhals were purchased from the dissertation on customer service Inuit hunt in hackers hacking essay north-west and service hours, East Greenland in war of 1812 essays the period September 2006–November 2010 (Table 1). Eye samples from two whales (ID nos. 4080 and 4084) were discarded as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Eight of the dissertation on customer service hours remaining nine whales were males. We believe the ninth whale (ID no.

4075) was a female: the Inuit hunter that caught this individual also provided ovaries together with the tusk and eyes. Body lengths of the war of 1812 whales ranged from 306 to 491 cm (Table 1). Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in service hours tusks. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in chicano studies research paper the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. On Customer Service Hours? 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to university thesis, GLG.

Tusk preparation and counting of dentinal GLGs. Total tusk length, external tusk length (portion protruding from the dissertation service melon of the whale), tusk mass, tusk diameter at write, the melon front, total length of the dissertation on customer service pulp cavity and gags, diameter of the pulp cavity at the melon front were measured (Table 1). Some tusks were purchased while still embedded in the skull, and these were removed after gentle maceration of the skull in 38°C water for five days. Each tusk was cut into two longitudinal sections using a jigsaw (Fig. 1). The surfaces were polished using sheets of service hours, very fine sandpaper, and the tusks were placed in a wooden container lined with plastic where they were soaked in 12% acetic acid for four–five days, after which they were rinsed with water and drum major essay help, left to hours, dry for one day. This procedure made individual GLGs more visible by analyst, revealing troughs and ridges, thereby facilitating counting. Growth layers were counted, and their individual widths were measured with a digital micrometer in order to estimate a standard width of GLG that might help in identifying GLGs and rejecting secondary lines. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of service, growth layers in tusks. Fig.

1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. 1812? 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. Dissertation? (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. Research Paper? 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows). Fig. 1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. Dissertation Service? 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and essay, nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows).

It was noted whether the neonatal line, the tip and service, the root of the proximal part of the tusk (the part originally located within the head of the whale) were present (Fig. 1a, b). A single, experienced tooth-reader trained in reading beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) and narwhal teeth (not tusks) was chosen to read the narwhal tusks as less-experienced tooth-readers of how to write, harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) teeth have been shown to be less accurate and on customer service, more negatively biased (Garde et al. 2010 Garde E . Frie A.K . Dunshea G . Hansen S.H . Kovacs K.M . Chicano Studies Paper? Lydersen C . Harp seal ageing techniques—teeth, aspartic acid racemization, and dissertation on customer service hours, telomere sequence analysis . Journal of Mammalogy. 1812 Essays? 2010 ; 91: 1365 – 1374 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Frie et al. 2011 Frie A.K . Dissertation Service Hours? Fagerheim K . Hammill M.O . Kapel F.O . Lockyer C . Stenson G.B . Rosing-Asvid A . Svetochev V . Error patterns in age estimation of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ): results from a transatlantic, image-based, blind-reading experiment using known-age teeth . ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2011 ; 68: 1942 – 1953 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Drum Help? GLGs were counted on both sides of each of the longitudinal sections, and each GLG was marked with a pencil for service hours, bookkeeping and to check for consistency in university their classification. GLGs of each of the longitudinal sections were read several times, and consistent readings with the most GLGs were accepted as the best estimates.

This was done to diminish the risk of un-counted GLGs due to uneven sectioning of the tusks. One GLG consisting of a small dense dark layer and a wide paler layer (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ) was assumed to represent one year in the whale's life, as shown for the closely related beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of dissertation, Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Often the beginning of a GLG was marked with a node in the cementum; in cases where the GLGs were less discernible, this node could be used as guidance for drum major essay, determining the start of the GLGs (Fig. 1c). There was also some layering in the cementum, but the layers were less easy to count and the cementum appeared to have far fewer GLGs than the more protected dentine. Secondary lines were frequently present, and care had to dissertation on customer service hours, be taken to make consistent readings of standard width GLGs (Fig. 1c).

Growth of the narwhal tusk is shown as a plot of tusk length (cm) versus GLGs for oxford thesis, each of the 11 narwhal tusks used in this study. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours? One GLG is war of essays assumed to constitute one year of growth. Eye dissection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Eyes were frozen at ?20°C upon collection. In the laboratory, eye lenses were dissected out dissertation, of the eyes. The lens layers surrounding the essay help nucleus were thoroughly removed, like layers of an onion, leaving only the nucleus for further analysis (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . On Customer Service Hours? Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Fund Analyst? Journal of dissertation on customer, Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). One eye, rather than both eyes, from war of 1812, each whale was analysed, as no significant difference between eyes from the same individual narwhal were found in a previous study (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . On Customer Service? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). War Of? Hydrolysis of samples and dissertation service, analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed following the procedures of Zhao Bada ( 1995 Zhao M . Bada J.L . Determination of ?-dialkylamino acids and their enantiomers in drum major essay help geological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with a chiral adduct of dissertation on customer hours, o-phthaldialdehyde . University? Journal of Chromatography A. On Customer Service? 1995 ; 690: 55 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Oxford? Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. Dissertation Service? 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Eye lens nuclei were hydrolysed in 1 ml 6 M HCl for 6 h at 100°C. An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn, Germany) was used for the chromatography and data analysis. Detection was performed using fluorescence (excitation = 340 nm, emission = 450 nm). The column was a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18, 4.6?150 mm, with particle size of 3.5 µm. Analyst Resume? The HPLC-measured d/l ratios were calibrated using series of d/l standards: 0.5/99.5, 1/99, 2/98, 5/95, 10/90 and 15/85.

This series was run at on customer hours, the beginning and end of hacking, each HPLC run. The measured d/l ratios from the eye lens nuclei were recalculated using the calibration equations (linear regression) for the d/l standards. Narwhal racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. Eye lens nuclei d/l ratios were regressed against the number of GLGs in tusks to obtain a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals (Table 1). Included in the regression were d/l ratios from two near-term foetuses (=0 years old) and 13 young narwhals classified to age based on length and on customer, month of gags, death (age range: 0.5–2.5 years old; length range: 175–298 cm; Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . On Customer Service? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The slope of the regression line equals the 2 k Asp value, corresponding to fund analyst, twice the racemization rate. The intercept of the line corresponds to dissertation on customer hours, twice the ( d/l ) 0 value.

A linear regression assumes that explanatory variables are measured without error. Drum Major Essay Help? Violation of this assumption can lead to biased results and underestimation of the standard errors. The explanatory variable is age, estimated from either length or GLG counts, both subject to error. The possible bias and standard errors were quantified via bootstrapping. Each bootstrap data set was created as follows: to the d/l ratios were added a normal random variable with mean 0 and SE equal to dissertation service hours, the residual SE from the ordinary regression assuming no error on the age estimates.

The age of the 15 foetuses and young whales were drawn from a uniform distribution on an interval given by the estimated age±0.5 years, and then rounded to the nearest half-integer value. For whales where age was estimated by GLG counts, simulated values were rounded to hackers hacking, the nearest integer. The uncertainty in the GLG counts was larger and service, based on whether the tusk was complete or not. Hackers Hacking Essay? If the dissertation on customer service neonatal line, the tip or the base were missing (Table 1), the uncertainty was increased. Uncertainty was also based on the readability of growth layers, especially concerning the two oldest tusks with many GLGs. Resume? The uncertainty was evaluated for on customer service, each tusk, so the essay bootstrap study used different uniform distributions for each whale. The number of bootstrap replicates used was 10 000. Tusk lengths ranged from 34 to 255 cm (Table 1). Tusk diameter (mm) measured at the melon front ranged from 12 to 63 mm. Length of the pulp cavity was between 56% and 100% of tusk length; the shortest tusk (34 cm) had the lowest percentage pulp cavity, and the longest tusk (255 cm) had a pulp cavity running through the entire tusk.

Tusk mass ranged from 0.06 to 7.45 kg. Six out of nine tusks were worn at the tip but were complete and included the neonatal line. The tip of the longest tusk (ID no. 4076) was broken off as well as being worn: it lacked the neonatal line and several GLGs. The tip of the second longest tusk (ID no. 956) was also worn, and it was uncertain whether the dissertation service neonatal line was still present. However, based on how it was worn, we assumed that, at most, only the fund neonatal line and a few, if any, GLGs were missing. To estimate the on customer number of missing GLGs in tusk ID no. 4076, it was compared with tusk ID no.

956, which was of almost the same length and diameter. How To Write Gags? It was concluded that the missing tip of ID no. 4076 contained 10 GLGs. Fifty GLGs were counted in the tusk, giving a total of 60 GLGs after adding the missing 10. The root of the proximal part of the tusk from whale ID no. 888 was partly destroyed during maceration, which complicated counting GLGs. The count of 24 GLGs may therefore be a minimum estimate for this tusk.

The proximal parts of dissertation service hours, tusks with ID nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were lost, having been cut off by the hunters during removal. By comparing these three tusks with other tusks, we estimated that 5 – 7 cm was missing in each case (Table 1). However, for war of essays, the abovementioned four tusks, we assumed only a few, if any, GLGs were missing. GLGs were counted in all 11 tusks, and counts, or age estimates, ranged from 5 – 70 GLGs (Table 1). Dissertation Hours? Tusk growth in length for the 11 tusks ranged between 3.54 and 9.11 cm ?yr with an average of 6.33 cm ?yr . The two largest and oldest tusks were growing the least per year (range: 3.54 – 4.25 cm ?yr ). War Of Essays? The remaining tusks grew between 5.38 and 7.73 cm ?yr except for tusk with ID no.

974 that had the fastest growth of 9.11 cm ?yr . Width of individual GLGs did not diminish with age but varied between years (range for all tusks: 0.76 – 3.96 mm). Tusk lengths versus number of GLGs are shown in Fig. 2. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by service, counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of hackers hacking, tusk growth. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of tusk growth. Standard curves and hours, linear regression equations.

The d/l standard series was used to produce two standard curves for each HPLC run. Studies? For each run, linear regression equations were calculated by regression of theoretical d/l ratios versus the measured d/l ratios from the d/l standards. Service? The coefficient was r 2 =0.99 for each run. Individual d/l ratios were recalculated using the equation with a slope closest to 1 (range: 1.1295 – 1.2187) from each run. Estimating the racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. The slope of the regression line (=2 k Asp value) including nine whales with tusks and 15 foetuses and young whales was estimated to be 0.00233±0.000080 SE with an intercept of oxford thesis, 0.0579±0.00179 SE ( r 2 =0.98). Dissertation Service? The residual SE in essay help the regression was 0.0073. The racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value were, therefore, 0.00117 ?yr ±0.000040 SE and 0.0290±0.00089 SE, respectively.

For the bootstrap study, the simulated age for whales ID nos. 950 and 951 was drawn from a uniform distribution centred at their estimated age±1 year; for whales ID nos. 841, 953 and 974, an uncertainty of±3 was used; and for whale ID no. 4076, an uncertainty of ±5 was used. Finally, for whales ID nos. Dissertation On Customer Service? 4075, 888 and 956, the values given in fund analyst Table 1 are minimum values, with a possible underestimate of up to five years. Therefore, for these three whales a number between 0 and 5 was added, with linearly decreasing probability.

The average estimate of the slope was 0.00229±0.000089 SE, and the average intercept estimate was 0.0580±0.00185 SE (Fig. 3). The r 2 was in all cases between 0.88 and 0.98. We finally estimate the racemization rate to 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 and the ( d/l ) 0 to 0.0290±0.00093. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in on customer service tusks.

Fig. 3 Regression line from the drum major essay bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the service racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on war of length. Service? The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the how to write ( d/l ) 0 value. Eleven narwhal tusks and matching eyes were sampled for the purpose of estimating a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regression of GLGs in tusks against d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. Eyes from on customer service, two whales were discarded, as it was uncertain whether the drum major help tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Thus, samples from nine whales remained for analysis. The sample size is less than optimal, but the costs and difficulties of dissertation on customer hours, obtaining whole tusks and university, matching eyes preclude a more extensive sampling programme.

Furthermore, a high incidence of broken tusks in adult males (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . Dissertation Hours? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Hacking? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) impedes sampling of old and complete tusks. The tusks in dissertation on customer hours this study were not all complete (Table 1), which complicated the counting of GLGs, and there were some evident differences in the readability of the tusks that were impossible to quantify. Furthermore, it could only be assumed that one GLG represents one year in narwhals. A deposition of one GLG per oxford university thesis year in narwhal tusks is supported by analogy to other odontocete species (Hohn 2009 Hohn A.A . Age estimation . Encyclopedia of marine mammals2nd edn. Perrin W.F . et al. . Academic Press . San Diego , 2009 ; 11 – 17 . [Google Scholar] ), and especially to the narwhal's close relative, the beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Dissertation On Customer? Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology.

2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Essay? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Service? Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Hackers Hacking? Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and until proven otherwise this is the most likely deposition rate. Tusk growth per year differed among the 11 tusks. On Customer? The two largest and oldest tusks had the lowest growth rate, which is probably because growth in length ceases with age while growth in circumference and in weight increases (Table 1). Two racemization rates were estimated: one based on chicano studies research paper assuming that the age was known without error; and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in dissertation on customer service hours the age estimation. Uncertainty of the GLG estimation was mainly based on whether the tusk was complete or not.

The two oldest tusks had increased uncertainty because either the neonatal line was not present (ID no. 4076) or it was uncertain whether it was present or not (ID no. 956), and the neonatal line needs to be visible to obtain reliable age estimates based on GLG counts (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Drum Help? Larsen A . Teilmann J . Service? Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ). Another reason was that GLGs in teeth from old animals are more difficult to discern and count due to compact layering, wear of the teeth and often broken tips (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Chicano Studies Research Paper? Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by on customer service, the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. War Of 1812? 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Dissertation Hours? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Luque et al. 2009 Luque P.L . Pierce G.J . Essays? Learmonth J.A . Santos M.B . Ieno E . Service? Lopez A . Reid R.J . Rogan E . Gonzales A.F . Boon J . Law R.J . Lockyer C.H . Dentinal anomalies in hackers essay teeth of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) from Scottish waters: are they linked to sexual maturation and environmental events? . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2009 ; 89: 893 – 902 . Dissertation On Customer Service Hours? 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The two estimated 2 k Asp values are, however, almost identical. In order to recognize the uncertainty in the age estimates based on length and GLGs, we propose the chicano studies 2 k Asp value of 0.00229 and dissertation service hours, the ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 from the bootstrap study to be used in future age estimation studies of narwhals. Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Oxford University Thesis? Nachman G . Dissertation On Customer Hours? Forchammer M.C . Chicano Research Paper? Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Dissertation On Customer Service? [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated the ages of 75 narwhals using AAR with a racemization rate estimated by linear regression using age estimates based on hackers essay body length from the same 15 young narwhals used in this study and age estimates of 13 fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) from dissertation service, Nerini ( 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the 1812 International Whaling Commission. On Customer? 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ) based on counts of chicano studies research, earplug laminations. The combined narwhal–fin whale 2 k Asp value of 0.00209 is lower than the present one of 0.00229. This could potentially be a result of using data from on customer service, two species with different ( d/l ) 0 values, but could also be caused by a lower core temperature of fin whales (36.1°C, from George et al. 1999 George J.C . War Of 1812? Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . On Customer? Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . [Google Scholar] ) than that of narwhals. Fund Analyst Resume? However, the core temperature of the dissertation on customer beluga whale, the narwhal's closest relative, has been measured to 35°C (Katsumata et al. 2006 Katsumata E . Furuta C . Katsumata H . Watanabe G . Taya K . Resume? Basal body temperature method for detecting ovarian cycle in captive beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) . Hours? Journal of Reproduction and Development.

2006 ; 52: 59 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and we assume narwhal core temperature to be similar. But, this is only speculation as no records of narwhal core temperature are available in the literature. The 2 k Asp value estimated here is specific to narwhals and should as such be a better proxy for the value in narwhals than one based on thesis narwhal and fin whale data combined. Both the 2 k Asp values from dissertation hours, Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . War Of 1812 Essays? Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . On Customer Service Hours? Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and the present one rely on indirect estimation of ages either through difficult GLG readings of narwhal tusks, body lengths or uncertain counts of gags, earplug laminae in dissertation hours fin whales; they also rest on the assumption that one GLG is deposited per year throughout the oxford university thesis life of the animal. Ideally, racemization rates could be derived from known-age animals in captivity or animals marked somehow early in their life. However, neither fin whales nor narwhals are held in on customer service hours captivity, nor are wild individuals being marked as young whales. Even if either of these approaches were technically feasible, a substantial number of animals would be required, ideally spanning the hacking full longevity, to calculate authentic racemization rates. The estimated racemization rate and dissertation service hours, the ( d/l ) 0 value have different effects on AAR age estimates.

AAR age estimates of older individuals are influenced mainly by the racemization rate, while age estimates of young animals are affected primarily by fund analyst, the ( d/l ) 0 value (George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . On Customer? Zeh J . Scott L . War Of 1812 Essays? Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Dissertation Hours? Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of help, Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . On Customer Service Hours? [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, when using the AAR technique it is also significant that a reliable ( d/l ) 0 value for the species is available. Dentinal GLGs can be examined in cross-sections of fund analyst resume, embedded narwhal teeth, but occlusion means that only a minimum GLG count can be obtained from older whales (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . On Customer Hours? Report of the chicano research International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). However, the dentinal layers representing early years (before sexual maturity) are readable in embedded teeth and can apparently provide reliable age estimates of on customer, young narwhals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, for future studies it is recommended that both eyes and embedded teeth be collected so that both methods of hackers essay, age estimation of young narwhals can be used to derive an improved estimate of the dissertation on customer service ( d/l ) 0 value. To summarize, in drum major this study we have estimated a species-specific 2 k Asp rate of 0.00229 and a ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 for dissertation on customer hours, narwhals by fund resume, regression and bootstrapping of dissertation service hours, aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against GLGs in tusks. These estimates are the first based entirely on narwhal data. Though we recognize the small sample size as well as problems associated with using incomplete tusks, we nevertheless propose that these values be used in future AAR ageing studies of narwhals. But we also emphasize the need for collection of how to write, embedded teeth, intact tusks and matching eyes of dissertation hours, narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in hackers this study and for on customer, examining both methods of age estimation. Thanks to essay, Jeppe Mohl for cutting and dissertation hours, preparing the narwhal tusks, and to Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Marianne Andersen and Kirsten Andersen for assistance with eye dissections and HPLC analysis.

Importation of samples into Denmark was authorized by CITES permits IM 0721-199/08, IM 0721-200/08, IM 0330-820/09 and IM 0330-819/09. Funding for this study was obtained from the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources and the Danish Cooperation for major essay, the Environment in dissertation service the Arctic. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in oxford this study. Note that tusks nos. Dissertation On Customer Service? 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and essay, 7 cm, respectively, cut off the dissertation on customer hours bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in war of 1812 essays the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to dissertation service, GLG. a Measured at the melon front.

b D/L ratios corrected according to regression equations. c Data not available. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 11-17-02: ESSAY; This Is a Headline For an Essay About Meta. The best jokes in the most recent ''Austin Powers'' sequel -- the dissertation service, ones that aren't about flatulence or Fat Bastard or both -- are the jokes about movies, especially about spy movies and most especially about studies, ''Austin Powers'' movies themselves. Dissertation? There's a scene in which Michael Caine, playing Austin's superspy dad, Nigel, effortlessly fights off a clutch of Dr. Evil's henchmen, the last of whom he persuades to fall over without even being punched: since the henchman is nameless (to the extent of chicano studies research not even possessing a name tag, as Nigel points out) and since the entire purpose of dissertation on customer service nameless henchmen is to topple at the slightest feint from a man like Nigel, why doesn't he just lie down immediately and save them both the trouble? Later, Austin and his comrade Foxxy Cleopatra meet with a Japanese businessman who makes what seems to them a series of naughty remarks; like the 1812 essays, audience, they're following the English subtitles, portions of dissertation hours which are washed out because they're printed over 1812, a white background. Not quite parody but possibly ironic and probably postmodern -- what these jokes are, as the former English majors out there will no doubt recognize, is meta. ''Meta'' is dissertation hours a liminal term these days; it's creeping more and more into everyday conversations, even if it's not nearly as widespread as, say, ''irony.'' Some people talk about meta all the drum major essay, time. Recently a friend and on customer service hours I were e-mailing back and forth, trying to sort out our plans to catch an evening movie, when we started to discuss how we were going to make the decision itself -- should we stick to e-mail or switch to instant messaging or the phone? ''This is war of getting too meta,'' he wrote. ''Just call me.'' Other people, including another movie-steeped friend, may not recognize the term ''meta,'' but they know exactly what it is dissertation on customer hours all the same; on the basis of a quick definition, my friend could instantly list a half-dozen good examples: ''Oh, I get it. Hackers Hacking? 'Beavis and dissertation service Butthead' was a music-video show about watching music videos, and that teen film 'Not Another Teen Movie' had a character whose only name was the Token Black Guy.'' It's easy to come up with examples in other media, too. At the hit Broadway musical ''Urinetown,'' you can hear two characters -- a little girl and a policeman -- say things like ''Of course she loves him, Little Sally.

He's the hero of the show. How To? She has to love him'' and ''When a little girl has been given as many lines as I have, there's still hope for dreams.'' If, looking for on customer, a cheaper thrill, you rent the fund analyst, horror film ''Scream,'' a feast of meta devices, you'll see a scene in which a teenage B-movie buff explains to fellow partygoers that ''there are certain rules one must abide by in dissertation on customer, order to successfully survive a horror movie. For instance, No. 1: You can never have sex,'' just before the camera cuts to the film's heroine losing her virginity upstairs. Flipping through TV channels, you might stumble across a rerun of ''The Drew Carey Show'' in which the sitcom's star tells the essay, camera that the cast is miffed about not receiving any Emmy nominations and has put together the following episode in order to fish for service hours, some. What follows is a sendup of the kind of essays ''serious'' TV revered by awards judges -- hospital-bed death scenes, brooding soliloquies and simple-minded efforts to ''address'' such social issues as gun control and illiteracy -- with the actors zestily hamming it up. An entire season of ''Seinfeld'' concerns Jerry's development of a sitcom ''about nothing,'' a sitcom that's clearly ''Seinfeld'' itself. During commercial breaks, you might catch an ad in which one man sings the praises of an hours automobile to another. ''You sound like a car commercial,'' his friend jokes. ''Didn't they tell you?'' the essay, first man says significantly. Once an arty experimental theater technique used by people who wrote plays with titles like ''Six Characters in Search of an Author,'' meta is now being used to tout antilock brakes. In an increasingly self-conscious culture, the most self-conscious of literary tricks is everywhere. Defining meta, though, can be tricky.

A prefix, it comes from the Greek for ''beside,'' ''after'' or ''change.'' The critic Herbert Kohl, in his 1992 book ''From Archetype to dissertation on customer Zeitgeist,'' takes a pretty good shot at explaining it. Meta, he writes, ''when used with the name of a discipline, designates a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the 1812, original one.'' Metamathematics, for example, is ''the critical study of the nature of mathematical systems,'' and dissertation on customer service metapsychology is ''the critical study of psychology as a discipline.'' ''Metaphysics,'' one of the most familiar derivations, is the title of the work by Aristotle that follows his ''Physics'' and that deals with the ultimate nature of the universe. How did meta get from statements like ''2+2=4 is valid within Frege's formal system'' and speculation about the fund analyst, first principles governing causality to dissertation hours a dapper Japanese gentleman inadvertently making potty jokes to a kitschy secret agent? It traveled by way of chicano studies research metafiction, a literary school of the service hours, 1960's and how to write 70's. Metafiction is on customer hours fiction that openly admits it's an major help artificial creation -- as opposed to hours naturalism, in which art strives to represent real life. Studies Paper? (The same idea got tried out even earlier in the theater. On Customer Service Hours? The critic Kenneth Tynan summed up the two camps when he wrote: ''You are in a drawing room,' says Stanislavsky to his audience, 'witnessing life.' 'You are in a theater,' says Brecht, 'witnessing actors.''') John Barth, one of write gags metafiction's stars (others include John Hawkes, Donald Barthelme and Robert Coover), wrote a story called ''Lost in the Funhouse'' in which he refers to a character as ''Magda G------'' and dissertation on customer service then goes on to explain: ''Initials, blanks, or both were often substituted for proper names in 19th-century fiction to enhance the illusion of reality. It is as if the author felt it necessary to delete the names for reasons of tact or legal liability.

Interestingly, as with other aspects of realism, it is an illusion that is war of essays being enhanced, by purely artificial means.'' The metafictionists liked to point out service hours that people are always telling stories and that stories have their own laws, utterly different from the laws that govern real life. You can see those rules played out in more than just novels; they prevail in fund analyst resume, everything from fairy tales and gossip to on customer comic strips, movies and pornography. But whatever mojo makes meta so popular now wasn't working for the metafictionists back then. Research? With the on customer, exception of Barth at the beginning of his career, they never found a large audience outside of academics and critics; readers complained that the whole enterprise came across as mandarin, aloof and theoretical. Perhaps that's because a lot of metafiction has a whiff of the schoolmaster about it.

The novelist David Foster Wallace captured the queasy subtext of chicano studies research literary metafiction in dissertation on customer service, a short story, ''Octet,'' that is a satirical metafiction about metafiction itself. The story's ''author,'' voicing his distress through footnotes, frets about his inability to pull off the intended ''cycle of very short belletristic pieces'' in the form of gags pop quizzes. What he wants to avoid, he says, is the ''now tired'' meta device of ''the dramatist himself coming onstage from the wings and reminding you that what's going on is artificial and that the artificer is him (the dramatist) and but that he's at on customer service least respectful enough of war of essays you as reader/audience to be honest about the fact that he's back there pulling the strings, an 'honesty' which personally you've always had the feeling is actually a highly rhetorical sham-honesty that's designed to get you to like him and approve of him (i.e., of the 'meta'-type writer) and feel flattered that he apparently thinks you're enough of a grown-up to on customer service hours handle being reminded that what you're in the middle of is artificial (like you didn't know that already, like you needed to be reminded of studies research it over and over again as if you were a myopic child who couldn't see what was right in front of you).'' In other words, metafiction could be pretty patronizing and, what's more, puritanical in the particular, medicinal fashion of the American avant-garde, which is dissertation on customer service so often eager to relieve its audience of the oppression of a good time. By comparison, Wallace's own vamp on the endlessly receding hall of analyst resume mirrors in which his overly cerebral and self-conscious storyteller has trapped himself is much nimbler. Contemporary writers give ordinary people more credit for knowing the difference between real life and dissertation playacting. Zadie Smith, describing the frankly bogus good-versus-evil theatrics of a professional wrestling match in her new novel ''The Autograph Man,'' explains that the fans know the wrestlers ''are not here to express genuine feelings, or to drum help fake them and dress them up natural like on dissertation on customer TV. . . . This afternoon, these two hulking men are here to demonstrate Justice. The kind Mr. How To Gags? Gerry Bowen (Block M, Seat 117) can't get from the courts in dissertation on customer service hours, compensation for his son's accident; the kind Jake (Block T, Seat 59) won't get from school whether he chooses to oxford thesis squeal on those bastards or not; the dissertation on customer service, kind Finn (Block B, Seat 10) can't seem to get from girls no matter what changes he makes to his wardrobe or record collection or personal hygiene.''

In other words, we all know it's just a novel, just a movie, just a play, but we want to throw ourselves into it anyway. We know this isn't like real life -- that's why we're here, and we'd rather not be lectured on the difference. Oxford University? Nobody actually believes in, say, the ludicrously glass-jawed henchmen that cinematic spies mow down by dissertation on customer service the dozens, but we find them delightful, as the creators of ''Austin Powers'' well know. Meta works best as a joke, not a lesson, when it asks us to laugh in recognition of the 1812, discrepancies between fantasy entertainment and the usually banal, frustrating facts of hours life. One episode of war of 1812 essays ''The Simpsons'' makes a meta nod in this direction, opening with Homer and Marge sitting on the family couch, looking bored. ''I guess we're not having an dissertation on customer adventure this week,'' Marge says. Even cartoon characters can't expect to have lives as exciting as . War Of Essays? . . Dissertation Service? cartoon characters. Lowbrow entertainment best lends itself to meta; it has the most deeply rooted conventions, reaching back to comedia dell'arte, medieval mystery plays, Punch and Judy shows and folk tales, all forms that were popular long before naturalism came along. We tend to forget that the notion that art should be made to essays resemble real life isn't traditional at all. It's pitifully arriviste, like the thin crust representing the Age of dissertation on customer service Man in how to gags, those timelines showing the geological epochs in Earth's history. Indeed, when the artists of modernism and postmodernism decided to play up the artificiality of their work, they weren't doing something new; they were reviving something very, very old.

When Zadie Smith, describing two wrestlers going at it, writes, ''All of a sudden they run at each other once more and if you have a better phrase than like thundering elephants insert it here [ ],'' she's tipping her hat to Laurence Sterne's ''Tristram Shandy,'' a book written in 1759, before the novel was properly born. In one way, though, Wallace's imaginary metafictional ''dramatist'' misses a point. Meta touches on the stories we, like children, demand to dissertation on customer hear over and over again, albeit with artful variations. They offer us the satisfactions of paper ritual rather than the boredom of repetition, and however familiar their devices, they still work. ''Urinetown'' is an extended joke about the preposterousness of musicals: Officer Lockstock and Little Sally discuss the importance of avoiding ''too much exposition,'' note the dissertation service hours, discrepancy between the show's ''happy'' music and its grim plot and drum major help lament its ''terrible'' title. The musical numbers themselves fall into dissertation service the usual categories -- love song, anthem, faux gospel -- and though they're hung on 1812 essays a storyline that refuses to plausibly support them, they're a blast nonetheless. The teenagers in dissertation, ''Scream'' know the conventions of slasher movies so well, they provide a running commentary on them as they unfold. In the film's final sequence, the supposedly dead killer returns to how to gags announce: ''This is the moment when the supposedly dead killer comes back to life for on customer service hours, one last scare.'' And here's the rub: it's still frightening. Wes Craven, the director of ''Scream,'' even made an installment of how to write his ''Nightmare on Elm Street'' series in which the characters use a screenplay of the dissertation service, movie they're in to outwit the series' monster -- and that's scary, too.

Everyone knows that pop genres like horror, mystery, musical comedy and adventure, use formulas, of course -- that's what ''genre'' means. The highbrow ideal says that art should be original and (usually) true to life; those are supposedly the hallmarks of studies research paper quality. But we now live in a society more steeped in stories than any that has gone before. In a given week, we may see a movie or two, rent a couple of videos, catch a half-dozen (or more) television programs, listen to the radio, play CD's and read newspapers, magazines or a book. The more of this we absorb, the on customer hours, more clearly we see that every good story uses some kind of research formula. Dissertation Service Hours? After only a couple of seasons of MTV's ''Real World,'' the show's participants could talk authoritatively about which standardized role -- the major help, naive virgin, the bitch, the gay housemate emerging from the service hours, closet -- each person would assume. Suddenly, everything starts to look like a genre. In his book ''American Scenarios: The Uses of Film Genre,'' Joseph W. Reed sorts the war of essays, movies of dissertation service hours Hollywood's classic era into several genres that may not exist as official categories but are still as easy to recognize as old friends. In addition to War, Women's and Westerns, there are Inventor, High School, Jungle, Psychiatrist, Escape and Southern pictures, too. The same can be done with modern movies, where some of the same genres live on, with variations. We could add to Reed's list such genres as the Incurably Ill Child movie, the Ghetto Kid Makes Good movie, the Girlhood Friends Working Out Their Issues movie and the European Food movie, flooding at us in such volume that they can hardly pretend to be unique.

Perhaps that's why teen comedies now mock their own conventions and road movies pay overt homage to old road movies. Then there are artier efforts that get labeled meta even when they don't really hit the how to write gags, mark, like Steven Soderbergh's ''Full Frontal,'' in which scenes of dissertation hours a bunch of loosely connected characters in Los Angeles shot on digital video alternate with scenes from thesis, a film that some of those characters will go on to make. Film-within-a-film isn't meta and hours neither are films about filmmakers -- otherwise ''Singin' in the Rain'' would be meta and it's not. However, the film-within-the-film in ''Full Frontal'' is a little bit meta; in it, a black actor tells a white journalist that black male movie stars never get to war of 1812 essays do real love scenes with white actresses, and when the dissertation service hours, characters fall in love at chicano research paper the end, they move in to kiss each other and then turn away at the last minute. But ''Full Frontal'' itself never jokes about the hours, genre it belongs to, the Indie Ensemble picture; after all, the whole point of successful Hollywood filmmakers doing movies about middle-class New Yorkers and hacking Angelenos with career troubles is to feel that at last they are getting to demonstrate their artistic chops by depicting real life. A better portrait of the flickering interaction between culture and on customer service hours reality in the belly of the beast is ''Adaptation,'' the most recent film by Spike Jonze and Charlie Kaufman. (Making a movie about the movie's own screenwriter recalls the now common postmodern literary stunt of including in essay, a novel a character with the dissertation, novelist's name -- Kaufman's following in the footsteps of Philip Roth and Martin Amis.) It details Kaufman's tortuous efforts to adapt Susan Orlean's nonfiction book ''The Orchid Thief'' for the screen. ''I don't want to ruin it by hackers hacking essay making it a Hollywood thing, like an orchid-heist movie or something . . . Service? I don't want to cram in sex or guns or car chases,'' he rants early on, but the ordeal of wresting a movie out of a book that has ''no story'' drives him almost mad.

Eventually, mystery and intrigue creep into the plot of fund resume ''Adaptation,'' and by the time the film veers into a ludicrous string of Hollywood ''action thriller'' cliches -- a chase through an alligator-infested swamp and a bogus yet strangely affecting moment of insight -- we realize that Kaufman has succumbed to Hollywood's imperatives. ''Adaptation'' curses the service, contrivances of blockbuster filmmaking so thoroughly that by the time it resorts to essay them, the results are amusing, clever, even wise. The ingenuity of ''Adaptation'' is that Kaufman manages to mock his cake and eat it, too, but the fact that he doesn't take himself too seriously is key. The more high-minded it is, apparently, the easier it is for meta to annoy. Ian McEwan's novel ''Atonement'' became a best-seller earlier this year, but I keep discovering people who were irritated, as I was, by the ending (which I'm about to discuss -- so jump ahead if you don't want it spoiled). In the book's final pages, it is revealed that the preceding narrative has been one character's fictionalized account of events, which in on customer hours, ''real life'' didn't end quite so satisfyingly.

The novel is an exquisite technical achievement, but the apparent message of war of essays that ending -- that actual experience rarely offers closure or redemption and that we should always be aware that novels aren't like life (going on about how fiction is a ''lie'' is one of the on customer service hours, more irritatingly arch affectations novelists are prone to) -- is exasperating. Anyone smart enough to studies research paper read an Ian McEwan novel already knows this, and dissertation on customer service it's hard not to feel, like the writer in resume, Wallace's ''Octet,'' that you're being talked down to. On Customer Hours? This is meta of the write, old school, solemn and scolding. By contrast, Michael Winterbottom's supple ''24-Hour Party People,'' a biopic about Tony Wilson, an impresario of the on customer service hours, Manchester music scene during the 1980's, is meta at its best. The British comedian Steve Coogan, who plays Wilson, breaks character, addresses the camera, tells you that the anecdotes he's just related aren't true (or have been denied by the alleged participants), tips us off on what will happen later in the film, introduces various extras as the real people that the other actors are playing and at one point even announces that the man playing Wilson's television producer in the previous scene was ''the real Tony Wilson.'' All this serves to undermine Wilson's version of events and at the same time to demonstrate that what actually happened doesn't really matter that much. Wilson's gift for enthusiasm, for hackers, embellishing the truth, is his great talent, his very life a testimony to the power of meta as the on customer hours, falsehood you believe in hackers, anyway. His tireless mythologizing of the scene is dissertation on customer hours what made living in oxford university thesis, his Manchester (whether or not it was truly like ''Renaissance Florence,'' as he insisted) so much fun.

When meta intends to teach us a lesson -- that is, when it's a drag -- it's usually instructing us that we shouldn't confuse fiction with real life. But as Wilson's own experience shows, sometimes the right story, well used and passionately espoused however false it at first seems to be, is exactly what real life needs. Dissertation On Customer? At its most anarchic and least instructive -- that is, as it flourishes today -- meta suggests that distinguishing between truth and help fiction counts for less than knowing a terrific story when you have seen one and relishing it regardless of its authenticity. If to be human is partly a matter of believing, as Lewis Carroll's White Queen did, in on customer service hours, ''as many as six impossible things before breakfast,'' better that we understand what we're doing when we select those impossible things, knowing not only how much we may suffer from analyst resume, choosing the wrong ones but also how much joy can be found in embracing the right lie. Manchester may not ever be Florence in dissertation on customer service hours, the Renaissance (if even Florence in hackers, the Renaissance was), but why should that keep us from dancing all night?

The actor has built a career, and a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an service hours unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is war of 1812 essays found not guilty by reason of insanity? Often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in sight.

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20 Common Essay Topics for IELTS Writing Task 2. Below is a list of the 20 most common IELTS essay topics that appear in dissertation service hours, writing task 2 with subtopics. Although the essay questions change, the hacking essay subject of the essays often remains the same. On Customer! Each topic is essays divided into subtopics which you should prepare. Dissertation On Customer Hours! You should practice developing ideas for all common essay topics used by IELTS so that you can write your essay within the given time limit. Oxford University Thesis! Follow this link to get over 100 IELTS essay questions for hours, the topics below. Common Essay Topics with Subtopics. Art censorship of art and artists creativity art at school the hackers hacking essay benefits of art for individuals and society funding Business Money small vs large business international business family run business management and hours, leadership success in business business and technology skills vs knowledge for business materialism and consumerism Communication Personality technology and communication family and communication face to face vs long distance communication types of communication the development of character and paper, personality innate or developed personalities female / male characters Crime Punishment prisons vs rehabilitation capital punishment vs other types of on customer hours, punishment criminals what makes a criminal major vs minor crime crime and technology teenagers and crime role of policemen men and women in law enforcement Economics cash vs credit cards saving vs spending globalisation and hackers hacking essay, economy world economic issues economic progress and success Education children and dissertation hours, education relevant subjects education and oxford university thesis, technology role of teachers discipline and rules in school single-sex schools uniforms funding educational aid to poorer countries Environment animals protection of endangered species zoos environmental problems saving the dissertation on customer hours environment solving problems government vs individual roles Family Children family roles family size the generation gap discipline role models family and education Food health diets education of diet traditional vs modern diets fast food children and diet Health prevention vs cure funding health and education poor countries and fund analyst, rich countries health aid dealing with global epidemics hospitals and treatment obesity exercise and health Language having only one language in service hours, the world methods of language learning travel and language the disappearance of languages language and culture Media Advertising censorship, control and freedom of speech advertising methods children and advertising media and technology news reporting Other Common Essay Topics Space Exploration Water and Oceans Change or Moving vs Stability and Constancy Reading paper books vs ebooks children and reading books in education libraries reading and leisure Technology controlling the internet socialising online children and technology (safety) the change in essays, society letter vs email storing data safety of service hours, personal information hacking Transport development of infrastructure comparing forms of transport problems with modern forms of transport environmental issues Travel culture and travel understanding people and travel living in a global world Society overpopulation poverty homeless people crime on the streets modern life styles budget spending public services Sport professionals vs amateurs salary equipment sport and write gags, learning sport as a school subject men vs women in sport types of dissertation on customer hours, sport Work shift work women in oxford university, work types of on customer, jobs (blue collar / white collar) children and exploitation part time work work and technology employment salary equality.

To get a list of recent essay questions as well as recent topics and fund analyst, question from dissertation on customer hours, all other sections of the IELTS test, follow this link: Recent IELTS Exam Questions Topics. Get model essays, tips, free video lessons and practice exercises for IELTS writing task 2: IELTS Writing Task 2. Get over 100 IELTS essay questions for free. The essay questions are organised into topics and also into different types of essays: 100 IELTS essay questions. Develop your vocabulary for some of the above topics: IELTS vocabulary page. Drum Essay Help! Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. Please give me last six months essay topics which came in a ielts exam..

I#8217;m Ali , from iran and I have to say THANK YOU ! May God bless you. Dissertation On Customer! Advertisement reflects the power of renowned consumer products in which celebrities are act as a crowd puller by doing advertises on television screen. Youngsters attract easily due to their favourite film stars , singers advertisevent. However, it is how to write true argument that reduces the substancial real needs of the society in which they sold their goods. Throughout the dissertation hours years, the scenario has been changed due to development of technology worldwide that helps the research paper advertise companies to launch their products efficiently.

Although, there is no actual need of that goods but individual purchase it through online website for instance, / etcetera that leads to wastage of dissertation service hours, currency and oxford thesis, also grown-ups foster their guardians for that unworthy things. Besides this, companies provide lot of benefit and offer on goods to influence the public but it might have palpable effect that create skin infection , elergy problems due to the usage of cosmetica, medicines or protein powders that are consumed to gain or lpose weight . So , generally unhealthy for dissertation on customer, people. On the other hand, there are various aspects against this argument. It is a people#8217;s choice to take decision to buy goods . Advertising may be not a cause of consumer#8217;s buying habits .individuals have their own spending habits . If they have got enough disposable income then they have right to purchase that product . Before buying consumer goods they should evidently aware about hackers hacking essay, it positives and negatives. To conclude , it is quit inconvenient to say everyone is dissertation on customer service swayed by advertising. Compared with other product companies , the sensitive areas of business such as toys industries that should be curtail to advertise because children have not enough mature to judge about good or bad. Sory I don#8217;t comment on writing. 1812! Hi Liz, your website is very helpful,no doubt :). My ielts test day is 15th dec and i am really confused#8230;

i wanted to ask that what i ought to do if i have no knowledge about the question in writing task 2. waiting for your response.. Dissertation Hours! You will have a problem if you have not prepared ideas for common topics in writing task 2. See this page for a list of more topics: You can find ideas from model essays online and debate websites. today I have elaborately studied marking criteria of writing task 2. Could you please explain me these three things- 1)coherence 2)cohesion 3)referencing. looking forward to hackers hacking essay, your reply. thanks in advance #128578; You can find detailed information about the writing task 2 band scores on this page: Coherence is about your language being easy to understand with a logical flow of ideas. Cohesion is about how ideas connect to each other (ie linking). Referencing is about referring back in grammar by dissertation on customer hours, using #8220;it#8221; or #8220;they#8221;. I have been looking for site to know writing task 2 topics with sub-topics,thanks to ieltsliz because its made my task easy. You might have no idea how MANY DOCTORS around the war of world are thankful for your help in learning English!

On behalf of all white coat wearing people, THANK YOU!. I read many FB med group chat#8217;s comments and other social networks, where many who want to come to the UK to practice medicine get together , and many of them recommend watching your videos. Thousands of them, mostly from on customer hours, developing countries, show their gratitude to gags, you. we need above 7.5 in total and above 7 in each. Personally, I have given IELTS 5 times, in 6 years.

Unfortunately, I have not received the required score yet. On Customer Hours! BUT, I have received in Speaking 8, reading 7, Listening 7.5, and most horrible part-writing 6.5. Those numbers were different in drum major essay help, each time, I just compiled them in the best shape, to show the greatest achievement I could get in those hardest ever my exams. On Customer Service Hours! I never got any bad marks during my 8 years of medical exams. I graduated from medical school with Honors yet ENGLISH- is my weak point.

I am proactive and will try for the 6th time, I believe it will be my last time of giving IELTS, I will achieve the required and even more band. Major Essay Help! I have never really practice writing exactly at it is given in your explanation. Dissertation Service! But this time I WILL. from Central Asia. Thanks so much for your comment. I#8217;m aware of the chicano studies research issues doctors face hitting their required score and am glad my site helps #128578; I have actually replied to you at length via email using the email address you have used to post this message. Take a look as I#8217;ve given you some extra tips and a gift. Good luck #128578; Thank you . Dissertation On Customer Hours! You are not wise only, generous and oxford university thesis, have real concerns for service hours, your students. Heavenly rewards for your tremendous work. Chicano Paper! Advance Merry Christmas!

Many new adventures in coming year 2017! Thank you Liz for your help so much! I know you have probably heard it many times before but I really do appreciate your great work. In my case especially, your study materials are priceless. I am a mother of a 9 months old baby girl so you can only imagine how challenging for me is hours studying and taking care of her at the same time. Actually, now at the moment I am burning the midnight oil to study for my IELTS exam (Academic) which is coming in the beginning of December 2016. My English is far from paper, being perfect and my dream is to get band 8+.

I am full of doubts and totally bushed, worried about my final results but I know that I just simply cannot give up. I think many people are having the dissertation hours same thoughts and worries as I do. But you are here, for us and that#8217;s amazing. I am sending my warmest greetings from Finland. Thank you very much for your stunning site and I really like and benifited from it.I am a student of IELTS.

My asking to you, how can I guess Argumentative written or narrative written. Gags! Some time I make mistake it . May you give me any easy way to identify it. Thank you. See the free information video on this page which explain the five types of IELTS essays: really love your website. It#8217;s very interactive. In my speaking test had to on customer service hours, speak about the last story I had watched on TV, with whom I watched and what did I liked about it and why. Thanks for sharing #128578; I#8217;m glad my site is useful. In most of the GT writing test part II in the introduction paragraph, its mentioned that #8220;In this essay I will be describing or I explained about#8230;..bla bla. Similarly, In conclusion part,#8221;I/we discussed and explained so and major essay, so#8230;#8230;.#8221; My question is that is it right to use I and We the on customer service way I used in the above example or generalised statement will be given more weightage. None of the phrases you have listed are advisable to use. I suggest you see my advanced writing task 2 lessons:

Thank you for your great and wonderful lessons and tips that is really valuable to hacking, us. i bought your Advanced IELTS Writing task2 for different types of essay questions and its amazing,v.thanks. #8220;people should work a fixed number of hours per dissertation on customer hours, week,and employers should not ask anybody to work more than this#8221; give reasons for your answer and how to gags, include any relevant examples. what is this type of essay?and how to deal with it?and if any advices you can give it to on customer, me regarding my question. That question is drum essay help not complete. Where did you find it? Cambridge 10 general training test2. That#8217;s so badly written for an IELTS question. Service! It#8217;s an thesis, opinion essay. You need to on customer service hours, comment on 1812 the opinion given by giving your own opinion. You need to dissertation on customer, explain what you think of people working a fixed number of hours in a week.

Hello mam, i done my best in ielts exam #8230;i follow format similar trend which should be followed but unfortunately i overall got 5.5 band in writing ..Can u suggest me something I#8217;m going for it again. I am going to give general ielts test and studies research paper, I need your advice before giving the test please give me some tips for general ielts test and which lessons is are good for general test from your lessons. Dissertation! All writing task 2 lessons are also for essays, GT. Dissertation! On the writing task 1 page, you will find tips for fund analyst resume, letter writing. I am preparing for Ilets Academic exam, It is on 31st March, I have started my preparation on 19th March #128577; My goal is to achieve 6.5 band in writing, i am doing quite well in other sections. But i am not feeling confident in writing, kindly give me some tips on writing.

I know you are taking some time off. However, I have a question for you in dissertation on customer hours, regard to Task 1. When the question is asking you to write a letter to your friends and in your letter, thank them for how to write, the photos and for the holiday you spent overseas. Since, no names were given, how would you suggest addressing this letter ? Would you suggest simply using imaginary names? Thank you for sharing valuable information for IELTS exam. After going through your tips, I am a bit confused about dissertation, how to write an essay for the question #8216;To what extent do you agree#8217;? For example, #8220;Most artists receive low salaries and should therefore receive funding from the government in order for how to gags, them to continue their work.

To what extent do you agree?#8221; Can I disagree with the statement or I have to agree only? As I can say here that government has other priorities as well. On Customer! In addition to funding, can I write something like additional unemployment benefits for artists etc to further help artists. Furthermore, If I agree (partially or fully) or disagree, two body paragraphs which I make, I have to justify my statement given in how to, introduction only or can I discuss other side as well (may be in second para)? I am getting confused over this type of question (To what extent) so please provide me with some resources on dissertation on customer service it as I have my exam on chicano studies paper 23rd Jan. Do you have any solve essay so that I can see all the method. What is your opinion on on customer giving a Title to the Essay before we begin writing it.

Will that have a positive or negative impact? Please advice. Essays! You should not write a title. hi madam I bit confuse about what I write in this topic some sports make use of steroids in order to boost their performance as it easy to obtain legal drugs through a medical prescription . suggest some possible measures to check such unethical practices ielts task 2 #8230;Please reply me as soon as possible because my exam is on 7 November. .Thanks. Hours! This can be checked by regular urine and oxford, blood tests. It can also be dealt with by having harsher penalties for on customer service hours, people using drugs to how to, enhance their performance. This issue has been in the news a lot so you can read up on service hours google. I can#8217;t remember where I found an hackers hacking essay, essay question that really stressed me out. It was something along the lines of #8220;Some people believe the government should spend more money on defense while others believe social benefits should be favored.

Discuss both sides.#8221; I really can#8217;t remember what it was exactly, but it concerned defense and social benefits and I honestly had no idea what I could write about on that topic. Would you have tips? Thank you so much, This is a current issue in many countries. Should a country aim to service hours, protect itself or should it spend money on providing benefits for fund resume, its citizens. Defense is on customer service hours essential in essay, order to ensure the security of a country and its citizens. Without defense, a country would be open to attack from service hours, terrorists or other countries. How To Write! It is in the interest of the citizens to provide strong defenses. However, if many of a country#8217;s citizens are in poverty or sick, the dissertation service government has a responsibility to provide benefits and war of 1812 essays, extra money to support them. Without these benefits, they might end up living below the poverty line.

I hope some of these ideas help. Feel free to share your views. Thank you so much for dissertation, your answer ! Also, I read that each paragraph should have one controlling idea. However, on subjects such as #8220;Some believe a good salary is more important, others believe an enjoyable job is more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion#8221; (something along those lines, I shortened it of course). I#8217;m struggling on two things : 1. Is it ok if I write two paragraphs, one about good salary and the other about gags, enjoying the job but with more than one idea for both? (ie. Service! I wouldn#8217;t have one single controlling idea). 2. Do I have to give my opinion in the intro or can I give it in the conclusion? Thank you for your time! You must put your opinion in the introduction, body and conclusion. How To Write! You could have two body paragraphs and join your opinion with one of on customer service hours, them or you could put your opinion separately.

Have a think about fund, getting one of my advanced training lessons for essay writing they are very detailed and will help a lot: Dissertation! The writing task 2. I came across in my IELTS general exam was. Some people thinks that radio is oxford much more interesting and entertaining than Tv. To what extent do you agree? Or disagree?. Discuss with relevent examples.

Thanks for sharing #128578; Liz, I tried writing this topic and I#8217;m trying the For-and-Against approach, and my opinion stated at dissertation the last paragraph. However, I can#8217;t come up with any ideas as to how is radio more entertaining? How is it more entertaining than TV? Could you please help me out? I am not clear what topic you are referring to you need to hacking essay, write it in full in your message. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours! Also I don#8217;t know what you mean about the #8220;for-and-against#8221; approach. Are you talking about the discussion essay? Oh, I#8217;m sorry, I completely forgot to help, mention which essay I was talking about.

I was referring to #8220;Some people think that radio is dissertation on customer service hours much more interesting and entertaining than TV. To what extent do you agree/disagree?#8221; And what I meant by resume, #8220;for-and-against#8221; was that I handle those type of questions like a discussion essay. I would first write the dissertation on customer service hours reasons why some people think it IS better than TV, and in the next paragraph I would list the reasons why others think it IS NOT. At the end I give my own opinion. However, I couldn#8217;t think of any ways in which radio is more interesting, so I thought I would ask you for some ideas.

Thank you for the fast reply! It is essay ESSENTIAL that you follow the instructions. The instructions do not say #8220;discuss both sides#8221;. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours! This is an opinion essay, you decide your opinion in the introduction and explain it in the body paragraph. Never add any information which is not your opinion. If you fail to follow instructions 100%, you will get a low mark. See my opinion essay lesson from my online course for detailed training: Do you teach online ? I found your blog very useful, I have my exam in a week time, I m looking to hackers hacking, improve my scores in on customer, Reading and Writing Section of ielts, I m good enough in English I would say, What tips you would help me on this. Listening: As I m from Asian, And you mentioned that on your video that most of the foreigners have issues when it comes to oxford university thesis, listening to Plurals. with S. any way i can differential or improve on identify it. if so.

Reading for General: Ii have experienced issue with matching question type and matching of heading or where you have lists of headings to choice or pick from like for dissertation on customer, example ( i, ii, iv) or the case of matching with the essays paragraph ( A, B, D,H). one where of the problem i fixed was with use of Synonyms in passage vs question., with the crunch of time . Dissertation On Customer! Are the Any Traps.. to look out for fund resume, or tips that can help me to on customer service, do well with this kind of questions apart from skimming the text and identifying the main idea of the paragraph#8230; Writing: I have issue with sentence construction or paragraph building i have ideas or points in mind when i end up reading up a task question. Speaking: I plan on using diverse vocabulary words. towards my topic, but how would be able to know when should i use , Could be/ Should be / Would be any differences on those, I m sure i m likely loose points on fund analyst resume misuse of words in context or when it comes to pronounciation of words. is that the case. I don#8217;t have time to dissertation service, give you all tips but here are some. For speaking, the issue you are talking about is not vocabulary, it is grammar. Gags! The use of the correct modals (should, could etc) and the use of on customer, conditional sentences all relates to your grammar accuracy and range.

You will find a grammar website recommended on my useful website page in the IELTS Extra section. For writing, the key is preparing ideas for thesis, all common topics and also planning your essay so that each paragraph has a central point. If you mix your ideas up in paragraphs, you will not get a good mark for dissertation on customer service hours, coherence and cohesion so plan your ideas and then plan how to put them into paragraphs. After that, plan how to hackers hacking, support them. All that should be done before you start writing. Would you recommend to have a balanced view? Or single sided view? If I will choose a balanced view, I think I still need to state clearly which side I preferred. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours! Is that correct?

Thanks. You can get a good score with either approach. A one sided approach choose one side (either agree or disagree). The balanced approach is university a specific opinion which doesn#8217;t fully agree or fully disagree. I#8217;ll soon be releasing a video to dissertation hours, buy which explains in detail how to do both approaches for the opinion essay. I#8217;ll post a link when it#8217;s ready. a big THANK YOU for the reply. Fund Analyst! Here is an essay that i wrote today from service, cambridge ielts 10: Q. by punishing murderers with death penalty, society is also guilty of committing murder. therefore, life in prison is a better punishment for how to write, murders. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement. ans: Many people believe that society is guilty of culpable homicide by practising death sentence for murderers, and, hence, lifelong imprisonment is a better method of punishing those criminals. I completely disagree with this point of view. In my opinion, there should be zero tolerance for serious offenses such as a murder.

I believe it is absolutely necessary to deter other offenders from committing similar offenses, meaning that our law has no place for those who take lives of dissertation hours, innocent people. Hackers Hacking! Furthermore, this is one of the best ways to ensure security of public and maintain peace in the society. For example, if criminals knew that their lives would be exempted after killing others, they would never re-think before carrying out dissertation on customer service hours such sin, and encourage others as well. Therefore, I believe that offenders such as serial killers should always be given death sentence. I also disagree that life sentence is war of 1812 essays a better sanction than capital punishment for murderers. Firstly, it would require enormous amount of money of tax-payers to support lives of those criminals in prison, and it would also be great injustice to the victim#8217;s families, who regularly pay tax to the state. Secondly, they could pose threat to the society directly or indirectly. For instance, other offenders could make friends with them while in confinement and become even more deadly when released. In addition, they could be get parole and service hours, try to avenge their sentence. In conclusion, in my view, capital punishment is necessary to show criminals that atrocious crimes have no place in society as well as to keep prisons in check. There are only minor problems with this essay.

Nothing that would prevent you getting band 7. Chicano Research Paper! A minor error would be #8220;death penalty#8221; must have #8220;the#8221; before it. You#8217;ve addressed the task well, your ideas and position are clear and relevant. You have explained and developed your main points. Dissertation On Customer Service! You have used good linking devices. Your paragraphs are good. 1812 Essays! I can only suggest you now post an essay that you actually wrote in your test if you can remember both the essay and essay question. Dissertation! You clearly have the ability to get 7 both in technique and language. So, it might be a case of not doing well on the day with the particular essay question given to how to gags, you.

Another point to consider is that in this essay you have written a one sided view. That is a simple essay to dissertation service hours, get right, in terms of technique. Did you try and university thesis, write a balanced view in dissertation on customer hours, your test? Many students make huge mistakes with balanced views and end up with no clear position. That reduces the score a lot.

What kind of essay did you write in your test. Oxford Thesis! Anyway, on the whole, you have the ability to get band 7 but this is only one essay. There might be issues with other kinds of essays that I am not aware of. Thank you for for encouraging words. I virtually had lost hopes and dissertation on customer service hours, ran out of ideas. I will try to major essay help, remember one of the essay questions I faced on test day and then rewrite it and service, post it. War Of! I think one of the major issues that I have had during test is that I fail to produce relevant examples.

Producing relevant examples is not a problem for your score. You can produce examples if you want but it#8217;s not a requirement of any band score. there are many ways to explain and support an idea examples are just one way. Service! The problem will possibly lie in your ability to address more complex essay questions with more than one part to them or a specific type of essay question. It is also important to check writing task 1. You might be losing points there. I#8217;m about to stop for analyst resume, the day. I#8217;ll check my blog again on Saturday (I#8217;m only working part time at present). Dissertation On Customer! If you put some writing up, I#8217;ll give you comments on Saturday or Sunday. I need to achieve at least a minimum of 7 in each module and overall score of not less than 7.5. I have had overall band score of 7.5 on multiple occasions and up to as high as 8, however, worryngly and frustratingly my writing score is drum essay help always 6.5. Dissertation Hours! Now I am beginning to doubt whether it is an unattainable score for me. are there any formulas or tips that will help me achieve 7 in writing section?

There are no formulas but plenty of tips. The two key things you need to war of 1812 essays, do immediately is dissertation on customer service hours find the main problem with your writing. It is fund resume either your level of English which prevents you getting band 7 or your technique of answering and dissertation on customer hours, writing your essay. Band score 7 grammar and vocabulary means FEW errors with a range of less common words, good collocations and fund, a range of grammar. Are you achieving this? Or are you pushing too much inappropriate language into your essay hoping it will give you a higher score? If your English is good enough, then the problem is with your method of on customer service, writing the essay and how you present your ideas. Write an essay to this blog on war of a writing page (as you have done here) put your details in on customer service hours, again and also the full essay question taken from one of the war of IELTS Cambridge books. I won#8217;t score you, but I will tell you if your English is safe for band 7 and dissertation service hours, then I#8217;ll give you some tips about major essay, what you need to change. How are you doing?

I am going to take IELTS GT in dissertation hours, July, I am not getting confidence in writing, I feel my vocabulary not so great. Chicano Studies Paper! Would you mind giving some tips, how can I improve my vocabulary ? Awaiting your reply. Service! Many thanks in Advance. Unfortunately, I don#8217;t have links for vocabulary for studies, GT letters. Take a look online for any website giving tips on dissertation service letter writing vocabulary it doesn#8217;t need to war of, be for IELTS.

The vocabulary for formal and on customer service hours, informal letters is fund standard. Sorry I can#8217;t help. I am planning to on customer, take an ielts exam on july. It would be my first time to take that exam and I am just doing a self study. Fund Resume! Its the second day of my self study course now and service hours, I am just reading tips about writing and watching some videos about writing essays up to now I am still confuse on the things that I need to write, do about dissertation on customer service hours, writing an essay, hope you can give me some helpful advice.thank you! Here#8217;s a list of things: 1. Hackers Hacking! Learn how your essay is marked that is step one. Dissertation Service Hours! See my band score page for writing task 2. War Of 1812 Essays! 2. Dissertation Hours! Brainstorm ideas then plan how to use the ideas. 3. More ideas does not mean a higher score.

You need to select the best ideas, organise them into paragraphs and plan the supporting points. 4. Studies Research Paper! Supporting points just means your points to explain in dissertation on customer, detail what you mean and can include an example if you want. 5. Never have more than 5 paragraphs or under 4. See my model essays for the structure. 6. Use a range of linking devices in your essay: such as, therefore, although, moreover, in addition, thus, as a result, so #8230; Try not to repeat them. 7. The linking words #8220;and#8221;, #8220;but#8221; and #8220;because#8221; never come at the start of paper, a sentence and dissertation on customer hours, can be repeated. Never make a mistake with them because they are so simple and elementary. 8. Don#8217;t use learned phrases #8220;a controversial issues#8221; or #8220;highly debatable issue#8221; they are overused and actually IELTS rarely give very controversial issues. 9. How To Write Gags! Try to produce accurate language rather than trying to on customer hours, impress the examiner and making mistakes. I hope some of those point help. Thank you for your prompt response and for sharing some helpful tips on how to start the writing review.

You are really of great help . I would just like to university thesis, ask in hours, answering the fund resume essay questions task 2,is there a pattern to be followed?like there are different essay questions,are there any specific approach for each questions?thank you! #128578; Take a look at my model essays for each type of question to on customer service, see how I approach it and war of 1812 essays, organise my ideas. Ok I will check the sample essays.thank you so much! God Bless! #128578; I work as a nanny here in Russia and applied LCP in Canada. One othe requirements is the on customer service hours Language ability. Fund Analyst Resume! They give me 30 days to comply or my application will be refuse.

I am scared cause I don#8217;t have any training and dissertation on customer, I#8217;ve got only less time to tackle ielts reviewer. My sched will be this Feb 28 at BKC Centre. I think my type of exam is under general.I am thankful I found your site .I hope you can give me more on general type of war of, exam like listening, essay writing. and tips not to feel scared and lost. Best send it on my email.thank u Miss Liz. God bless! I#8217;ve emailed you a checklist of how to get starting learning IELTS. Thank for the swift reply! Cambridge books is free online or need to purchase it on dissertation on customer service hours the local stores? Im afraid there is no english books in this place. Thanks for the help.more power!

They are not free and need to be bought online. Alternatively, you can look online and see if you can find anyone who has a copy to lend you for free. Hope your doing fine and your family as well. As you know, my application has been acting quite a bit delayed. For some reason too that i want you to know and understand that I faced some problems in thesis, applying earlier because I had to submit my passport to the Russian authorities for visa processing which took a very long time, much longer than I had anticipated. On Customer Service! The reason I have told you because I am doing everything possible to complete my application process. I have done my medical as requested by the Cic last Feb 3.2015 and result was been submitted directly to them. Fund! Due to crisis here in Russia they also lower my salary that I need to be tight more an save money instead of sending to my family so that I can pay for service, the other things behind my application-taking ielts exam , medical,and applying police clearances in Hongkong and Russia. I am writing you because I dont want to how to gags, give up hoping . I want you to know that I am looking forward to dissertation service, working with you. Here is drum major my application no.

UMI xxxx. I am asking for your help to please follow up my application. Miss liz does this sound reasonable to on customer service hours, her? I#8217;m a little confused. Do you want me to correct this letter? Is it an IELTS GT letter or a personal one for you? Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in oxford university, WT1.

WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for on customer, September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterday#8217;s paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is chicano studies Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an dissertation, experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for drum, the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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Essay on Oligopoly: Top 8 Essays on dissertation hours Oligopoly | Markets | Microeconomics. Here is a compilation of drum essay help, essays on ‘Oligopoly’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and dissertation on customer, short essays on ‘Oligopoly’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to hacking Oligopoly Essay on the Characteristics of Oligopoly Essay on the Scope of Study of Oligopoly Essay on the Models of Oligopoly Essay on the Sales (Revenue) Maximisation Essay on the Constrained Revenue Maximisation Essay on Game Theory Essay on on customer hours Payoff (Profit) Matrix. Essay # 1. Studies Research Paper. Introduction to Oligopoly: Two extreme market forms are monopoly (characterised by the existence of a single seller) and perfect competition (characterised by a large number of sellers).

Competition is of two types- perfect competition and monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, all sellers sell ho­mogeneous products while in dissertation on customer service, monopolistic competition they sell heterogeneous products. In monopoly there is studies research, no rival. So the monopolist is not concerned with the effect of dissertation on customer, his actions on rivals. In both types of competition, the number of firms is so large that the actions of any one seller have little, if any, effect on its competitors. An industry with only a few sellers is known as an oligopoly, a firm in drum essay, such an industry is known as an oligopolist. Although car-wash is dissertation hours, a million rupee business, it is not exactly a product familiar to most consumers. However, often many familiar goods and services are supplied only by a few com­peting sellers, which means the industries we are talking about are oligopolies.

An oligopoly is resume, not necessarily made up of large firms. When a village has only two medi­cine shops, service there is just as much an oligopoly as air shuttle service between Mumbai and Pune. Essentially, oligopoly is the result of the same factors that sometimes produce monopoly, but in somewhat weaker form. Dissertation On Customer Hours. Honestly, the fund analyst resume most important source of on customer, oligopoly is the exist­ence of economies of scale, which give better producers a cost advantage over hackers hacking essay smaller ones. When these economies of on customer service, scale are very strong, they lead to monopoly, but when they are not that strong they lead to competition among a small number of firms. Since an oligopoly con­tains a small number of firms, any change in the firms’ price or output influences the sales and profits of competitors.

Each firm must, therefore, recognise that changes in its own policies are likely to elicit changes in the policies of analyst resume, its competitors as well. As a result of this interdependence, oligopolists face a situation in which the dissertation on customer service hours optimal deci­sion of one firm depends on what other firms decide to chicano do. And so there is opportunity for both conflict and cooperation. Service Hours. Oligopoly refers to a market situation in which the number of sellers is few, but greater than one. University. A special case of oligopoly is monopoly in which there are only on customer service hours two sellers. Essay # 2. Major Essay. Characteristics of Oligopoly: The notable characteristics of service hours, oligopoly are: An oligopolist is neither a price-taker (like a competitor) nor a price-maker (like a monopolist).

It is hacking essay, a price-searcher. An oligopolist is neither a big enough part of the on customer market to be able to act as a monopolist, nor a small enough part of the market to be able to essays act as a competitor. Dissertation Hours. But each firm is a dominant part of the market. In such a situation, competition among buyers will force all the sellers to charge a uniform price for a product. But each firm is sufficiently so large a part of the market that its actions will have noticeable effects upon his rivals. This means that if a single firm changes its output, the how to gags prices charged by all the dissertation service hours firms will be raised or lowered. In oligopoly, there may be product differentiation as in oxford university, monopolistic competition (called differ­entiated oligopoly) or a homogeneous product may be traded by all the few dominant firms (as in pure oligopoly).

3. Interdependence and Uncertainty : In oligopoly no firm can take decision on price independently. It is dissertation service hours, because the gags decision to fix a new price or change an existing price will create reactions among the rival firms. But rivals’ reactions cannot be predicted accurately. If a firm reduces its price its rivals may reduce their prices or they may not. So there is lack of dissertation, symmetry in the behaviour of rival firms.

This type of reaction of rivals is oxford university, not found in perfect competition or monopolistic competition where all firms change their price in the same direction and by the same magnitude in dissertation on customer service, order to remain competitive and survive in the long run. So the outcome of a firm’s decision is uncertain. For this reason it is difficult to predict the total demand for the product of an oligopolistic industry. It is still more difficult, and in some situations virtually impossible, to estimate the share of an individual firm in industry’s output. It is analyst, true that the consequences of attempted price variations on the part of an individual seller are uncertain. His rivals may follow his change, or they may not, but they will, in all likelihood, notice it. Dissertation On Customer. The results of any action on the part of an oligopolist or even a duopolist depend upon the reactions of essay help, his rivals.

In short, it is on customer, not possible to define general price- quantity relations for chicano research paper, an individual firm, since reaction patterns of rivals are highly uncertain and almost completely unknown. 4. Different Reaction Patterns and Use of service, Models : It is not true to major essay help say that, in oligopoly, profit is always maximised. It is because an oligopolist does not have control over on customer hours all the variables which affect his profit. Moreover, a variety of possible reaction patterns is possible in this market—there is a conjectural variation in this market. Just as firm A’s profit depends on the output of firm B also, firm B’s profit, in its turn, depends on firm A’s output. This is why various models are used to describe the diverse behaviour of oligopoly markets where a variety of outcomes is possible. As in monopolistic competition there is not only price competition but non-price competition as well in write, oligopoly (and, to some extent, in duopoly). For example, advertising is often a life and death question in this type of market due to service strategic behaviour of all firms.

In most oligopoly situations we find intermediate outcomes. Economists are yet to 1812 emerge with a definite behaviour pattern in dissertation on customer service hours, oligopoly. Essay # 3. Scope of Study of hackers hacking essay, Oligopoly : Here we study a few of the many possible reaction patterns in dissertation hours, duopoly and oligopoly situa­tions. The focus is on pure oligopoly. Here we assume that all firms produce a homogeneous product. We do not discuss the case of differentiated oligopoly and the issue of selling cost (advertising) separately. Help. Of course, we discuss briefly Baumol’s sales maximisation hypoth­esis—without and with advertising. The focus here is on the interdependence of the various sellers’ reactions, which is the dissertation essential distinguishing feature of oligopoly.

If the influence of one seller’s quantity decision from the profit of another, ?? i /?q j , is negligible, the industry must be either perfectly competi­tive or monopolistically competitive. If ?? i /?q j , is drum major, perceptible, the industry is duopolistic or oligopolistic. The optimum quantity and dissertation on customer service hours, maximum profit of a duopolist or oligopolist depend upon the actions of the firms belonging to the industry. He can control only his own output level (or price, if his product is differentiated), but he has no direct control over other variables which are likely to paper (or do) affect his profits. In truth, the profit of each oligopolist is the result of the interaction of the decisions of all players in the market. Since there are no generally accepted behavioural assumptions for oligopolists and duopolists as is found in other market forms, there are diverse patterns of dissertation service hours, behaviour and many different solutions for oligopolistic and duopolistic markets. Each solution is based on different types of models and each model is based on a different behavioural assumption or a set of assumptions. Here we start with one or two simple duopoly models.

The same analysis (solution) can be extended to cover any oligopolistic market. The earliest model of duopoly behaviour is the Cournot model, with which we may start our review of different oligopoly models. We end with the game theoretic treatment of how to write gags, oligopoly which shows decision-making under conflict. Essay # 4. Models of Oligopoly: The Cournot model (presented in hours, 1838) is resume, based on the analysis of dissertation service hours, a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product.

Augustin Cournot (a French economist) noticed that only two firms were producing mineral water for sale. He argued that each firm would choose quan­tity that would maximise profit, taking the analyst quantity marketed by its competitor as given. Two main features of the dissertation on customer hours model are: (i) Each firm chooses a quantity of output instead of price; and. (ii) In choosing its output each firm takes its rival’s output as given. In Cournot’s model, then, strategies are quantities of output. Here we assume that firms produce a homoge­neous good and know the war of 1812 essays market demand curve. Each firm must decide how much to produce, and the two firms make their decisions at the same time. On Customer Hours. When taking its production decision, each duopolist takes into consideration its competitor. It knows that its competitor is how to write, also de­ciding how much to produce, and dissertation hours, the market price will depend on the total output of both firms. The essence of the Cournot model is that each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed and then decides how much to produce. Oxford Thesis. Each Cournot’s duopolist believes that the other’s quantity will not change.

In Fig. On Customer Hours. 1 when I produces Q M , II maximises its profit by producing 1/4Q C . In order to fund resume sell Q M plus Q c , the price must fall to P 1 . Dissertation Service. Here Q M is the mo­nopoly output which is half the competitive output Q c . The inverse demand function, stating price as a function of the fund resume aggregate quantity sold, is expressed as: where q 1 and q 2 are the output levels of the duopolists. The total revenue of each duopolist depends upon his own output level as also as that of his rival: The profit of each equals his total (sales) revenue, less his cost, which depends upon his output level above: The basic behavioural assumption of the Cournot model is on customer service hours, that each duopolist maximises his profit on the assumption that the quantity produced by oxford university his rival is invariant with respect to his own decision regarding output quantity. Duopolist I maximises ? 1 with reference to q 1 , treating q 2 as a parameter, and duopolist II maximises ? 2 , with reference to hours q 2 , treating q 1 as a parameter. Setting the partial derivatives of (3) equal to zero, we get: The first order (necessary) condition of profit-maximisation requires that each duopolist equates his marginal cost to university thesis his marginal revenue. The second order (sufficient) condition of dissertation, each duopolist requires that. The slope of the chicano studies research marginal revenue curve of each duopolist must be less than that of the marginal cost curve.

Unlike the two-cost monopolist, where a single individual controls the value of both output levels, in the Cournot model each duopolist maximises his profit with reference to a single variable under his control. This simply implies that the on customer service hours marginal revenues of the duopolists are not necessarily the same. The marginal revenues of the duopolists are: Since the chicano studies paper demand curve is downward sloping the duopolist with the greater output will have the smaller marginal revenue (because a duopolist has to dissertation on customer service reduce price to sell more). The Cournot solution is simple enough. In this model, the duopolist market is in equilibrium if the values of q 1 and q 2 are such that each duopolist maximises his profit, taking the output of the sole rival as a parameter, and neither desires to change his output level. Thus, there is no conjectural variation in war of 1812, this model.

The optimum solution (equilibrium condition) can be found out in dissertation service hours, this model by solving (3) for q 1 and q 2 if (4) is satisfied. At this stage we have to introduce an additional step to get a more complete picture of duopoly. Reaction functions which express the output of each duopolist as a function of hackers essay, his rival’s output are determined by solving the first equation of (3) for on customer service hours, q 1 and the second for q 2 : The reaction function of hackers hacking essay, duopolist I gives a relationship between q 1 and q 2 with the property that, for any specified value of q 2 , the corresponding value of q 1 maximises p 1 . In a like man­ner, duopolist II’s reaction function gives the value of q 2 which maximises p 2 for any specified value of q 1 . Service. An equilibrium solution here is hackers hacking essay, a pair of values for q 1 and q 2 which satisfy both reaction functions. Let us suppose the demand and cost functions of duopolists are: All parameters are positive here.

So the profits of the dissertation service hours duopolists are. The corresponding reaction functions are: Since the parameters B, b 1 q 1 and b 2 , q 2 are all positive, an oxford thesis, increase in output of ei­ther duopolist will lead to a fall in the other optimum (profit-maximising) output. On Customer. The reaction functions are linear as shown in Fig. 2. An equilibrium is found out by solv­ing (7), or by the intersection point E of the two reaction curves (point E in Fig. 2). The solution of (7) is. The second-order (sufficient) conditions are satisfied by the linear demand and war of essays, quadratic cost functions:

The restrictions of the Cournot model lies in its basic behavioural assumption regarding the dissertation on customer service continuing belief that a firm’s only rival will always produce the quantity that is currently being produced. Each duopolist acts on the basis of the assumption that his rival’s output remained fixed. However, this need not necessarily be true. If we assume that equilib­rium is reached through a sequence of finite adjustments, one duopolist sets an war of essays, output; this induces the other to adjust his output, which, in turn, induces the first to adjust his, and dissertation service hours, so on. It is quite unlikely that “each will assume that his quantity decisions do not affect his rival’s quantity decision if each of his adjustments is immediately followed by a reaction on the part of his rival”. To be more specific, if equilibrium is assumed to be reached simultaneously, the optimal quantity of a duopolist is not given by q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ), but by q 1 =f 1 [f 2 (q 1 )] and, similarly for II, since each knows the major essay help behaviour pattern of on customer service hours, his rival. Alternatively stated, the Cournot model assumes that each duopolist maximises his profit at analyst the assumption that his rival’s price re­mains constant. But this is not a very realistic assumption for a homogeneous product.

As a general rule, duopolists and oligopolists take into hours, consideration their mutual interdependence while taking output decisions. The simple Cournot model can be extended to cover more than two firms. As the number of firms expands, industry output expands according to war of 1812 the relation. where n denotes the number of firms. Clearly, as the number of firms increases, n/(n + 1) will approach one, and the industry output (Q) will approach the competitive level (Q c ). In gen­eral, we can write the duopolists’ profit functions as ? 1 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 1 D (q 1 +q 2 ) – C (q 1 ) and ? 2 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 2 D (q 1 + q 2 ) – C (q 2 ) where D is the on customer hours demand for, and C is the cost function. The first firm chooses a quantity q 1 , where the partial derivatives of ?, with functions to q 1 is equal to zero: Of course, this is an implicit expression for the first firm’s best-response function because it determines the profit-maximising quantity of the first firm (q 1 ) for any value of q 2 . Similarly, the university second firm’s best response function is implicitly defined by.

The Cournot equation is then a pair of quantity q 1 C q 2 C that satisfies both the best-response functions. To operate a cartel successfully, the firms must learn to threaten to punish each other for cheating on the cartel agreement. Let us consider a duopoly consisting of dissertation hours, two identical firms such that each firm produces just half the monopoly amount of output where total profits will be maximised and each firm will get a payoff of ? p ( say). In order to hackers make this outcome stable, one firm threatens the other in terms of the production of output such that if any one of them tries to cheat by hours producing more than the joint industry profit level of output, then it will be punished by the other firms, who will be producing at the Cournot level of output forever. This is known as a punishment strategy.

Now we assume that cheating occurs, and the punishment is carried out. As the ultimate optimal response to Cournot behaviour is the hacking Cournot behaviour, it will result in each firm receiving a per-period profit of, say ? c , such that. where ? c > Cournot payoff. We suppose that each of the two firms is producing at the collusive monopoly level of output. On Customer Hours. If a firm produces more output, deviating from its quota of production, the level of its profit is such that. and it is the standard temptation facing a cartel member.

Each firm has an incentive to capitalize on the high price by increasing its production, if each one restricts output and raises the 1812 price and for this there can be a punishment for cheating. Clearly, if a firm produces at the cartel amount, each one gets a steady flow of dissertation service, payments of ? p . Thus, the essay help present value of service, this flow today can be given by: Present Value of cartel behaviour – ? p + ? p /r. The firm gets a one-time benefit of hackers essay, profit, ? d , if it produces more than the cartel amount. This results is the reversion to dissertation on customer service hours Cournot behaviour: Here the numerator of fund resume, this fraction is positive, as the monopoly profits are larger than the Cournot profits, and the deviation is dissertation service hours, even more profitable than sticking with the monopoly quota which helps the denominator to be positive.

The inequality suggests that as long as the rate of interest is hackers hacking, quite small, it will be profitable for dissertation service hours, the firms to major help adhere to hours their quotas, so that the prospect of future punishment is sufficiently important. The Bertrand model was developed in 1883 by the French economist Joseph Bertrand. Like the Cournot model, it applies to firms that produce the same homogeneous good and make other decisions simultaneously. This change may affect market outcome dramatically. The Bertrand model substitutes price ? 1 and ? 2 for quantities q 1 and q 2 as the variables to be chosen.

Thus, the Cournot and Bertrand equilibrium are logical first cousins. What is the first firm’s demand function if it takes its rivals’ price p 2 as given? The first firm will anticipate that if it charges a price higher than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), everyone will buy from its rival. If the first firm charges a lower price than its rivals’ (p 1 p 2 ), however, everyone will buy from it. And if it charges a price equal to its rivals’ (p 1 = p 2 ), the firms will divide the market among them. The dia­gram for this profit function is shown in Fig. 3. Here OM is the marginal cost of producing the commodity. The second firm’s price is p 2 . The first firm’s profit function is composed of three segments. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm captures the entire mar­ket, and its profit increases as its price increases.

When p 1 p 2 , the two firms split the total profits equal to distance CA, and each makes a profit equal to CB. Hackers. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm’s profit is zero because it sells nothing when its price exceeds the second firm’s price. The Bertrand model has been criticised on two main grounds. First, when firms produce a homogeneous good, it is more natural to on customer service hours compete by university thesis setting quantities rather than prices. Dissertation On Customer Hours. Second, even if firms do set prices and choose the same price (as the model predicts), what share of total sales will go to each one? The model assumes that sales would be divided equally among the firms, but there is no reason why this must be the case. However, despite these shortcomings, the Bertrand model is 1812 essays, useful because it shows how the equilibrium out­come in dissertation on customer service, an oligopoly can depend crucially on the firms’ choice of strategic variable. The Stackelberg model (presented by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg) is hacking essay, a modified version of the Cournot model.

In the Cournot model, we assume that two duopolists make their output decisions at the same time. The Stackelberg model examines what happens if one of the firms can set its output first. The Stackelberg model of on customer hours, duopoly is different from the Cournot model, in major, which neither firm has any opportunity to on customer service react. The model is based on the assumption that the profit of each duopolist is a function of the how to gags output levels of both: The Cournot solution is found out by maximising ? 1 with reference to q 1 , assuming q 2 to be constant and dissertation on customer, ? 2 with reference to q 2 , assuming q 1 to be constant. In general, each firm might make some other assumption about the chicano research response (reaction) of its only rival. In such a situation, profit-maximisation by dissertation service hours the two duopolists requires the fulfillment of the following two condi­tions:

The terms of ?q 2 /?q 1 and ?q 1 /?q 2 represent what economists call the fund analyst resume conjectural variation, i.e., the assumed response of each firm to the output of its lone rival. If firms make wrong assumptions about each other’s responses, (2) will not represent an service, improvement over the Cournot model. The Stackelberg model contains one of the more interesting set of assumptions about con­jectural variation based on hackers hacking the analysis of leadership and followership. A follower obeys his reaction function q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ) or q 2 =f 2 (q 1 ) and adjusts his output level with a view to maximising his profits given the quantity decision of his rival, when he assumes to be a leader. But a leader does not obey his (the follower’s) reaction function. On Customer Service. He simply assumes that his rival acts as a follower, and maximises his profit, given his rival’s reaction function.

If the first duopolist acts as a leader, he assumes his rival’s reaction function is valid and, therefore, substitutes this relation into his own profit function. The first duopolist’s profit is now a function of resume, q 1 alone. So it can be maximised with respect to dissertation on customer this single variable. The second duopolist can also determine the maximum profit from essay leadership on the assumption that the first one obeys his reaction function and acts as a follower. The first duopolist’s maximum profit from followership is determined by substituting his rival’s optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. Similarly, the second duopolists’ maximum profit from followership is determined by substituting the first duopolist’s optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. This kind of ‘first mover advantage’ occurs in many strategic situations. Each duopolist determines his maximum profit levels from both leadership and followership and dissertation on customer, seeks to write gags play the role which yields the larger maximum.

Stackelberg thinks of four possible outcomes: (1)1 desires to be a leader and 2 a follower; (2) 2 desires to be a leader and 1 a follower; (3) both desire to be leaders; and. (4) both desire to be the followers. The first outcome results in a consistent behaviour pattern and, therefore, a determinate equilibrium (assuming that the first and second order conditions for maximum are fulfilled in all cases). Similarly, the second outcome results in a determinate equilibrium. But if both desire to act as followers, their expectations are not fulfilled, since each assumes that the other will take the dissertation on customer service hours leadership role. Comparison with Cournot Model: Even in how to write, terms of the Stackelberg model, the Cournot solution is achieved if each desires to act as a follower, knowing fully well that the dissertation on customer hours other will also take a follower’s role.

Otherwise, one has to change his behaviour pattern and act as a leader before attaining equilibrium. If both desire to act as leaders, each assumes that the other’s behaviour is governed by his reaction function, but, in fact, neither of the reaction functions is obeyed. Consequently, a Stackelberg disequilibrium situation is encountered, which, in Stackelberg’s view, is the hacking essay most frequent outcome. However, if Stackleberg was correct, the situation will result in quantity market-sharing war, and equilibrium will not be achieved until one has succumbed to the leadership of the other or a collusive agreement has been reached. However, by using this model, it is possible to show that each duopolist can receive a greater profit from on customer service leadership. So it is quite obvious that both desire to act as leaders. The Cournot and Stackleberg models are alternative representatives of oligopolistic behaviour.

Which model is the essays more appropriate depends on the industry. In an industry where all firms are more or less identical, none of which has a pricing advantage or leadership position, the Cournot model is probably the more appropriate. On the other hand, some industries are dominated by a large firm that usually takes the service lead in introducing new products or setting price—the mainframe computer market is an example, with IBM as the drum essay help leader. Then the Stackelberg model may be more realistic. Duopolists (or oligopolists) often recognise their mutual interdependence and service, agree to chicano studies research act to­gether (in collusion) in order to maximise the total profit of the industry. Collusive model of oligopoly shows what happens when oligopolists do decide to collude on a joint strategy. In such situations, both output levels are under a single control, and the industry is, in effect, a monopoly. Let us suppose we represent total revenue as. Total profit is.

This type of profit function is dissertation service hours, found in case of a two-plant monopolist. Here we substitute two plants by two producers. The first order condition of profit-maximisation requires that marginal cost of each producer be equated to marginal revenue for output as a whole. In this model, the profit levels of oxford university, two duopolists are determined as the basis of their indi­vidual profit functions. However, joint profit-maximisation or the final distribution of the ag­gregate profit is largely the matter for negotiation between the duopolists. Like the Cournot equilibrium, the Bertrand equilibrium is individually rational, but collec­tively irrational. Again, firms of the Bertrand equilibrium have a clear incentive to collude. Does this mean that the collusive model makes better sense of oligopoly than do the hours Cournot and Bertrand models? Not necessarily.

On the one hand, if firms find themselves at a Cournot or a Bertrand equi­librium, they have a clear incentive to collude. On the other hand, if firms manage to force a collusive agreement, there is hackers, a clear private incentive for each party to on customer service cheat on the collusive agreement. In the Cournot model, the individual incentive to essays cheat on a collusive agreement increases as the on customer service hours number of parties to the agreement increases, which means that the larger the number of how to, firms in an industry, the less likely is a collusive equilibrium. If the number of firms is large enough, some firm or firms will succumb to the temptation to cheat, thereby destroying the collusive agreement. The Market-sharing Solution : Some economists have analysed the nature of oligopolistic interdependence in case of differen­tiated products. In truth, product differentiation is likely to occur with duopoly and oligopoly as with monopolistic competition. Dissertation Service. If duopolists produce differentiated products we can think of a type of conjectural variation (different from the one assumed by Stackleberg). This form of oxford university, conjectural variation assures that duopolist 2 desires to maintain a fixed share of the total sales of dissertation service, a differentiated product, regardless of the effects of his actions on oxford university thesis his short-run profits.

He is mainly concerned with the long-run advantages that can be gained from dissertation service hours maintaining a given market share. A quantity change on the part of duopolist I will be immediately followed by a proportionate change on the part of university, duopolist II. The relation is: where k is duopolist II’s market share, will always hold. Dissertation Service. Here duopolist I is a market leader in the sense that his actions will always be followed by duopolist II in a predetermined manner. Substituting from chicano (1) for q 2 , Thus, duopolist I’s profit is a function of his own output (q 1 ) and may be maximised with reference to this single variable as long as duopolist II reacts to maintain his market share. In 1939, Paul Sweezy presented the kinked demand curve model to dissertation on customer service hours demonstrate clearly that some duopolistic and oligopolistic markets are characterised by infrequent price changes. Chicano Research Paper. Sweezy has argued that in most real-life oligopoly markets firms usually do not change their price- quantity combinations in response to small shifts of dissertation service hours, their cost curves as is normally found in essay, most market situations. The kinked demand curve model is dissertation on customer service, consistent with the fund analyst resume behaviour of firms. Starting from an service, initial price-quantity combination, if one of the duopolists lowers his price (increasing his quantity), the other is assumed to react by lowering his price (increasing his quantity) in order to maintain his market share. If one of the how to gags duopolists raises his price, his rival is assumed to leave his own price unchanged and, thereby, increases his share of the market.

Price cuts are matched, but price increases are not. Since implicit collusion tends to be fragile, oligopolistic firms often have a strong desire for stability, particularly with reference to dissertation on customer service price. This is essay, why price rigidity is a characteristic of oligopolistic industries. Unless there are substantial changes of costs or demand, firms hesitate to change price. If costs fall or market demand declines, oligopolists fear that lower prices might give the dissertation on customer hours wrong signal to their competitors and initiate some sort of price war.

And if cost or demand rises, they are reluctant to raise prices because they are afraid that their competitors may refuse to raise prices. This price rigidity forms the basis of the kinked demand curve model of oligopoly. Accord­ing to this model, each firm faces a demand curve kinked at current prevailing price P?, as shown in Fig. 4. At prices above P the demand curve is highly elas­tic because price increase is not matched. So the exist­ing firm will lose its market share considerably. On the other hand, the firm believes that if it lowers its price below P?, other firms will make matching price cuts, because they do not lose their market share.

Thus, for price increase, the hacking demand curve is inelastic. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours. In that case, sales will expand only to the extent that a lower market price increases total market demand. Thus, nei­ther price cut, nor price increase is desirable. In each case, the firm loses. Since the firm’s demand curve is kinked, its combined marginal revenue curve is discon­tinuous. This means that the firm’s cost can change without leading to price change. In this figure, marginal cost could increase but would still equal marginal revenue at the original out­put level. 1812 Essays. This means that price remains the same.

The kinked demand curve model fails to explain oligopoly pricing. Hours. It says nothing about how marginal revenue firms arrived at the original price P? to start with. In fact, some arbitrary price is taken as both the starting and end point of hacking, our journey. Why firms did not arrive at some other price remains an open question. It just describes price rigidity but cannot explain it. In addition, the on customer hours model has not been supported by empirical tests. In reality, rival firms do match price increases as well as price cuts. Market-sharing Price Leadership : Oligopolists often collude—jointly restrict supply to raise price and how to, cooperate. This strategy can lead to higher profits. Collusion is, however, illegal. Moreover, one of the on customer hours main impedi­ments to chicano studies research paper implicitly collusive pricing is the on customer service hours fact that it is difficult for firms to drum essay help agree (without talking to dissertation on customer service hours each other) on what the price should be.

Coordination becomes particularly problem­atic when cost and demand conditions—and, thus, the ‘correct’ price—are changing. However, benefits of cooperation can be enjoyed without actually colluding. One way of doing this is through price leadership. Price leadership may be provided by 1812 a low-cost firm or a dominant firm. In this context, we may draw a distinction between price signalling and price leadership. Price signalling is a form of implicit collusion that sometimes gets around this problem. Hours. For example, a firm might announce that it has raised its price with the expectation that its competi­tors will take this announcement as a signal that they should also raise prices.

If competitors follow, all of the firms (at least, in fund analyst, the short run) will earn higher profits. At times, a pattern is established whereby one firm regularly announces price changes and dissertation on customer service hours, other firms in the industry follow. This type of strategic behaviour is drum essay help, called price leadership— one firm is implicitly recognised as the ‘leader’. The other firms, the ‘price followers’, match its prices. This behaviour solves the problem of coordinating price: Everyone simply charges what the leader is on customer service, charging. Price leadership helps to overcome oligopolistic firms’ reluctance to oxford change prices—for fear of being undercut. With changes in cost and demand conditions, firms may find it increas­ingly necessary to change prices that have remained rigid for some time.

In that case, they wait for the leader to signal when and by how much price should change. Sometimes a large firm will naturally act as a leader; sometimes different firms will act as a leader from time to time. Hours. In this context, we may discuss the dominant Firm model of leadership. This is known as market- sharing price leadership. In some oligopolistic markets, one large firm has a major share of total sales while a group of smaller firms meet the residual demand by supplying the 1812 essays remainder of the on customer market. The large firm might then act as a dominant firm, setting a price that maximises its own profits. The other firms, which individually could exert little, if any, influence over war of price, would then act as perfect competitors; they all take the hours price set by the dominant firm as given and how to, produce accordingly. But what price should the dominant firm set? To maximise profit, it must take into account how the output of the other firms depends on the price it sets. Fig.

5 shows how a dominant firm sets its prices. A dominant firm is one with a large share of total sales that sets price to on customer hours maximise profits, taking into account the supply response of smaller firms. Here D is the market demand curve and S F is the supply curve (i.e., the aggregate marginal cost curves of the analyst resume smaller firms, called competitive fringe firms). The dominant firm must determine its demand curve D D . This curve is just the difference between market demand and the supply of fringe firms. Dissertation On Customer Service. For example, at price P 1 , the supply of fringe firms is just equal to market demand.

This means that the dominant firm can sell nothing at this price. At a price P 2 or less, fringe firms will not supply any of the good, in which case, the university thesis dominant firm faces the market demand curve. If price lies between P 1 and P 2 , the dominant firm faces the demand curve D D . The marginal cost curve of the dominant firm corresponding to dissertation service hours D D is MR D . The dominant firm’s marginal cost curve is MC D . In order to maximise its profit, the dominant firm produces quantity Q D at the interaction of MR D and MC D . From the demand curve D D , we find P 0 . How To. At this price, fringe firms sell a quantity Q F , thus the total quantity sold is Q T = Q D + Q F . 7. Collusive Oligopoly: The Cartel Model : Various models have been formulated to explain the strategic behaviour of firms in an oligopolistic market. A price (cut-throat) competition exists among the rivals who try to oust the others from the on customer hours market. Sometimes there ex­ists a dominant firm that acts as the leader in the market while the others just follow the leader. As a result, there happens to be a clear possibil­ity of the formation of a cartel by the rival firms in an oligopolistic market in order to eliminate competition among themselves.

This is termed as “collusive oligopoly” because the studies research firms some­how manage to combine together in order to dissertation service be­have collectively as a single monopoly. Now let us see graphically what incentives the firms get for forming a cartel. In Fig. 6, the market demand curve is given by the D M the total supply curve is the horizontal summation of the marginal cost curves of all existing firms in the industry, which is denoted by MC M . The market equilibrium is attained at the point of hackers essay, intersection between the D M (demand curve) and the marginal cost curve MC M , if the firms compete with each other. OP M is the dissertation on customer hours equilibrium price at oxford thesis which the total output of the industry is OQ M . In order to determine its own quantity, each firm equates this price to its marginal cost. The sum of the quantities of the firms is OQ. On Customer Service Hours. If the firms form a cartel in order to act as a monopolist, the price rises to fund OP ‘ M and the quantity is hours, reduced to OQ ‘ M to be in equilibrium. Now, when the quantity is being reduced by hackers hacking essay Q M Q’ M , then all the firms together save the cost represented by the area below the dissertation on customer MC M curve which is oxford university thesis, Q M E M F M Q ‘ M . Thus, a rise in price due to a reduction in the quantity is followed by a decrease in the total revenue represented by the area below the MR M curve, i.e., area Q M G M F M Q’ M . This, in turn, shows that the dissertation service cost saved exceeds the 1812 loss in revenue and, so, all the on customer hours firms taken as a whole can increase their profit represented by the area E M F M G M . The prospect of resume, earning this extra profit actually acts as the incentive to form a cartel in dissertation on customer service, the oligopoly market structure. Since the cartel is formed, all firms agree together to produce the total quantity OQ’ M . In order to fund analyst resume carry this out, each and every firm is allotted a quota or a certain portion of service, production such that the sum of war of 1812 essays, all quotas is equal to service OQ M . For this, the best way of quota allotment would be to analyst resume treat each firm as a separate entity (plant) under the dissertation on customer service same monopolist.

Thus, all the firms have the same marginal cost (MC) such that MC = MR (marginal revenue). Finally, the total profit is maximised because the total output is major help, produced at dissertation service hours the minimum cost. Each and every firm can increase its profit by gags reducing the profits of other firms, simply by increasing its output quantity above the allotted quota. The system of cartel formation must guard against the desire of individual firms to violate the quota and the cartel breaks down when the cost of guarding against dissertation service quota violation is very high. The OPEC is an example of collusive oligopoly or cartel in drum help, which members (producers) explicitly agree to cooperate in service, setting prices and output levels. All the producers in an industry need not and often do not join the cartel. But if most producers adhere to the cartel’s agree­ments, and if market demand is sufficiently inelastic, the cartel may drive prices well above competitive levels. Two conditions for success:

Two conditions must be fulfilled for cartel success. First, a stable cartel organisation must be formed whose members agree on price and production levels and how to write gags, both adhere to that agreement. The second condition is the on customer hours potential for monopoly power. A cartel cannot raise price much if it faces a highly elastic demand curve. If the potential gains from cooperation are large, cartel members will have more incentive to share their organisa­tional problems. Analysis of Cartel Pricing: Cartel pricing can be analysed by using the dominant firm model of how to write gags, oligopoly. On Customer Hours. It is because a cartel usually accounts for only a portion of total production and must take into war of 1812 essays, account the on customer supply response of competitive (non-cartel) producers when it sets price. Here we illustrate the OPEC oil cartel. Fig. 7 illustrates the case of essay, OPEC.

Total demand TD is the world demand curve for crude oil, and S c is the competitive (non-OPEC) supply curve. The demand for OPEC oil D 0 is the difference between total demand (TD) and competitive supply (SC), and MR 0 is the corresponding marginal revenue curve. MC 0 is OPEC’s marginal cost curve; OPEC has much lower production costs than do non-OPEC producers. OPEC’s marginal revenue and marginal cost are equal at quantity Q 0 , which is the quantity that OPEC will produce. Here we see from OPEC s demand curve that the price will be P 0 . Since both total demand and on customer hours, non-OPEC supply are inelastic, the demand for resume, OPEC oil is dissertation on customer, also fairly inelastic; thus the cartel has substantial monopoly. In the 1970s, it used that power to drive prices well above competitive levels. In this context, it is important to distinguish between short-run and long-run supply and demand curves. The total demand and non-OPEC supply curves in Fig.

7 apply to short-or intermediate-run analysis. Major Help. In the long run, both demand and dissertation on customer service hours, supply will be much more elastic, which means that OPEC’s demand curve will also be much more elastic. We would thus expect that, in the long run, OPEC would be unable to maintain a price that is so much above the competitors’ level. In truth, during 1982-99, oil prices fell steadily, mainly because of the long- run adjustment of demand and hackers hacking essay, non-OPEC supply. However, cartel is not an dissertation on customer service hours, unmixed blessing. No doubt cartel members can talk to oxford thesis one an­other in order to formalize an agreement.

But it is not that easy to on customer service reach a consensus. Different members may have different costs, different assessments of market demand, and even different objectives, and write, they may, therefore, want to set prices at different levels. Furthermore, each member of the cartel will be tempted to “cheat” by lowering its price slightly to capture a larger market share than it was allotted. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours. Most often, only the threat of a long-term return to resume competi­tive prices deters cheating of this sort. But if the profits from cartelization are large enough, that threat may be sufficient. Essay # 5. Dissertation On Customer Hours. Sales (Revenue) Maximisation : W.J. Studies. Baumol presented an on customer, alternative hypothesis to profit maximisation, viz., sales (revenue) maximisation. He has suggested that large oligopolistic firms do not maximise profit, but rather maximise sales revenue, subject to the constraint that profit equals or exceeds some minimum accepted level.

Various empirical studies support Baumol’s hypothesis. And it accurately cap­tures some aspects of oligopolistic firms’ behaviour. Most important, when firms are uncertain about their demand curve they actually face, or, when they cannot accurately estimate the marginal costs of their output (due to uncertainty about factor prices, or when they produce more than one product), the decision to how to try to maximise sales appears to be consistent with their long-term survival. This is why many oligopolist firms seek to maximise their market share in order to protect themselves from the adverse effects of uncertain market environment. A revenue-maximising oligopolist would choose to dissertation service produce that level of output for which MR = 0. When MR = 0, TR is maximum. That is, the oligopolist should proceed to the point at which selling any extra unit(s) actually leads to a fall in TR. Hacking. This choice is on customer hours, illustrated in Fig. 8. For the firm which faces the demand curve D, TR is maximum when output is q s . For q q s , MR is positive. This means that selling more units increases TR (though not necessarily profit). Fund. For q q s , however, MR is dissertation hours, negative.

So further sales actually reduce TR because of hacking essay, price cuts that are necessary to induce consumers to dissertation buy more. Write. We know that. MR = 0 if e p = 1, in which case TR will be maximum. TR is dissertation service hours, constant in a small neighbourhood of that output quantity at M 1 P = 0, TR is maximum, and when TR is maximum, e p = 1. We may now compare the revenue-maximisation choice with the profit-maximising level of output, q s . At q p , MR equals marginal cost MC in write gags, Fig. 8. Increasing output beyond q p would reduce profits since MR MC. Even though TR continues to increase up to q s , units of output beyond q p bring in less than they cost to produce. Since marginal revenue is on customer, positive at gags q p , equation (1) shows that demand must be elastic (e p 1) at this point. Essay # 6. Constrained Revenue Maximisation : A firm that chooses to maximise TR is hours, neither taking into account its costs nor the profitabil­ity of the output that it is analyst resume, selling. And it is quite possible that the output level q s in dissertation, Fig.

8 yields negative profit to the firm. Studies Paper. However, it is not possible to any firm to survive for ever with negative profits. So it may be more realistic to on customer hours assume that firms do meet some mini­mum level (target rate) of how to gags, profit from their activities. Thus, even though oligopolists may be prompted to produce more than q p with a view to maximising revenue, they may produce less than q p units in on customer service hours, order to ensure an acceptable level of profit. They will, therefore, behave as constrained revenue maximises and will choose to how to gags produce an output level which lies between q p and q s . Let us assume that a unique unrestricted maximum profit ? m exists at the output q p with R'(q r ) 0, C”(q) 0 for q q r , and R” (q) 0 for q 0. If ? 0 ? m , (2) cannot be satisfied and dissertation on customer service hours, the maximum-revenue problem has no solution. A solution will exist if ? 0 ? m . If ? 0 = ? m is hacking essay, q r is the on customer service hours maximum solution since it is the only output that satisfies (2). If ? 0 ? m , revenue will increase and profit will decrease as q is increased beyond q r Thus, the oligopolist will continue to increase q until either (i) he reaches the unrestricted maximum of R(q); or (ii) (2) is satisfied as an equality, whichever occurs as the lower output.

If (i), (3) states that R (q) = 0 and ? = 0. If (ii) happens short of the output for (i), C'(q) R'(q) 0 and ? 0. The multiplier ? gives the university thesis rate at which revenue can be expanded per rupee of profit sacrificed. An example will make the idea clear. Suppose an oligopolist faces a linear demand curve p = 100 – 4q and dissertation on customer service, his cost function is C = 50 + 20q. Assume that Rs 334 = ? 0 ? m = Rs 350. How much profit has to be sacrificed per unit of revenue? The unrestricted maximum for R(q) is Rs 625 which occurs at oxford university q = 12.5 with ? = Rs 325. This option may be excluded because it yields too low a profit. Dissertation On Customer Service. The equality of (2) is (100 – 4q 2 ) – (50 + 20q) = Rs 334.

It may also be expressed as: The quadratic equation has the how to write gags roots 8 and 12 with respective total revenues of Rs 544 and Rs 624. Thus, the revenue-maximising oligopolist produces 12 units which he sells at a price of Rs 52 to gain a total revenue of Rs 624 and a profit of Rs 334. By contrast, a profit-maximising oligopolist produces 10 units which he sells at dissertation on customer a price of Rs 60 to gain a total revenue of Rs 600 and a profit of Rs 350. From (3), ? = 0.25. Chicano Studies Research Paper. So the dissertation service hours oligopolist sacrifices at the marginal rate of Rs 4 of profit to earn extra rupee of sales revenue. The theories of duopoly and fund, oligopoly lead to compact mathematical solutions with the cal­culus method. However, the various models developed are based on arbitrary (and often unrealistic) assumptions about each firm’s beliefs about rivals’ reactions to its actions. The theory of games, developed by J. Dissertation On Customer Service Hours. von Neumann and O. Morgentern, is an war of 1812, alternative ap­proach that has been applied to markets in dissertation on customer service, which there are few sellers with interdependent outcomes. Hacking Essay. Here we restrict ourselves to non-cooperative, or competitive games, known as two-person zero-sum games. The game theory has been developed to determine a rival’s most profitable counter-strategy to one owns ‘best’ moves and to formulate the appropriate defensive measures.

A game is any situation in which players (the participants) make strategic decisions, i.e., decisions that take into account each one’s actions and responses, e.g., firms competing against each other for dissertation on customer, setting prices or spending money on advertising. Strategic decisions result in payoffs to the players: outcomes that generate rewards or benefits. Oxford University. For price-setting firms, the on customer hours payoffs are profits. A duopoly game consists of war of essays, a single move on the part of each firm. In this context, we define a few key terms: A strategy is a rule or plan of action for playing the game; it is the specification of a particular move for one of the dissertation on customer hours participants. The strategy of a duopolist may consist of select­ing a particular value for each of the variables under his control.

If price is his only strategic variable, a strategy consists of selecting a particular price. If price and advertising expenses are both variables, a strategy consists of setting specific values for drum essay, both the variables. Each duopolist is assumed to have a large but a limited number of strategies, in which case there is no possibil­ity of continuous variation of the dissertation on customer service action variables. The final outcome of the duopolistic game is the profit earned by each of the participants. This is determined from the relevant cost and demand functions once each firm has selected its own strategy. A key objective of the fund analyst game theory is to determine the service hours optimal strategy for each player. The optimal strategy for a player is the one that maximises his expected pay-off.

There are two criteria of classifying duopolistic games: (i) The number of participants; and. (ii) The net outcome. Since game theory is essentially a theory of deci­sion-making involving conflict the first criterion simply involves a counting of the war of 1812 essays number of participants with conflicting interests. Here we discuss any two-person games. The per­sons are like players of chess or card. In this case, there are the two duopolists, and each one is trying to outguess his rival. The second criterion allows us to a draw a distinction between zero-sum and hours, non-zero-sum games. How To Gags. A zero-sum game is one in which the sum of the out­comes—e.g., profits—for all the service participants equals zero for write gags, every possible combination of strategies. The economic games that firms play can be either cooperative or non-cooperative. In a cooperative game, players can negotiate binding contracts that allow them to plan join strategies.

In a non-cooperative game, negotiation and enforcement of binding contracts are not possible. In any game, however, the most important aspect of strategic decision-making is understanding one’s opponent’s point of view, and (assuming one’s opponent is rational), deducing his likely responses to actions. Two-person zero-sum games are competitive (non-cooperative) in dissertation, nature. The reason is that if one player always loses what the 1812 other wins, there can be no room for cooperation. A two-person zero-sum game can be applied to a duopolistic market in which one partici­pant’s gain always equals the loss of the on customer hours other.

In general, if I has m strategies and II has n strategies, the possible outcome of the game is given by the following payoff matrix which shows what I will receive as a result of each possible combination of chicano studies research, strategy choice by himself and by II: where the a ij is I’s profit if I employs his ith strategy and II employs his jth. In case of zero-sum sum, the corresponding profit earned by II is – a ij . Duopolists adopt two approaches, viz., maximin and minimax. I can make the best of the situ­ation aiming at the maximum of the minimal payoffs. Dissertation. This decision rule is called a maximin strategy. Similarly, the best of II’s most pessimistic payoff is hacking essay, called II’s minimax strategy. Let us consider the dissertation on customer service following payoff matrix: If I employs his first strategy and II employs his second, I’s profit is 40, and II’s is – 40. How To Gags. If I employs his second strategy and II employs his third, I’s profit is – 10 and II’s is 10.

The duopolist’s decision problem consists of choosing an optimal strategy. I desires the outcome (40) in the first row and second column of dissertation on customer service hours, (2), and II desires the outcome (- 10) in the second row and third column. Fund Resume. The final outcome depends upon the strategies of dissertation, both duopolists, and neither has the power to enforce his desires. If I selects his first strategy, II might select his fourth, and the outcome would be 5 rather than 40. If II selects his third strategy, I might select his first, and the outcome I would be 20 rather than -10. The theory of games postulates behav­iour patterns which allow the drum essay determination of equilibrium in these situations.

The decisions of the duopolists are consistent and dissertation on customer, the equation is achieved if. If (3) holds, the strategies of I and II are respectively, called an equilibrium pair of help, strate­gies. In example (2), suppose I employs his first strategy. Dissertation On Customer. If II anticipates I’s choice, I’s profit will be 5. If I employed his second strategy, and II anticipated his choice, his profit would be -10. II will employ his fourth strategy and his loss will be limited to 5. Every other column of (2) has a maximum greater than 5. In this case, The duopolists’ decisions are consistent, and an equilibrium is established. Neither duopolist can increase profit by changing his strategy if his opponent’s strategy remains unchanged.

An equilibrium point in terms of a payoff matrix is called a saddle point. However, the coinci­dence of maximin-minimax strategy payoffs does not always occur. There are some cases in which the payoff matrix possesses no equilibrium pair. To understand this problem, we have to introduce the concept of dominance. A dominant strategy is one that is optimal—no matter what an opponent does. In general, the ith row dominates the studies paper hth if a ij ? a hj for all j, and dissertation service, a ij a hj for at least one j. A rational duopolist will never employ a dominant strategy. If he does, no equilibrium pair will exist. However, when every player has a dominant strategy, we call the fund analyst outcome of the game an equilibrium in dominant strategies. Equilibrium in dominant strategies refers to hours the outcome of a game in essays, which each firm is doing the best it can, regardless of what its competitors are doing. Dissertation Service Hours. In such a game, each player’s optimal strategy can be determined without worrying about the actions of the other players.

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