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calculator homework This homework will give you practice in parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and designs involving programs that use the MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of interaction. In case you have not already noticed, this is an Open homework. Our Country India. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. Resume. The policy can be found at policy. Your company wants to build a suite of interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for the implementation of several types of calculators. By extending the GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). For this project, in essay about india addition to implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.
The second one is named ScientificCalcEng, and represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in the development of Graphical User Interfaces for on calcium, the concrete calculator classes you will implement. The code will allow you to easily define a calculator interface in no time. More details about the program are provided in the Specifications section. Note: The bulk of the implementation associated with this project is the implementation of the logic that creates functional calculators. This logic is what the JUnit module (that you will create) will test.
Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and something that should take you almost no time. For example, if you choose not to implement the GUIs for the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the tests in the submit server, as we don't check for that component via the submit server. The graders will check the essay about GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for this project as this will tell you the weight associated with the GUIs. This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log.
Calculator Operation Model. Note: In the description below an essays operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the essay following type of operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to kernel resume identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Once the identification has been made, the about actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to essay on television all calculators. Specifically, the common processing is the identification of the kind of operation requested and the operands.
To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the operands. By using this class, we need only worry about implementing the computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the essay our country india generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and operands, and provides support for common operations found in any calculator (e.g., processing of resume, backspaces, reset, etc.). This class cannot generate any results. Essay. It just identifies what needs to be done and relies on a subclass to actually implement the essay processing associated with an operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and reset. Our Country. To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the GenericCalcEng.
By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the backspace or the reset operation as those are already provided by the base class. Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to vous essayez identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. All this processing is essay taken care of by GenericCalcEng. What does BasicCalc implement? It provides the GenericCalcEng with a list of the operators (the name and 1 day resume reviews, type) the BasicCalc will process. In addition, it provides the implementation of about our country, abstract methods present in kernel resume the GenericCalcEng class. One of these methods takes care of processing unary operations, the other takes care of binary operations and a third one is in charge of processing constants. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented.
More details about the GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. The code distribution is available by checking out the project named p8 . The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of Java files. PublicTests.java - This class represents the set of JUnit public tests. Essay About India. The expected results for each test can be found in the text files with a pub prefix. A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the generic calculator GUI. GUIListener : An interface that defines the callback method used by the GenericCalcGUI class. Java Files (We provide these.) CalcOperator.java : This simple class is just a convenient encapsulation of two entities, an operator name and resume dc affordable, its type. Although its use is not required, it is essay likely to come in handy.
The operator name is just a single String symbol (e.g. + or /, Super, Fries). The type is used in your processing. Types include things like whether this is a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and getType( ) , which return these values.
The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . CalcEngExample : This class provides an example of kernel resume, a calculator engine implemented by extending the GenericCalcEng class. It is essay about our country provided just to help you get an idea of how to best resume design your own calculator engine. GUIExample : This class provides an example of how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the essay about GenericGUI class. Again, it is provided to help you get an idea of on calcium, how to design your own calculator GUI.
TestsSupport : This class has support code for the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the our country india MVC paradigm for the generic (common) part of the calculator. The generic calculator can be tailored to recognize any unary and binary operators we want to implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and operands and passes those values to methods in the derived classes that will take care of kernel resume, implementing the essay our country india operator. We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only essay on television one operand. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and essay our country, displays the result of a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the calculator.
Clear last operand : Resets the last operand entered, by essay, setting it to 0. Backspace : Erases the about last character of the display. Constant : Initializes the current operand with a constant value, e.g., the function associated with a PI calculator button. Essay On Television. The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. About India. This means that the generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for 1 day resume, a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is handled at the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).
GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the calculator state to be ready to process selections. The display unit is initialized with the value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to keep track of our country india, which operators the essays on calcium calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is left to the derived calculator classes. But it does need to know, for essay about our country, example, that sqrt is the reviews name of a unary operator. In order to know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of operators and their associated types. Essay About. This list must be implemented using an ArrayList . Best Writing Services Dc Affordable. The list starts out empty, and this method is called to add a given operator and essay, its type to this list. Essay On Television In English. Here is its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the String name of the operator (e.g., + or sqrt). The operatorType identifies the operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in the table above (see code distribution). The entire list of operators must be given before the calculator is actually used. processSelection : This method implements the action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. Our Country India. For example, to add the numbers 42 and vous essayez, 5 the user click the sequence of essay about india, buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and =. This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the button selected as the argument.
Here is the prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and operators. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in order to generate operands. You may assume the operator input is university early action essay valid. Our Country India. This method will also trigger the execution of any operator once the appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and will update, if need be, a string object representing the calculator display. Thus, processSelection is the core method of the GenericCalcEng class.
This key method is university action described in greater detail below. getDisplayContents : As the calculator is used, your program must keep track of the essay our country india quantity to action be shown in essay the calculators display unit. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents. It is vous essayez called by the GUI whenever the essay display needs to be updated. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the calculator starts up, a call to this function will return 0. After the user clicks on the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the new contents of the display will be 4. Kernel Resume. After clicking on 5 (causing the essay about call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. processUnaryOperator : This is an abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is resume called by our country, processSelection once a unary operator and its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the functionality of all the unary operators provided through the addToOperatorList method. 1 Day Reviews. Note that the argument is passed in as a String (not double or integer).
Rather than converting digits to numbers immediately as each digit button is essay about pressed, it is easier to concatenate the digits into a string, then pass the string to processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and then convert the result to a number. You may assume the operator input is valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an abstract method similar to processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. Of Georgia Action Essay. You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the our country india constant value associated with the essay on television in english operatorName parameter. You may assume the operator input is essay about our country india valid. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit.
However, you may not add any public methods beyond the ones specified above. As mentioned above, the processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is done in the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the kernel resume operator is the binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in the derived class to apply the addition operator. (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and processConstantOperator methods above). On the other hand, operators that are deemed to be common to our country india all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by university of georgia early action essay, this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in the same way that we do. If you consider the calculator's behavior when the user keys in the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the number 34 is the first operand, the operator is +, and the second operand is 56. When = is seen, the about our country binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of 90 is displayed.
How does the calculator know that 3 and best writing services, 4 are parts of the first operand and 5 and 6 are parts of the second operand? The calculator is controlled by its state, which is our country made up of the following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). secondOperand : (String) The right operand of a binary operation (56 above). currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to kernel resume be applied to these operands. displayContents : (String) The current contents of the display unit. Our Country. context : (int) Indicates the context in which the calculator is currently running (see below). theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the operators and essays, their respective types for the current calculator. Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and our country india, you don't need to use exactly the kernel resume variable names we provided. The calculator's operation depends on the context. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the default context. Any digits that are entered are stored in essay about our country the first operand.
Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is kernel resume entered whenever a binary operator is entered. Digits that are entered are stored in the second operand. Error ( ERR ): You are not required to implement this context (since we will not test for it explicitly). This context is entered whenever an error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by zero). When in this context the calculator ignores all operations until the operation CLEAR operation is performed. Semantics of GenericCalcEng Operators. Essay About. The calculator starts in the default state, which is kernel resume described in the CLEAR operator below.
In the description below, the essay india term current operand refers to either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on kernel resume, the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to the default state where the display shows the value of 0, and the context is RFO. CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the current operand to zero. Updates the display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.
If the rightmost character is the only character, it replaces the character with 0. It updates the india display accordingly. ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is ignored. Vous Essayez. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is invoked. About Our Country India. The first operand is updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the result of the computation is best resume dc affordable displayed, and our country india, we return to the RFO context. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is invoked on the current operand. The display is kernel resume updated with the result of the computation. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator().
The display is about updated with the constant value. Essays On Calcium. BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on about our country, the current context. RFO : The first operand and current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. The display is best resume writing not changed. Essay. RSO : There are two cases, depending on whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for the second operand then no calculation is resume dc affordable performed, and the current operator is essay about our country india saved. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in 4*6=24, and the + is ignored.) Otherwise (if the second operand is nonempty) then the previously saved current operator is now performed by invoking the processBinaryOperator() method.
The result is stored as the first operand, and the display is updated to kernel resume this value as well. About. The second operand is reset to empty, and resume writing, the given operator becomes the new current operator. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the essay about our country GenericCalcEng class. In order to have an operational calculator we must extend the essays on calcium GenericCalcEng class. The subclass will specify the operators and provide the implementation of the GenericCalcEng abstract methods. The class CalcEngExample, part of the code distribution provides an example of creating a very simple calculator based on the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. However, it is about india not one that is 1 day reviews easy to essay our country use. We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for resume writing services, a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. The setup for these is exactly analogous to the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below).
As you read this, please refer to the file GUIExample.java (given in the code distribution). It illustrates how to create a simple GUI with a couple of buttons. The behavior of GUIExample.java is trivial, and simply echoes back the user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the code distribution). This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the following callback method (which is invoked whenever the user clicks on a button). Its job is to essay our country process the selected operation and resume reviews, update the calculator display contents. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an instance variable, say gui , that is of type GenericCalcGUI. (We have provided the GenericCalcGUI class for essay about india, you as part of the cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in kernel resume your BasicCalc constructor, and save a reference to it in essay about this instance variable. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the calculator window title, and a two-dimensional array of String objects representing the positions and labels of the buttons in 1 day resume the calculator. Each row of about, strings represents a row of buttons in the GUI.
This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. Vous Essayez. Finally, you need to inform the GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the india callback method (buttonSelected). In order to on calcium do this, from within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in your BasicCalc class. This variable stores a reference to a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the functionality of the basic calculator. Essay India. Let's call it engine . Of Georgia Action. In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and about, assign it to engine. Now, when the essays on calcium buttonSelected() callback is called, it needs to perform the following operations: invoke the engine's processSelection() method to process the selected button, get the contents of the essay our country calculator's display (as a String) by invoking the vous essayez engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is done by invoking the method gui.setDisplayContents() method. Its argument is the value returned from the previous step. The following figure illustrates how the various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example.
The picture is our country india similar for the restaurant and scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to implement this basic calculator. We are just using it as an example of how to vous essayez set up a GUI for any calculator. Classes you must define. For this homework you must define the following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the essay about india GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point calculator used in a restaurant.
The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from essays this calculator are as follows. Essay India. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the addToOperatorList() method.) For the restaurant calculator only , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of kernel resume, 78.12 will be stored in valueStr. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations. The RestaurantCalc class sets up the necessary connections to the GUI to create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for essay, an example of how to do this.
The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the best GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of essay about, a floating-point scientific calculator. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the essays on calcium aforementioned operators can be found in the Java Math class. For the essay india scientific calculator only , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point.
This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of 12 will be stored in writing services str (instead of 12.0). The call to method setGroupingUsed( false ) is used to essay about india disable the automatic insertion of commas. With this call the value 12345678.9 would be converted to 12345678.9, and without it the value would be converted to university essay 12,345,678.9 instead. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations. Our Country. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for an example of how to do this. Essay. The GUI appearance must match the essay about our country india GUI presented in writing services the Sample Run section. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of precedence do not apply.
For example, in the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the first two operands are added before multiplication is applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). Packages you must define. In order to gain experience in essay about designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the following packages and arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to grade your project. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. It contains the in english GenericCalcEng class and the CalcOperator.java file we provided. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and the ScientificCalc classes.
As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and pasting code). You may define your own private utility methods to perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of any of the india classes you are to implement, and use signatures given above for your methods . The graphical layout of your calculator must match those given in the sample run. You must use the vous essayez same package structure given above. Your operator list in about our country india GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the kernel resume Java class library. Test your program using the JUnit module you create and essay about our country india, test your submission using the submit server. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in determining how to set up the resume writing services GUIs.
If you take a look at the PublicTests.java file and the pub*.txt files, you will be able to see the processing associated with the the different operators each calculator implements. Essay India. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Here is an example that shows two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to resume dc affordable implement, in their initial states. About Our Country India. We have provided a JUnit module representing the reviews public tests. Essay About India. However, you need to create your own JUnit module to test your project. Define the tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file MyJUnitTests.java.
Feel free to use the essays TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to process different key combinations, as we did in the PublicTests.java. Remember that you are not required to implement the essay our country india following problem. Please visit the course web page for information regarding challenge problem. Essay On Television. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for a particular number of gold stars. If you want to implement them all that is fine, however we can only grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . In that package should appear any classes needed to complete your challenge problem implementation. The challenge problems below may require you to modify the GenericCalcEng and other classes of your homework. Provide the modified versions of essay about, these classes in university early action essay the challenge package.
Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a Challenge.java file with a main method that allows us to run the essay india challenge problem calculator. Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Note: For the challenge problem you must use the scientific calculator. Make an entry in the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Add an option to the calculator that allows the display to essays show the results using commas. For example, instead of 12345 the user would see 12,345. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the user to turn this feature on india, and off. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 2) In addition to Choice 1 , add the following memory functions to the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to vous essayez store in memory the element currently being displayed. MR - Allows you to use the value stored in memory as the next operand.
Any retrieved value is immediately displayed. MC - Sets the memory to 0. You should add three buttons to the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 3) In addition to essay about Choice 1 and kernel resume, Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to essay the calculator infrastructure. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by parenthesis, regardless of the level of nesting. You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the GUI buttons wherever you consider to essay in english be best. Essay About Our Country India. Submit your project using the essays submit project option associated with Eclipse.
Remember to complete your time log before submitting your homework.
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My Country Essay India For Kids for …
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The first sign of infatuation began with Romeo . Essay About Our Country. He claimed, “love, whose view is muffled still, should without eyes, see pathways to his will” (Shakespeare 20). Romeo is obsessed with the essays, idea of love, and is convinced that love controls you. He ends up getting. Decision making , Irony , Juliet Capulet 1791 Words | 5 Pages. Love in all its Forms in - Romeo and Juliet Essay The theme of essay, love is probably the most common theme in all literature and . Essays. Romeo and Juliet is no exception. The theme of love is predominant throughout the entire of play of Romeo and essay about our country Juliet. There are many different forms of university of georgia, love and Shakespeare incorporates many of them into his Romeo and Juliet play. In Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare brings out the cruel superficial love Romeo has for Rosaline, the bawdy, physical, and sexual love that Shakespeare.
Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and Juliet is essay about india, a story of two doomed teenage lovers whose fate ends in tragedy. In modern times the kernel resume, name Romeo has become . nearly synonymous with “lover”. Romeo , in about our country Romeo and Juliet, does indeed experience a love of such purity and passion that he believes he can no longer live and decides to take his own life when he believes that the object of his love, Juliet, has died. The power of Romeo’s love, however, often obscures a clear vision of Romeo’s character, which is of georgia early, far more complex. He is. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 1762 Words | 4 Pages. easy. In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare demonstrates that young people struggle in life depending on their maturity level. Shakespeare shows . that three people in the play are struggling to deal maturely with different challenges Romeo , Juliet and Tybalt are placed with the same problems. Romeo is essay india, faced with challenges throughout the entire play.
Romeo is forced to figure out a plan and follow it. His maturity level causes his actions to fail. Romeo shows very. Characters in Romeo and kernel resume Juliet , Mercutio , Romeo and Juliet 966 Words | 3 Pages. ROMEO AND JULIET: FREE BOOKNOTES CONFLICT Romeo and about india Juliet is based on external conflict and portrays the long-standing . quarrel between the two established families in Verona, the Capulets and the Montagues. Protagonists Romeo and Juliet are the protagonists of the play. Antagonists The long-standing quarrel between the Capulets and essays the Montagues, which prevent Romeo and our country Juliet from being able to profess their love openly. Of Georgia Essay. Climax The climax occurs when Romeo kills himself by drinking. Characters in essay india Romeo and Juliet , Mercutio , Romeo and Juliet 1923 Words | 6 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: A Poor Demonstration of Love “These violent delights have violent ends, and in their triumph die like fire and essays on calcium . powder which as they kiss consumes” (2.6.10-11).
Out of love, the our country india, star-crossed lovers can’t bear the burden of living without each other, choose to die together in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. However, has Juliet made the right decision, or has she really thought about love and marriage? Romeo is gentle and passionate, whereas Paris is honourable and vous essayez practical. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Examine Shakespeare's treatment of relationships in about our country india Romeo and Juliet. In this essay I will be examining William Shakespeare's treatment of . relationships in Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwickshire and was alive during the Elizabethan era. He was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the kernel resume, greatest writer of the English language. About. He wrote at least thirty seven plays and also wrote poems.
His plays were comedies, histories and tragedies and some. Characters in vous essayez Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 2303 Words | 6 Pages. 1D7-05 C. Bucci May 23, 2008 Romeo Juliet: Superficial Love There are infinite ways to define love. Love has become such an . ambiguous and vague term, though it is essay about our country, one of the most recognizable of human emotions. It has existed as far back as humans remember and love has been a source of interest and inspiration in the Arts, Religion, Sciences, and most popularly, in Literature. The most memorable and popular work of love is William Shakespeare’s tragic Romeo Juliet. What is essay on television, so remarkable. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , Juliet Capulet 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story Comparison Essay.
inspired by the author of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare inspired Ernest Lehman because of the obvious similarities . in theme, plot and the characters of both of their stories. Inspiration can be the best way to about india jumpstart your own imagination and is especially helpful when it comes to the theme of resume services dc affordable, a story. The themes of essay india, both Romeo and 1 day resume reviews Juliet and essay West Side Story are very similar. Essay In English. The theme of masculine pride is essay about, apparent in both stories.
In Romeo and Juliet it is clearly. Christopher Marlowe , Ernest Lehman , First Folio 1340 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: Dreams, Visions and kernel resume Premonitions. visions and our country india premonitions play in Romeo and Juliet? In Romeo and Juliet, dreams, visions and essay in english premonitions play a very important . role. They foreshadow the eventual tragedy, tell us about a character’s view over a particular matter, and reflect underlying messages in the play. They are symbols, telling us about the various themes in the play as well. Essay India. An example of a dream foreshadowing the eventual tragic ending of the play is found in Act 1 Scene 4, in which Romeo says that he “dreamt a dream tonight”. Characters in best writing Romeo and essay about india Juliet , Mercutio , Queen Mab 2431 Words | 7 Pages. Romeo and Juliet’s love was doomed from the start. University Early Action Essay. Juliet’s lust for power ( That's a very interesting idea.
I only thought she had the about india, . boy-girl kind of lust. Vous Essayez. ) was destined to destroy her relations with Romeo . Capulet forces (betroths) Juliet to marry Count Paris, a man she does not love. When she refuses to about our country marry him, Capulet threatens his daughter and says, “…get thee to church o' Thursday, or never after look me in the face”. This causes Juliet to take her own actions against essays on calcium his (her?) father’s. Characters in essay Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1469 Words | 4 Pages. The tragedy Romeo and Juliet has been criticized by many critics throughout the essays on calcium, years. About. Most critics tend to agree that Shakespearean literature . has strong gender roles. This means that the on television, men will carry themselves with honor and pride. A typical man for essay about india the time period in which Shakespeare set his play was the vous essayez, head of the household; anything the man or also known as the head of the family wanted would be put into essay our country india, motion almost as soon as he finished saying the action, words. The strong males in about our country india the tragedy.
Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Count Paris , Female 2332 Words | 7 Pages. Shakespeare’s, Romeo and Juliet, love, in essence Romeo , is the guiding force which brings Juliet through these stages of . adolescence to the onset of university action, maturity. As she stabs herself with the dagger, she has become a self-assured, capable and loyal woman; ultimately she has come of age. What is your will? Juliet replies to her mother’s call. (18, ln 6) Shakespeare first introduces us to Juliet in her most innocent and sheltered form, her baby phase. She begins the play as an immature naive character. Romeo and essay about our country Juliet 1116 Words | 2 Pages.
?November 18th 2011 Jennifer Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay Draft Everything in life happens for a reason, and . ultimately fate has a special way in making it all happen. Within the 1 day reviews, tragic love story of William Shakespeare’s classic, “ Romeo and Juliet” fate decides the two lover’s destiny together along with many other factors. Our Country. The power of essay, fate brought Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet together yet it also decided to lead them into their own demise. Our Country India. Ultimately fate decided. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Examine the Ways in university early Which Shakespeare Develops the Character of Romeo Through His Use of Language. Romeo's character is developed greatly throughout the play, ? Romeo and Juliet', through Shakespeare's use of language. Various themes are . introduced to the play; love, tragedy and conflict are some examples. Romeo's character can be identified by his connections with the themes. Essay Our Country India. At the beginning of the play, Romeo seems quite mature, in the sense that he is in love, and growing up.
However, immaturity is beginning to arise, as Romeo shows that he cannot cope with the unrequited love haunting him. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 955 Words | 3 Pages. Gender Roles in Romeo and kernel resume Juliet In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Juliet resorts to conniving and essay about india shrewd ways in . order to control her destiny and vous essayez free herself from her confined existence. Essay About Our Country. Contrary to the critics who view Juliet as innocent, childish and immature , Juliet’s habits of manipulating people–particularly the men in her life, expressly Romeo –through simulating maleness implies a parallel between the approaches falconers (mostly males) use to train their falcons (mostly females). 16th century , Characters in on calcium Romeo and Juliet , Gender 1251 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet ends in tragedy, because of some of Romeo and Juliet’s faults. Romeo and Juliet . Essay About India. obviously rush into things. They do not listen to the advice of vous essayez, Friar Lawrence and end up paying the ultimate price. They also ignore the obvious factors that prohibit Romeo and about india Juliet from ever being happy together. Romeo and essays Juliet are also very immature and are groomed for social disaster. Romeo and Juliet are also not in love, but in lust.
The combination of impatience, immaturity, and. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 2940 Words | 7 Pages. ?In the play Romeo and Juliet a series of unfortunate the circumstances and illogical decisions force the protagonists into about our country india, an impossible . position ultimately resulting in their death. As Il-fated as the two star-crossed lover's may have been the root of all their problems can be traced back to rash decisions by 1 day characters and circumstances placed unfairly on characters by warped societal expectations. While the Friar had nothing but the about, best intentions his illogical and kernel resume somewhat naive decisions. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Marriage 1224 Words | 4 Pages.
infant rind of this weak flower Poison hath residence, and medicine power: For this, being smelt, with the part cheers each part; Being tasted, stay all . senses with the heart,” (Friar Lawrence, 2.3, 19-23) An Analysis of Foil Characters within Romeo and Juliet A foil character is a character whose function is to be compared or contrasted with the main protagonist. Moreover, a foil character is used to heighten and illuminate drastic differences or extreme similarities in the main character. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Mercutio , Protagonist 1485 Words | 5 Pages. Who Is Blame for Romeo and india Juliet's Death. Many have said that romance brings love and kernel resume affection, but when taken to the extreme, it can lead to tragedy and despair. In the literary play . Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare created a tragedy protagonist, Juliet, whose tragic death “buries their parents’ strife” (Prologue). The eternal feud between Montague and Capulets restraints the essay about our country, love between Romeo and Juliet and kernel resume ultimately lead to their death. Juliet’s death has many different factors, and it’s hard to determine the truly blame of Juliet’s.
Characters in Romeo and essay india Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Romeo and Juliet 1060 Words | 3 Pages. romeo and juliet - the balcony scene. Shakespeare’s tragedy “ Romeo and Juliet” is a play in which the emotions, pity, and terror are exploited to portray the reviews, extent of feeling of . love and about our country attraction throughout. The balcony scene plays a vital role in the way the depth of feeling between Romeo and Juliet is portrayed. Prior to this scene Romeo and Juliet have exchanged a number of kisses, and kernel resume showed a mutual physical attraction for essay our country each other however as of yet they have not disclosed their true depth of their feeling. During the play. Characters in on television in english Romeo and Juliet , Interpersonal attraction , Love 1623 Words | 5 Pages. ?How does Shakespeare show that Romeo’s love for Juliet is real? How do his words and actions differ from when he said he loved Rosaline? In Shakespeare’s . play Romeo and Juliet, the introduction of Romeo to the audience is haunted by a melancholic mood.
The scene is set in Verona where Romeo’s family is worried about him due to his rejection in love from a woman, Rosaline. However throughout the scenes studied, it seems that love is the primary driving force behind most of Romeo’s actions and words. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1715 Words | 4 Pages. Presented in about our country india Act I of Romeo and Juliet? In Shakespeare’s play, “ Romeo and Juliet”, the theme of essays, love is central to about the play . and is highlighted by reviews being set against a backdrop of essay about, conflict and violence. Throughout the play, Shakespeare uses the constant juxtaposition of love and hatred. I believe he does this so that the audience can really feel the plight of the two lovers set against best resume services such hateful circumstances.
It also helps them to empathise and appreciate the struggle that Romeo and Juliet have to. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 2266 Words | 5 Pages. Romeo and Juliet Movie Comparison. In Franco Zeffirelli’s 1968 version of Romeo and essay our country india Juliet, is kernel resume, a traditional adaptation of Shakespeare’s original Romeo and our country Juliet, . with some variations. Baz Luhrmann directed the 1996 version, also known as the MTV Romeo † Juliet. This version is very modernized, but keeps the language intact with few changes. There are many differences between Zeffirelli’s Romeo and early action essay Juliet and the Signet version of Romeo and Juliet. Romeo’s entire speech that begins “Alas that love, whose view is muffled still. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Leonardo DiCaprio , Mercutio 2725 Words | 6 Pages.
ROMEO AND JULIET - FATE OR IMPULSIVE ACTIONS? up their own fate with their behaviour and actions. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, they young lovers were victims of their own impulsive . Our Country India. actions. The lead characters were impatient and did not think before jumping to essays on calcium conclusions. Their carelessness is seen when Romeo and Juliet get married even though their families are at feud. The young blood of the men from both sides and about their attitudes lead to street violence, and vous essayez Romeo forgets to essay about our country get all the information about Juliet's death and her attraction.
Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Death , Marriage 966 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kassie Costello Ms. Kernel Resume. McIntyre English 112 28 May 2014 Tragedy in Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare: English 112 Essay William . Shakespeare’s Romeo and essay Juliet is best writing services, a play that portrays the long-lasting feud between two distinguished families of Verona, Italy. The Montagues and Capulets are sworn enemies, making the love shared between Romeo (a Montague) and Juliet (a Capulet) dreadfully difficult to act upon. The star-crossed lovers must remain a secret to all but few, and fate brings them. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Christopher Marlowe , Poetics 1243 Words | 5 Pages.
Analysis of Major Characters in essay our country india Romeo and Juliet. Analysis of Major Characters in The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Romeo - The name Romeo , in popular culture, the . name Romeo has become nearly synonymous with lover. Romeo , in Romeo and Juliet, does indeed experience a love of such purity and passion that he kills himself when he believes that the object of his love, Juliet, has died. The power of Romeo's love, however, often obscures a clear vision of essays on calcium, Romeo's character, which is far more complex. [IMAGE] In fact, even Romeo's relation. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1305 Words | 4 Pages.
Analysis of Juliet from Romeo and Juliet. It is nor hand nor foot, Nor arm nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O be some other name! What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By . any other word would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d, Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo , doff thy name, And for thy name, which is no part of thee, Take all myself. In the india, play’s beginning Juliet first appears in her bedroom when her mother is calling her to kernel resume get ready for the Capulet’s. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ice-cream, a mother and her family, and love between two selfless people.
This is true love. In the play, Romeo and Juliet, written by . William Shakespeare, the feeling of attraction between the two main characters is not true love. The setting of this play is the streets of Verona, Italy, during a time when arranged marriages at the age of 14 were socially acceptable. Two young teens, Romeo and Juliet, were convinced that they had feelings for india each other, but acted more out of lust than anything. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo and Juliet – Literary Paragraph. Romeo and Juliet – Literary Paragraph In Romeo and Juliet, each character has a specific role and for the main character, . Romeo , seems to be the one who changes the most. Romeo changes throughout the writing services dc affordable, play as he is constantly become mature. As Romeo’s thoughts, feelings and actions have revealed his great changes among all other characters.
According to the play, Romeo presented three palpable changes as the followings, he gets over Rosaline right after meeting Juliet, his hatred towards Tybalt. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Love , Mercutio 956 Words | 3 Pages. undesirable outcomes such as a punishment of some sort or in our country india some cases, death. This is the on calcium, message that William Shakespeare tries to convey in india his infamous . play, Romeo and Juliet. This play revolves around characters from two rival families that elicit their deaths and that of several others due to vous essayez their impulsive personalities. Romeo , Juliet and about our country india Tybalt each let a particular emotion cloud their judgement, causing them to best resume services dc affordable make decisions with no prior thoughts of consideration for consequences. Their. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 2238 Words | 6 Pages. Tuongvan Le Ms. Johns 05/18/10 4B Romeo and Juliet Research Paper In Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Romeo’s . About Our Country. character was undermined as a foolish, feminist, and untrustworthy man to the audience, which finally contributes to vous essayez the tragedy of the about india, play.
He is foolish as he was completely defeated by love-sick, impulsively asked for marriage after seeing Juliet for one night, and essay on television in english blindly drank the poison. Essay Our Country India. Also, Romeo was a feminist as he was crying on the floor like a woman after the Prince. Characters in Romeo and kernel resume Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Love 1430 Words | 4 Pages. between Romeo and Juliet as sacred. This is essay about india, evident from Romeo's words to Juliet, If I profane with my unworthiest hand/ This holy shrine, . the gentle sin is university of georgia action essay, this. Romeo is about india, comparing Juliet's hand to a holy place which is unworthy to be visited by Romeo's hand. My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand/ To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.
These words by Romeo again do the job of making it clear to the audience that the relationship between Romeo and Juliet is holy. Romeo says to. John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1488 Words | 4 Pages. • Shakespeare portrays Romeo and Juliet as star-crossed lovers, doomed by fate to a tragic end. • Bad luck and unfortunate coincidences . abound: (1) Of all the people the illiterate Capulet servant could have asked to read the invitation list in Act I, scene 2, he chooses Benvolio, Mercutio, and Romeo ; (2) Of all the hotties at the Capulet party, Romeo spots Juliet first; (3) It just so happens that the County Paris decides he wants to 1 day resume marry Juliet the same day Romeo meets her; (4) Friar John. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Death , Friar Lawrence 2315 Words | 7 Pages. Romeo and Juliet: Blinding Love Love is blindness I don't want to about our country see/won’t you wrap the night around me/ Oh my love Blindness A little death . without mourning/ No call and no warning . /a dangerous idea that almost makes sense.”(U2, Love Is Blindness, 1991, mp3.) This song by U2 is speaking about a person who is in an emotional state of agony because of something has happened to their lover or relationship. The line” wrap the night around me” is best resume, referring to someone who feels numb because of. Juliet Capulet , Love , Romance 1418 Words | 5 Pages.
? Romeo and Juliet Research Paper William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is now a major term of romantic tragedy over essay our country india two . feuding families between Capulet and Montague. Based on William Shakespeare’s work, there are two different versions of this story. While Franco Zeffirelli’s version conveys an resume old fashioned style of Romeo and Juliet, on the other hand, Baz Luhrmann’s version demonstrates a modernized version having characteristics of fancy clothes, loud music, and modern atmosphere. Comparing. Franco Zeffirelli , Juliet Capulet , Leonard Whiting 1291 Words | 3 Pages. I believe that the (1961)‘West Side Story’ film version of essay about our country, Romeo and Juliet is superior to the later version of ‘ Romeo and kernel resume . Juliet’ directed in 1968 by Franco Zeffirelli. Jerome Robbins, the director of ‘West Side Story’, having a different aim/ representation of Romeo and essay our country Juliet has used various effective techniques to produce his film – which I consider to be more successful. Robbins chose it to be a transformation of Romeo and Juliet not the original play from Shakespeare, but that’s not the.
Characters in on calcium Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 2607 Words | 6 Pages. Banh 1 Randy Banh Dr. Blanchard Honors 9th literature 10 April 2014 Romeo’s Impulsiveness In ? . The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet? , Romeo is one of the protagonists in the story who shows many characteristics, but his impulsiveness protrudes the most. While Romeo can be characterized by his immaturity, his impulsiveness stands out like a jewel on an ethiopian man. Romeo’s impulsiveness is scattered throughout the story as it is shown in our country all the acts he is in. His impulsi. Romeo and Juliet 595 Words | 4 Pages. I believe that Baz Luhrmann has created a very effective prologue and version of Act 1 Scene 1 of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, using visual . images and on television landmarks along with the language to aid the essay about our country india, audience in understanding the story.
Using the media throughout, Luhrmann makes the situations easier for the audience to grasp, and in turn, relate to. The film begins with the camera zooming in on a television. The prologue is spoken by a black female news reporter. Using a coloured female reporter. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Leonardo DiCaprio 1944 Words | 5 Pages. ? Matter over Mind in Romeo and Juliet There are a multitude story plots that follows the theme of Romeo and Juliet, such as . Resume. The Lion King II: Simba's Pride, West Side Story, and many others.
All these scenarios follow the our country india, idea of forbidden love, star crossed lovers, or the idea of fate. While some flaws were the characters abuse of their free will and others were of long time feuds, The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet were the base of the stories, becoming involved in the making of these works of. Christopher Marlowe , Juliet Capulet , Love 859 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Essay Romeo and university of georgia early action Juliet: Franco Zeffirelli and Baz Luhrmann When making books or plays into films, every director interprets . the text differently. In the case of Romeo and essay our country india Juliet, Franco Zeffirelli and Baz Luhrmann’s film are different in many ways even though they are based on the same play. The film by Franco Zeffirelli, in 1968, does a better job reenacting the play in on television a motion picture than the film made by essay india Baz Luhrmann, in 1996, because the setting, costumes and characterization. Baz Luhrmann , Claire Danes , Franco Zeffirelli 1513 Words | 6 Pages. Shakespeare’s 1597 play ' Romeo and Juliet” explores the protagonist’s change in attitude to resume love. This is done through the juxtaposition of . About Our Country. Romeo’s infatuated love to Rosaline and the true love to Juliet. In Act 1 Scene 1 Shakespeare introduces us to vous essayez Romeo’s passionate desire towards Rosaline through the our country india, use of binary opposition, soliloquy and kernel resume vivid imagery. In contrast, in Act 2 Scene 2, when Romeo is addressing Juliet, his language shifts through the use of light, religious and mythological imagery.
Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , Love 811 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and Juliet Compare-Contrast Paper Assignment: Write a paper comparing and/or contrasting Romeo and Juliet. This is a . compare-contrast paper, but it is also a character analysis paper. You need to recall what we have learned about literature analysis papers already. BRAINSTORMING: Step 1: Read the handout “Taxonomy of Love.” Often when you write a paper on literature, you will need to find outside sources to help you analyze the piece of literature with which you are working. In. Literature , Love , Paragraph 681 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and essay about our country india Mr Darcy are often both thought of as the typical Romantic hero, however in very different ways. Dc Affordable. They may seem to have some . similarities that link them together however, their personalities and characteristics differ. Although these two characters were created in two completely different Eras; Shakespeare’s Romeo in the 16th century and Austen’s Darcy in the 18th century, the essay our country, two characters can both be seen to support the kernel resume, concept developed by Lord Byron in essay our country india his poetry.
Some of these characteristics. Byronic hero , Characters in Romeo and early essay Juliet , George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron 2391 Words | 6 Pages. Romeo Is Completely to Blame for the Tragic Outcome in the Play. Romeo is completely to our country blame for the tragic outcome in vous essayez the play. Essay About Our Country India. William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet is without doubt . one of the resume reviews, most well-known love story. India. Throughout the five acts of the play, one tragedy follows another, with the famous suicide of Romeo and Juliet as a tragic conclusion. Throughout the play, it may seem that Romeo caused these events to unfold, however it is unjust to say that he bears all responsibility for the tragedy. The decisions, actions and circumstances that.
Characters in Romeo and Juliet , English-language films , Juliet Capulet 1359 Words | 4 Pages. ?SACE Stage 1 English ASSESSMENT TYPE: TEXT ANALYSIS Romeo and Juliet by Baz Luhrmann The play Romeo and Juliet, originally . written by William Shakespeare in best resume writing services dc affordable the 1500’s, is famous for about india the love and tragedy represented through the classic literature. Essays On Calcium. To this day it is still a highly respected play. Due to its popularity, there have been multiple films produced using this tragic love story. This study of about, Romeo and Juliet is kernel resume, based on the 1996 film version directed by Baz Luhrmann, in which Luhrmann. First Folio , Juliet Capulet , Romeo + Juliet 854 Words | 2 Pages. Romeo and Juliet - Who Is to Blame for the Deaths in the Pla. The names Romeo and essay about our country india Juliet have passed in our language as a symbol for love.
For centuries, no story of love has been more influential, . prominent and emotional than The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. In the extraordinary track of the play, the unconquerable love, heroic actions, and faithful vows of the two lovers finger our hearts hard like a spiky thorn and dc affordable soft like the delicate silk. Who is to blame for about our country india the deaths in the play? Friar Laurence certainly holds the responsibility. He marries the. Characters in Romeo and best services dc affordable Juliet , John Gielgud , Marriage 1099 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo Juliet Essay Fate, most people don’t even believe in essay it; in fact some don’t even know what it is. There are many definitions of vous essayez, . Fate, but most seem to revolve around something like a force—in which no one can control—in life. But one of the few people—in that small percentage—that do believe in fate, so happens to include William Shakespeare himself, and he tries to proof Fate to essay our country india be true through figurative language and incidents, in his book Romeo and Juliet.
This story is about two families. Fates , Juliet Capulet , Love 1181 Words | 3 Pages. ?Malaya Greaux Mrs. Oliver Freshman Language Arts 18 March 2014 Romeo and Juliet Don’t fall in love as a teen; you might end up killing . yourself. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare showed that being in love has its ups and downs. Shakespeare, also, in my opinion, created a self-destructive tendency connected with love. Although this play was a tragedy, there were some bright sides. Romeo and reviews Juliet were in love, and generally, being in love gives one feelings of joy and. Christopher Marlowe , First Folio , Love 838 Words | 4 Pages. Baz Luhrmann Romeo + Juliet 1996 and william shakespeare how each text reflects its cultural and historical context I am the our country, master of university early essay, my . fate. I am the about our country india, captain in my soul. « When we look at Shakespeare’s work, we discover a playwright who never loses sight of uncertainties, ambiguities, and imbalances of life » (Barthelemy 2004: 141) Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was written in the late 1500's.
Critics tended to disparage this play in comparison to the four great tragedies Shakespeare. A Midsummer Night's Dream , First Folio , Richard III 1600 Words | 5 Pages. Scene 3 Romeo travels to university of georgia early essay the cell of about india, Friar Laurence, who has been out in the fields all morning gathering herbs.. Cheerful and excited, . Romeo greets the reviews, Friar and tells him of his new love and plans for marriage. Friar Laurence, who has been Romeo's friend and about confessor for some time, is confused and concerned about Romeo's sudden change of of georgia action, heart. He exclaims Holy Saint Francis, what a change is here!/Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear/So soon forsaken? (II.iii.65-8). But Romeo persuades. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 778 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of the Film Adaptation of “ Romeo and Juliet” Many movies have been adapted from about india books. Several of these movies do not follow the . books precisely. Although the movie Romeo and Juliet directed by Baz Luhrmann has the same basic elements as Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, there are several differences that exist amongst them. The characters of Romeo and essay Juliet were the same in both the essay about india, movie and on television the book. Romeo , the son of Montague, is one of the two main characters. He falls desperately. Characters in Romeo and our country india Juliet , Count Paris , Juliet Capulet 915 Words | 3 Pages. death's of 1 day, Romeo and Juliet.
If Friar Lawrence didn't tell Juliet about making a plan of essay our country india, her faking her own death so that she will nd ot marry . Count Paris. Maybe Romeo and Juliet would still be alive and could have ran away together to get married by Friar Lawrence instead of Juliet going along with Lawrence plan and actually dieing at the end. Also it is the Messenger's fault too because the messenger should of immediately told Romeo about the essays on calcium, plan Friar Lawrence and Juliet agreed to make.In Romeo and. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Death , Juliet Capulet 888 Words | 3 Pages. Who Was to Blame for the Deaths of Romeo and essay about our country india Juliet? Who was to blame for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet? In this essay I will be exploring the reasons as to why some people would argue that a . certain person or people are to essay in english blame for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. I will show understanding of the essay our country, plot, character and themes and Shakesperes use of language and dramatic devices within the play.
Firstly, some people believe that the on calcium, parents of Romeo and Juliet were to blame for essay about india their deaths because of the ongoing feud between the of georgia essay, two families. The. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet 2030 Words | 5 Pages. situation, but being misguided in a conflict can lead to india an even larger predicament. In the play Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, the . death of main characters can be rooted at the deluded advice from supposedly wise mentors.
These mentors were Friar Lawrence and the Nurse, whose intentions were pure, but whose advice could be considered otherwise. Friar Lawrence and the Nurse unintentionally mislead Romeo and Juliet, which ultimately was the driving force behind the extreme actions they made throughout. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Deception , Juliet Capulet 907 Words | 3 Pages.
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I’m feeling proud that three of those best CV are from Bangladesh. Writing Services Dc Affordable? A small country with a huge talents ! :) So sweet. Yes have seen many talents from essay our country, Bangladesh and 1 day resume reviews worked with them as well. Looks like your website has been rethemed. Nice. About India? Such a brilliant website you have there. I have seen you guys from old times when there was psdgraphics, freepsdfiles like that. Good times. I had one too. In English? But doesnt matter now. :) The link for essay #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead.
Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me? Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts. Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to essay in english, find and make more. Would be great if all the Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to a file transfer service without limits. You might want to try MediaFire or Google Drive. true.. dropbox is our country india getting bad.
Mentioned link is not working. (Dropbox 429 error). Resume Reviews? can you please help me with this file. thankyou for our country marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. Essay On Television In English? thanks for providing such an ideas introducing me to essay our country, a new world of presentation. Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for share. Glad to vous essayez, know you like the collection. :) Great posting about free template. hmm it is. Let me see what can be done. Thank you from Colombia!!
Thanks for sharing. I was wondering if you would want to add another model. I#8217;ve just created a pretty different design from what is listed on this page. :)
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Essay on “Our Country India” in Hindi
deaf and dumb essay DEAF AND DUMB. 1 The term deaf is frequently applied to those who are deficient in hearing power in any degree, however slight, as well as to people who are unable to detect the loudest sounds by means of the auditory organs. It is impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the deaf and essay our country, the hearing at any particular point. For the purposes of this article, however, that denotation which is generally accepted by educators of the deaf may be given to the term. This makes it refer to those who are so far handicapped as to be incapable of instruction by kernel resume, the ordinary means of the ear in a class of those possessing normal hearing. Paradoxical though it may seem, it is yet true to say that dumbness in our sense of the word does not, strictly speaking, exist, though the term dumb may, for all practical purposes, fairly be applied to many of the deaf even after they are supposed to have learnt how to speak.
Oral teachers now confess that it is not worth while to about our country india, try to teach more than a large percentage of the deaf to speak at all. We are not concerned with aphasia, stammering or such inability to vous essayez, articulate as may be due to malformation of the vocal organs. In the case of the deaf and dumb, as these words are generally understood, dumbness is merely the our country india result of ignorance in 1 day resume the use of the voice, this ignorance being due to essay about india, the deafness. The vocal organs are perfect. The deaf man can laugh, shout, and in 1 day fact utter any and every sound that the normal person can. But he does not speak English (if that happens to be his nationality) for essay about our country, the same reason that a French child does not, which is that he has never heard it. There is in fact no more a priori reason why an English baby, born in England, should talk English than that it should. talk any other language. English may be correctly described as its mother tongue, but not its natural language; the only reason why one person speaks English and essays on calcium, another Russian is. that each imitated that particular language which he heard in infancy. This imitation depends upon the ability to about our country india, hear. Best Writing Services Dc Affordable. Hence if one has never heard, or has lost hearing in early childhood, he has never been able to imitate that language which his parents and others used, and the condition of so-called dumbness. is essay india, added to his deafness. From this it follows that if the sense of hearing be not lost till the child has learnt to speak fluently, the ability to speak is unaffected by the calamity of deafness, except that after many years the voice is likely to become high-pitched, or too guttural, or peculiar in some other respect, owing to the absence of the control usually exercised by the ear.
It also follows that, to a certain extent, the art of speech can be taught the deaf person even though he were born deaf. Theoretically, he is capable of talking just as well as his hearing brother, for the organs of speech are as perfect in vous essayez one as in the other, except that they suffer from lack of exercise in about india the case of the deaf man. Practically, he can never speak perfectly, for even if he were made to attempt articulation as soon as he is discovered to be deaf, the essay fact that the ear, the essay india natural guide of the voice, is 1 day reviews, useless, lays upon him a handicap which can never be wiped out. He: can never hear the tone of about our country, his teacher's voice nor of his own; he can only see small and, in many instances, scarcely discernible movements of the lips, tongue, nose, cheeks and throat in vous essayez those who are endeavouring to teach him to about, speak, and he can never hope to succeed in university early action essay speech through the instrumentality of such. Our Country. unsatisfactory appeals to his eye as perfectly as the hearing child can with the ideal adaptation of the voice to vous essayez, the ear. Sound appeals to the ear, not the about our country india eye, and those who have to rely upon. the kernel resume latter to imitate speech must suffer by comparison. Deafness then, in our sense, means the incapacity to be instructed by means of the ear in the normal way, and essay about, dumbness means only kernel resume that ignorance of how to speak one's mother tongue which is the effect of the deafness. Of such deaf people many can hear sound to some extent.. Dr Kerr Love quotes several authorities ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 58 ff.) to show that 50 or 60% are absolutely deaf, while 25% can. detect loud sounds such as shouting close to the ear, and the rest. can distinguish vowels or even words. He himself thinks that not more than 15 or 20% are totally deaf - sometimes only 7 or 8%; that ability to hear speech exists in about one in four, while ten or fifteen in each hundred are only semi-deaf.
He rightly warns against the use of tuning forks or other instruments held on the bones of the head as tests of india, hearing, because the vous essayez vibration which is felt, not heard, may very often be mistaken for sound. Dr Edward M. Gallaudet, the president of the College for the Deaf in essay about Washington, D.C., U.S.A., suggests the following terms for use in dividing the whole class of the deaf into its main sections, though it is obviously impossible to split them up into perfectly defined subdivisions, where, as a matter of fact, you have each degree of deafness and dumbness shading into services, the next: the essay our country india speaking deaf, the semi-speaking deaf, the mute deaf (or deaf-mute ), the speaking semi-deaf, the mute semi-deaf, the hearing mute and the hearing semi-mute. He points out that the kernel resume last two classes are usually persons of india, feeble mental power. We should exclude these altogether from the list, since their hearing is, presumably, perfect, and should add the semi-speaking semi-deaf before the mute semi-deaf. This would give two main divisions - those wha cannot hear at all, and those who have partial hearing - with three subsections in each main division - those who speak, those who have partial speech and essays, those who do not speak at all.
Where the hearing is about india, perfect it is paradoxical to class a person with the deaf, and the dumbness in such a case is due (where there is no malformation of the vocal organs) to 1 day resume, inability of the mind to pay attention to, and imitate, what the about our country india ear really hears. In such cases this mental weakness is generally shown in other ways besides that of not hearing sounds. Probably no sign will. be given of recognizing persons or objects around; there will be, in fact, a general incapacity of the whole body and senses. Of Georgia Early Essay. It is incorrect to designate such persons as deaf and feeble-minded or deaf and idiotic, because in many cases their organs of hearing are as perfect as are other organs of their body, and they are no more deaf than blind, though they may pay no attention to what they hear any more than to what they see. They are simply weak in intellect, and this is shown by about our country, the disuse of any and all of their senses; hence it is resume services dc affordable, incorrect to classify them according to one, and one only, of the evidences of this mental weakness. NUMBER OF DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS. PROPORTION OF DEAF AND DUMB TO THE POPULATION. The following table shows the number of deaf and dumb persons in about our country india the United Kingdom at of georgia essay, successive censuses: - From this we find that the proportion of india, deaf and dumb to the population has been as follows: - There has, therefore, been on the whole a steady decrease of those described as deaf and dumb in proportion to the population in Great Britain and Ireland. University Early Action Essay. But in essay about the census for 1901, in addition to the 15,246 returned as deaf and dumb in England and Wales, 18,507 were entered as being deaf, 2433 of whom were described as having been deaf from childhood. Mr B. H. Payne, the vous essayez principal of the Royal Cambrian Institution, Swansea, makes the following remarks upon these figures: - The natural conclusion, of course. is that there has been a large increase, relative as well as absolute, of the class in essay our country which we are interested, which we call the deaf, and which includes the deaf and dumb.
Indeed, the number, large as it is, cannot be considered as complete, for the schedules did not require persons who were only deaf to state their infirmity, and, though many did so, it may be presumed that more did not. On the other hand, circumstances exist which may reasonably be held to modify the essays conclusion that there has been a large relative increase of the deaf. The spread of education, the development of local government, and an improved system of registration, may have had the effect of procuring fuller enumeration and more appropriate classification than heretofore, while 1368 persons described simply as dumb, and who therefore probably belong, not to the deaf, but to the feeble-minded and our country, aphasic classes, are included in the ' deaf and dumb ' total. It is also to be noted that some of those who described themselves as ' deaf ' though not born so may have been educated in the ordinary way before they lost their hearing, and are therefore outside the sphere of the operation of schools for the deaf. In connexion with the census of 1891, it has been remarked in the report of the institution that no provision was made in the schedules for distinguishing the congenital from the on calcium non-congenital deaf, and that it was desirable to draw such a distinction. To ascertain the relative increase or decrease of our country, one or the other section of the class would contribute to our knowledge of the incidence of known causes of 1 day resume, deafness or to the confirmation or discovery of other causes, and so far indicate the appropriate measures of prevention, while such an essay india, inquiry as that recommended has, besides, a certain bearing upon educational views. The exact number of ' deaf and dumb ' and ' deaf ' children who are of school age cannot be ascertained from the university action essay census tables, which give the numbers in quinquennial age-groups, while the school age is seven to essay, sixteen. It is a pity that in this respect the functions of the census department are not co-ordinated with those of the Board of Education. Dr John Hitz,the superintendent of theVoltaBureau for university of georgia early action, theIncrease of Knowledge Relating to the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., gives the number of schools for deaf children, and pupils, in different countries in 1900 as follows: - Africa.
These figures refer only to deaf children who are actually under instruction, not to the whole deaf population. While it is gratifying to find that so much is being done in the way of educating this class of the community, the number of schools in most parts of the our country india world is still lamentably inadequate. On Calcium. For instance, taking the school age as from seven to india, sixteen, which is now made compulsory by Act of Parliament in Great Britain, and assuming that 20% of the deaf population are of that age, as they are in England, there should be 40,000 deaf pupils under instruction in India alone, whereas there are but seventy-three. There are 200,000 deaf of all ages in India. On Television. And what an enormous total should be in schools in China instead of essay about our country india, forty-three ! The whole of the rest of Asia, with the exception of Japan, has apparently not a single school. There must be many thousands of thousands of deaf (hundreds of thousands, if not thousands of thousands of whom are of school age) in that continent, unless indeed they are destroyed, which is not impossible. What are we to say of Africa, where only Too pupils are being taught; of South America, with its paltry 200, and Australia's 300 ? To come to Europe itself, Russia should have many times more pupils than her 1700. Best Services Dc Affordable. Even in Great Britain the education of the deaf was not made compulsory till 1893, and there are many still evading the law and essay about our country, growing up uneducated. Mr Payne of Swansea estimated ( Institution Report, 1903-1904) from the 1901 census, that there must be approximately 204 deaf of school age in South Wales and Monmouthshire, while only 144 were accounted for essay on television in english, in all the schools in that district according to Dr Hitz's statistics. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. Essay About. 217) gives the following table, which shows the number of university of georgia action essay, deaf people in proportion to the population in the countries named: Switzerland . Austria Hungary Sweden Prussia Finland Canada Norway Germany (exclusive of Prussia) Portugal . India..
United States Denmark. Our Country India. Greece France Italy Scotland. Kernel Resume. Cape Colony England Spain Belgium. Australasia. Holland Ceylon . According to a tabular statement of British and Colonial schools, June 1899, the proportion of essay about, those born deaf to those who lost hearing after birth was, at that time and in those countries, 2126 to 1251, as far as returns had been made. Several schools had, however, failed to give statistics.
These figures show a proportion of nearly 59% congenitally deaf persons to over 41% whose deafness is on television, acquired. Essay About India. Professor Fay, whose monumental work, Marriages of the Deaf in America, deserves particular attention, mentions (p. 38) that of 23,931 persons who attended American schools for the deaf up to the year 1890, 9842, or 41%, were reported as congenitally deaf, and 14,089, or 59%, as adventitiously deaf, - figures which exactly reverse those just quoted. The classification of deafness acquired in infancy with congenital deafness by some other authorities (giving rise to the rather absurd term ” toto-congenital ” to 1 day, describe the about latter) is unscientific. On Calcium. There is reason for the opinion that the noncongenital, even when hearing has been lost in early infancy, acquire language better, and it is a mistake from any point of view to include them in the born deaf. 1 The figures for England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the 1901 census, are different and have been given above. Other statistics vary very much as to the proportion of born deaf, some being as low as a quarter, and our country india, some as high as three-quarters, of the whole class. We can only of georgia early action essay say, speaking of both sides of the Atlantic, and counterbalancing one period with another, that the general average appears to essay about our country, be about 50% for each. Probably the percentage varies in different places for vous essayez, definite reasons, which we shall now briefly consider. These may be considered in two divisions, pre-natal and post-natal.
1. Pre-Natal. - A small percentage of these is due, it seems, to malformation of some portion of the auditory apparatus. Another percentage is known to represent the children of the intermarriage of about our country, blood relations. Kernel Resume. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 117) gives statistics from thirteen British institutions which show that on a general average at least 8% of the congenitally deaf are the offspring of such marriages. Besides this, little is known. Beyond all doubt a much larger percentage of about our country, deaf children are the offspring of marriages in kernel resume which one or both partners were born deaf than of our country india, ordinary marriages. But inquiries into such phenomena have generally been directed towards tracing deafness and not consanguinity, or at least the inquirer has rarely troubled to make sure whether the grandparents or great-grandparents on either side were relations or not. Such investigations rarely go beyond ascertaining if the parents were related to each other, though we have proof that a certain tendency towards any particular abnormality may not exhibit itself in every generation of the family in question.
To give an illustration, suppose that G is a deaf man. Several inquirers may trace back to the preceding generation F, and to the grandparents E, and even to the great-grandparents D, in search of an ancestor who is deaf, and such they may discover in vous essayez the third generation D. But probably not one of our country india, these several inquirers will ask G if any of his grandparents or greatgrandparents married a cousin, for 1 day reviews, instance, though they may ask if his father did. To continue this hypothetical case, the investigators will again trace back along the family tree to generations C, B and A in search of an original deaf ancestor, on whose shoulders they seek to lay the about india blame of kernel resume, both D's and essay, G's deafness. Not finding any such, they will again content themselves with asking if D's parents (generation C) were blood relations or not, and, receiving an answer in the negative, desist from further inquiry in this direction, assuming that D's deafness is the original cause of in english, G's deafness. They do not, we fear, inquire if any grandparents or great-grandparents (hearing people) were related, with the essay about india same persistency as they ask if any were deaf. The search for deafness is pushed through several generations, the search for consanguinity is only extended to one generation.
Perhaps if it were carried further, it would be discovered that A married his niece, and there lay the secret of the deafness in both D and G. In other words, the deafness in D is not the cause of that in G, but the deafness in both D and G are effects of the consanguineous marriage in university of georgia early A. All this is, however, merely by way of suggestion. We submit that if deafness in one generation may be followed by deafness two or even three generations later, while the tendency to deafness exists, but does not appear, in the intermediate generations, it is only logical to about our country india, inquire if deafness in the first discoverable instance in a family may not be caused by consanguinity, the on calcium effect of which is essay our country india, not seen for two or three generations in a similar manner. Kernel Resume. Moreover it is probable that consanguinity in parents or grandparents may often be denied. An exhaustive investigation along these lines is desirable, for we believe that congenital deafness would be proved to be due to consanguinity in hearing people, if the search were pushed far enough back and the truth were told, in a far greater percentage of cases than is india, now suspected. Resume. This is not disproved by quoting numbers of cases where no deafness follows consanguinity in any generation, for about india, resulting weakness may be shown (where it exists) in many other ways than by kernel resume, deafness. This theory receives support from the statistics quoted by Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 132), where the percentage of defective children resulting from the consanguineous marriages of hearing people increases in essay about almost exact proportion to the nearness of affinity of the parents.
It is further borne out resume writing services, by in 408 765 792 977 981 981 1003 1052 107 4 1333 ?3981 1459 1514 1 538154 8 1600 1862 18851 1904 20431 2178 22 47 2692 2985 4328 statistics of the duchy of Nassau, and of Berlin, both quoted by essay about our country india, Dr Kerr Love (pp. 119, 120). These show r deaf person in 1397 Roman Catholics, 1101 Evangelicals and 508 Jews in the former case, and r in 3000 Roman Catholics, 2000 Protestants and 400 Jews in the latter. When we are told that Roman Catholics prohibit marriages between persons who are near blood relations, Protestants view such marriages as permissible, and Jews encourage intermarriage with blood relations, these figures become suggestive. We find the same greater tendency to deafness in vous essayez thinly-populated and out-of-the-way districts and countries where, owing to the circle of acquaintances being limited, people are more likely to marry relations. MARRIAGES OF THE. One or both partners. Both partners deaf . One partner deaf, the. One or both partners.
One or both partners. Both partners con- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. Both partners adven- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. One partner adven- titiously deaf, the. Both partners had.
One partner had deaf. ,relatives, the other. Neither partner had. Both partners con- genitally deaf; both. had deaf relatives. Both partners con- genitally deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners congen- itally deaf; neither. had deaf relatives. Both partners ad- both had deaf re-
Both partners adven- titiously deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners ad- neither had deaf. With regard to the question of marriages of the deaf, Professor Edward Allen Fay's work is so complete that the results of his six years' labour are particularly worthy of notice, for, as the essay our country india introduction states, the university essay book is a ' ` collection of records of marriages of the deaf far larger than all previous collections put together, and it deals in detail with 4471 such marriages. The summary of statistics is as follows ( Marriages of the Deaf in America, p. 134): One point deserves special attention in the above list. It is essay, that where there are no deaf relatives (i.e. On Television In English. where there has not been a history of essay, deafness in the family) only one child out of twenty-four is deaf, even when the parents were both born deaf themselves. Where there were deaf relatives already in the family on both sides, and the parents were born deaf, the percentage of deaf children is seven and kernel resume, a half times as great. This seems to essay our country india, show that there are causes of congenital deafness which are, comparatively speaking, unlikely to be transmitted to future generations, while other causes of congenital deafness are so liable to be perpetuated that one child in every three is deaf. We conjecture that one original cause of university, congenital deafness which reappears in a family is consanguinity-for instance, the intermarriage of essay about, first or second cousins (hearing people) in some previous generation. Out of the kernel resume 2245 deaf persons who were born deaf, 269 had parents who were blood relations, according to Fay.
And perhaps many more refrained from acknowledging the fact. Eleven had grandparents who were cousins. This theory calls for investigation, and while the marriage of deaf people is not encouraged, it is fair to ask those who so strenuously oppose such unions whether they may not be spending their energies on trying to check an effect instead of a cause, and if that cause may not really be consanguinity,-witness the percentage of deaf people among Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews before noticed. On the principle that prevention is better than cure it is the intermarriage of cousins and other relations which should be discouraged. The marriage of deaf people is inadvisable where there has been deafness in the family in former generations, but the same warning applies to all the other members of that family, for about india, the hearing members are as likely to university early action essay, transmit the defect of which deafness is a symptom as the deaf members are. We are more concerned to discover the india primary cause of the defect, and take steps to prevent the latter from occurring at all. Those who have no dissuasions for vous essayez, hearing people, who might perhaps cause the misery, and only give counsel to those among the transmitters of it who happen to be deaf, are acting in a manner which is hardly logical. 2. Essay About India. Post - Natal. - We have collected and grouped the stated causes of deafness in those partners of the marriages in America noticed by Fay. Resume. About a hundred and thirty did not mention how they lost hearing. Any errors in this calculation must be less than 1% at essay about, most, and can make no material difference.
In some cases two or more diseases are given as the cause of best services dc affordable, deafness. In such cases where one is a very common cause of deafness, and essay our country india, the other is unusual, the former is credited with being the reason for the defect. Where both are common, we have divided the cases between them in a rough proportion. Scarlet fever 973; scarlatina 3; scarlet rash 2.978 Spotted fever 260; meningitis 92; spinal meningitis 76; cerebro-spinal meningitis 70; spinal fever 28; spinal disease 8; congestion of spine 2.536 Brain fever 309; inflammation of brain 62; congestion of brain 30; disease in brain 3 404 Typhoid 127; fever (unspecifi ed) 117; typhus 17; inter mittent fever 14; bilious fever II; other fevers 14.300 Gatherings, inflammations, in head; ulcers, disease, sores, risings, c., all but 22 being explicitly stated to be in head or ears. 276 Sickness 167; illness 49; disease 8; no definite specification 12.236 Measles.. .. .. .. 191 Colds 101; colds in head, c. 35; catarrh 19; catarrhal fevers 1 o; chills, c. 17. .. 182 Whooping cough 77; diphtheria 34; lung fever, and various diseases of lungs and on television in english, throat 60.171 Falls.. .. .. 143 Fits and convulsions 58; spasms 18; teething 16.92 Scrofula 35; mumps 25; swellings on neck 2 62 Many various and unusual causes.. 60 Smallpox 8; chickenpox 6; cholera, c. Essay Our Country. 7; canker, c. i i; erysipelas 13. .. .. 45 Paralysis, c. '1 2; nerve diseases 12; fright 8; palsy 3 35 Hydrocephalus 14; dropsy on brain or in head 17; dropsy 2 33 Various accidents, blows, kicks, c.. 31 Quinine 22; other medicines 7.. 29 Total 3804 We have counted a hundred and 1 day resume reviews, thirty of those who were returned as having lost hearing who were also stated to be the offspring of essay about india, consanguineous marriages. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 150) gives the kernel resume following list compiled from the registers of British institutions: - Scarlet fever . Miscellaneous causes.
Teething, convulsions, c. . Meningitis, brain fever, c. Falls and accidents. Enteric and other fevers Disease, illness, c.. Whooping cough. Suppurative ear diseases Syphilis 1312 Unknown causes..
98 The same writer quotes Hartmann's table, compiled in 1880 from continental statistics, as follows: - Cerebral affections, inflammations, convulsions 644 Cerebro-spinal meningitis - 295 Typhus. 260 Scarlatina 205 Measles . Ear disease, proper 77 Lesions of the head 70 Other diseases. 354 1989 There appears to be no cure for deafness that is other than partial; but with the advance of science preventive treatment is essay about our country, expected to be efficacious in scarlet fever, measles, c. Condition of the Deaf. 1. In Childhood. - It is difficult to impress people with two facts in connexion with teaching language to the average child who was born deaf, or lost hearing in early infancy. One is the of georgia action essay necessity of the undertaking, and about our country, the other is that this necessity is not due to mental deficiency in the pupil. To the born deaf-mute in an English-speaking country English is a foreign language. His inability to speak is kernel resume, due to his never having heard that tongue which his mother uses. India. The same reason holds good for his entire ignorance of that language. The hearing child does not know a word of university of georgia early action, English when he is born, and never would learn it if taken away from where it is essay about our country india, spoken. He learns English unconsciously by 1 day reviews, imitating what he hears.
The deaf child never hears English, and about india, so he never learns it till he goes to school. Here he has to start learning English - or whatever is the language of his native land - in the same way as a hearing boy learns a foreign language. But another reason exists which renders his task much more difficult than that of of georgia essay, a normal English schoolboy learning, say, German. The latter has two channels of information, the eye and india, the ear; the deaf boy has only one, the eye. The hearing boy learns German by what he hears of it in resume class as well as by reading it; the deaf boy can only learn by what he sees. It is as if you tried to fill two cisterns of the same capacity with two inlets to one and only one inlet to the other; supposing the inlets to essay about our country india, be the same size, the former will fill twice as fast. So it is in the case of the hearing boy as compared with his deaf brother. The cerebral capacity and quality are the same, but in one case one of the avenues to the brain is closed, and consequently the development is resume writing dc affordable, less rapid.
Moreover, the about our country thoughts are precisely those which would be expected in people who form them only from writing what they see. India. We were often asked by our deaf playmates in our childhood such questions (in signs) as What does the vous essayez cat say? - The dog talks, does he not ? - Is the rainbow very hot on the roof of that house? They have often told us such things as that they used to think someone went to the end of the earth and climbed up the sky to about india, light the best resume writing stars, and to pour down rain through a sieve. But there is yet a third disadvantage for the already handicapped deaf boy. About. He has no other language to university action essay, build upon, while the other has his mother tongue with which to compare the foreign language he is learning. The latter already has a general idea of sentences and clauses, of tense and mood, of gender, number and case, of substantives, verbs and prepositions; and he knows that one language must form some sort of essay our country india, parallel to another. He is already prepared to kernel resume, find a subject, predicate and object, in the sentence of a foreign language, even when he knows not a word of any but his own mother tongue. If he is told that a certain word in German is an adjective, he understands what its function is, even when he has yet to learn the meaning of the essay about our country india word.
All this goes for nothing in the case of the essay on television deaf pupil. The very elementary fact that certain words denote certain objects - that there is such a class of word as substantives - comes as a revelation to most deaf children. They have to begin at seven laboriously and artificially to learn what an ordinary baby has unconsciously and naturally discovered at the age of two. Our Country India. English, spoken, written, printed or finger-spelled, is no more natural, comprehensible or easy of acquirement to the deaf than is Chinese. The manual alphabet is simply one way of early action essay, expressing the essay about vernacular on the fingers; it is no more the deafmute's natural language than speech or writing, and if he cannot express himself by the latter nodes of communicating, he cannot by spelling on on television in english the fingers. The last is simply a case of vicaria linguae manus. None of these are languages in themselves; whether you use pen or type, hand or voice, you are but adopting one or other method of expressing one and the same tongue - English or whatever it may be, that of a people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words they cannot understand. The deaf child's natural mode of communication - more natural to him than any verbal language is to hearing people - is the world-wide, natural language of signs. We have just called signs a natural language. While a purist might properly object to essay about, this adjective being applied to all signs, yet it is 1 day, not an unfair term to about, use as regards this method of conversing as a whole, even in the United States, where signs, being to university action essay, a great extent the French signs invented by our country, de 1'Epee, are more artificial than in England.
The old story, by the way, of the pupil of de l'Epee failing to write more than hand, breast, as describing what an incredulous investigator did when he laid his hand on his breast, proves nothing. In all probability he had no idea that he was expected to describe an action, and thought that he was being asked the names of certain parts of the body. Essays On Calcium. The hand was held out to him and essay about our country, he wrote hand. On Calcium. Then the breast was indicated by placing the hand on it, and he wrote breast. Moreover, the artificial element is much less pronounced than is supposed by essay india, most of those who are loudest in their condemnation of kernel resume, signs, there being almost invariably an essay our country, obvious connexion between the kernel resume sign and idea. These critics are generally people whose acquaintance with the subject is rather limited, and the thermometer of whose zeal in waging war against gestures generally falls in proportion as the photometer of our country, their knowledge about them shows an increasing light. We may go still further and point out that to object to any sign on the ground of artificiality per se, is to strain at the gnat and to swallow the camel, for English itself is one of the most artificial languages in on television in english existence, and certainly is more open to such an objection than signs.
If we apply the same test to English that is applied to signs by those who would rule out any which they suppose cannot come under the head of natural gesture or pantomime, what fraction of our so-called natural language should we have left? For a spoken word to be natural in essay about our country this sense it must be onomatopoetic, and what infinitesimal percentage of English words are such ? A foreigner, unacquainted with the language, could not glean the drift of a conversation in vous essayez English, except perhaps a trifle from the essay about our country india tone of the university of georgia voices and more from the natural signs used - the essay about our country smiles and frowns, the expressions of the faces, the play of eyes, lips, hands and whole body. The only words he could possibly understand without such aids are some such onomatopoetic words as the cries of animals - mew, chirrup, c., and a few more like bang or swish. The reason why we insist emphatically upon reviews, the importance of teaching English in schools for the deaf in our country india English-speaking countries, is, firstly, because that is the language which the pupil will be called upon to use in his intercourse with his fellow-men 331 175 171 166 138 122 119 37 33 2 after he leaves school, and secondly, because, if his grasp of that tongue only vous essayez be sufficient and his interest in books be properly aroused, he can go on educating himself in essay about our country india after-life by means of reading. 1 Day Reviews. Time tables are overcrowded with kindergarten, clay modelling, wood-carving, carpentry, and essay our country india, other things which are excellent in themselves. But there is not time for everything, and these are not as important in the case of the deaf pupil as language. University Early Action Essay. Putting aside the question of religion and moral training, we consider the essay our country flooding of kernel resume, their minds with general knowledge, and the teaching of essay india, English to enable them to express their thoughts to their neighbours, to be of paramount importance, so paramount that all other branches of education in their turn pale into insignificance by comparison with these, while the question of on calcium, methods of instruction should be subservient to these main ends. Too many make speech in itself an end. This is a mistake. Speech is not in itself English; it is only one way of expressing that language. And we are little concerned to inquire by essay our country india, what means the deaf pupil expresses himself in English so long ' 1234 5678 9 ' Observations. - People speak of ` manual signs.' Of course there are signs which are made with the hands only, as there are others which are labial, c. But the sign language is comprehensive, and at action, times the whole frame is engaged in its use.
A late American teacher could and did ` sign ' a story to his pupils with his hands behind him. Facial expression plays an important part in the language. Sympathetic gestures are individualistic and about our country india, spontaneous, and are sometimes unconsciously made. The speaker, feeling that words are inadequate, reinforces them with gesture. Arbitrary signs are, e.g., drumming with three separated fingers on the chin for ` uncle.' Grammatical signs are those which are used for inflections, parts of speech, or letters as in the manual alphabet, and university of georgia essay, some numerical signs, though other numerals may be classed as natural; also signs for sounds, and even labial signs. Signs, whether natural or arbitrary, which gain acceptance, especially if they are shortened, are ` conventional.' ` Mimic action ' refers, e.g., to the sign for sawing, the side of about our country india, one hand being passed to and fro over the side or back of the other. ' Pantomime ' means, e.g., when the signer pretends to hang up his hat and coat, roll up his sleeves, kneel on his board, guide the saw with his thumb, saw through, wipe his forehead, c. Illustrations of one style of numerical signs are given below. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FIG.
I. as he does so express himself, whether by speech or writing or finger-spelling--for if he can finger-spell he can write. It is not the mere fact that he can make certain sounds or write certain letters or form the alphabet on his hands that should signify. It is the actual language that he uses, whatever be the means, and the thoughts that are enshrined in the language, that should be our criterion when judging of his education. The importance of English is 1 day resume, insisted upon about india, because to kernel resume, place the deaf child in touch with his English-speaking fellow-men we must teach him their language, and also because he can thereby educate himself by means of books if, and when, he has a sufficient command of that language. The reason is not because the essay our country vernacular is actually superior to essay, signs as a means of conversation. The sign language is quite equal to the vernacular as a means of expression. The former is as much our mother tongue, if we may say so, as the latter; we used one language as soon as the other, in essay our country india our earliest infancy; and, after a lifelong experience of both, we affirm that signs are a more beautiful language than English, and provide possibilities of a wealth of essays on calcium, expression which English does not possess, and which probably no other language possesses. That others whose knowledge of signs is about india, lifelong hold similar opinions is shown by the following extract from The Deaf and their Possibilities, by Dr Gallaudet: Thinking that the question may arise in vous essayez the minds of some, ` Does the sign language give the deaf, when used in essay about india public addresses, all that speech affords to essays, the hearing? ' I will say that my experience and observation lead me to answer with a decided affirmative. On occasions almost without number it has been my privilege to interpret, through signs to about our country india, the deaf, addresses given in speech; I have addressed hundreds of assemblages of kernel resume, deaf persons in the college, in schools I have visited, and elsewhere, using signs for essay about india, the original expression of vous essayez, thought; I have seen many more lectures and public debates given originally in signs; I have seen conventions of deaf-mutes in which no word was spoken, and yet all the forms of parliamentary proceedings were observed, and the most earnest, and even excited, discussions were carried on.
I have seen the ordinances of religion administered, and the full service of the Church rendered in signs; and all this with the assurance growing out of my complete understanding of the language - a knowledge which dates from my earliest childhood - that for all the purposes enumerated gestural expression is in no respect inferior, and is in many respects superior, to oral, verbal utterance as a means of communicating ideas. Essay About. The following is an analysis of the sign language given by Mr Payne of the Swansea Institution, together with his explanatory notes: - Analysis of the kernel resume Sign Language. I. Facial expression. I. Sympathetic II. Gesture 2. Representative (= Natural signs) 3. Systematic (a) Arbitrary signs ( b ) Grammatical signs III. About Our Country. Mimic action. Units are signified with the palm turned inwards; tens with the palm turned outwards; hundreds with the fingers downwards; thousands with the left hand to the right shoulder; millions with the hand near the forehead. For 12, sign to outwards and 2 inwards, and so on up to 19.21 = 2 outwards, I inwards, and best services dc affordable, so on up to 30.146 = I downwards, 4 outwards, 6 inwards. 207,837 = 2 downwards, 7 inwards (both at shoulder), 8 downwards, 3 outwards, 7 inwards. Essay About Our Country India. 599,126,345= 5 downwards, 9 outwards, 9 inwards (all near forehead); z downwards, 2 outwards, 6 inwards (all at shoulder); 3 downwards, 4 outwards, 5 inwards (in front of chest).
Only the third, and a few of the second, subdivision of the second section of the above classes of signs can be excluded when talking of signs as being the deaf-mute's natural language. Kernel Resume. In fact we hesitate to call representative gesture - e.g. the horns and action of milking for cow, the smelling at something grasped in the hand for essay our country, flower, c. - conventional at all, except when shortened as the usual' sign for cat is, for instance, from the sign for whiskers plus stroking the fur on back and tail plus the action of a cat licking its paw and washing its face, to the sign for whiskers only. The deaf child expresses himself in the sign language of his own accord. University Of Georgia Essay. The supposition that in manual or combined schools generally they teach them signs is incorrect, except that perhaps occasionally a few pupils may be drilled and their signs polished for essay about our country india, a dramatic rendering of a poem at a prize distribution or public meeting, which is essays, no more teaching them signs than training hearing children to recite the same poem orally and polishing their rendering of it is about india, teaching them English. If the deaf boy meets with some one who will use gesture to essay, him, a new sign will be invented as occasion requires by one or other to express a new idea, and if it be a good one is tacitly adopted to express that idea, and so an entire language is built up.
It follows that in different localities signs will differ to india, a great extent, but one who is accustomed to signing can readily see the connexion and understand what is meant even when the signs are partly novel to him. We are sometimes asked if we can make a deaf child understand abstract ideas by this language. Our answer is that we can, if a hearing child of action essay, no greater age and intelligence can understand the same ideas in English. Our Country. Signs are particularly the vous essayez best means of conveying religious truths to the deaf. If you wish to appeal to him, to impress him, to reach his heart and his sympathies (and, incidentally, to essay about, offer the best possible substitute for music), use his own eloquent language of signs. We have conversed by essay in english, signs with deaf people from all parts of the British Isles, from France, Norway and Sweden, Poland, Finland, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the United States, and found that they are indeed a world-wide means of communication, Conventional especially in essay our country india shortened form. even when we wandered on to most unusual and abstract subjects. Deaf people in America converse with Red Indians with ease thereby, which shows how natural the generality of even de l'Epee signs are. The sign language is everybody's natural language, not only the deaf-mute's. Addison ( Deaf Mutism, p. 283) quotes John Bulwer as follows:- What though you (the deaf and dumb) cannot express your minds in essays those verbal contrivances of man's invention: yet you want not speech who have your whole body for a tongue, having a language which is more natural and significant, which is common to you with us, to wit, gesture, the general and universal language of human nature.
The same writer says further on (p. 297): The same process of growth goes on alike with the signs of the deaf and dumb as with the spoken words of the hearing. Essay About Our Country India. Arnold, than whom no stronger advocate of the oral methoa exists, recognizes this in reviews his comment on this principle of the German school, for he writes: 'It is much to be regretted that teachers should indulge in about india unqualified assertions of the impossibility of deaf-mutes attaining to clear conceptions and abstract thinking by vous essayez, signs or mimic gestures. Facts are against them.' Again, Graham Bell, who is generally considered an opponent of the sign system, says: ' I think that if we have the mental condition of the about child alone in view without reference to language, no language will reach the kernel resume mind like the language of signs; it is the method of about our country, reaching the mind of the deaf child.' The opinions of the deaf themselves, from vous essayez all parts of the world, are practically unanimous on essay india this question. In the university essay words of Dr Smith, president of the World's Congress of the Deaf held at St Louis, Missouri, in 1904, under the auspices of the National Association of the essay Deaf, U.S.A., the educated deaf have a right to be heard in these matters, and they must and shall be heard. A portion may be quoted of the best resolutions passed at that congress of 570 of the about best-informed deaf the 1 day reviews world has ever seen, at least scores, if not hundreds, of them holding degrees, and being as well educated as the vast majority of our country india, teachers of the deaf in England: Resolved, that the of georgia essay oral method, which withholds from the essay congenitally and quasicongenitally deaf the use of the language of signs outside the schoolroom, robs the children of their birthright; that those champions of the oral method, who have been carrying on a warfare, both overt and covert, against the use of the language of best writing, signs by the adult deaf, are not friends of the deaf; and that, in our opinion, it is the duty of every teacher of the deaf, no matter what method he or she uses, to essay about, have a working command of the sign language. It is often urged as an objection to the use of essay, signs that those who use them think in them, and that their English (or other vernacular language) suffers in consequence. There is, however, no more objection to thinking in signs than to thinking in india any other language, and as to the second objection, facts are against kernel resume such a statement.
The best-educated deaf in the world, as a class, are in America, and the American deaf sign almost to a man. It is true that at first a beginner in school may, when at a loss how to express himself in words, render his thoughts in sign-English, if we may use the expression, just as a schoolboy will sometimes put Latin words in the English order. That is, the our country deaf pupil puts the university word in the natural order of the signs, which is essay our country india, really the logical order, and essay on television in english, is much nearer the Latin sequence of words than the English. Essay About Our Country India. But, firstly, if he had always been forbidden to use signs he would not express himself in English any better in that particular instance; he would simply not attempt to express himself at all, - so he loses nothing, at least; and secondly, it is perfectly easy to teach him in a very short time that each language has its own idiom and that the thought is university of georgia action essay, expressed in essay about our country india a different order in each. Of the vous essayez deaf child's moral condition nothing more need be said than that it is at about our country india, first exactly that of his hearing brother, and his development therein depends entirely upon whether he is trained to the same degree. The need of this is kernel resume, great. Essay About Our Country India. He is quite as capable of religious and moral instruction, and benefits as much by what he receives of it. Happiness is a noticeable feature of the character of the deaf when they are allowed to mix with each other. The charge of bad temper can usually be sustained only when the fault is on the side of essays on calcium, those with whom they live. Our Country. For instance, the latter often talk in the presence of the deaf person without saying a word to him, and reviews, if he then shows irritation, which is not often in any case, it is no more to be wondered at than if a hearing person resents whispering or other secret communication in his presence. 3. Social Status, c. - From the 1901 census Summary Tables we gather the following facts concerning the occupations of the deaf, aged ten and upwards, in about England and Wales.
About half of the total number, taking males and females together (13,450), are engaged in occupations-6665. The rest - 6785 - are retired or unoccupied. On Calcium. Of the former, the following table given below shows the distribution: - In general or local government work (clerks, messengers, c.) . In professional occ upations and subordina te ser vices In domestic offices or services. In commercial occupations. In work connected with conveyance of men, goods or messages . In agriculture In fishing . In and essay our country, about mines and on television, quarries, c. . In work connected with metals, machines, implements, c. In work connected with precious metals, jewels, games, c. In building and works of construction . In work connected with wood, furniture, fittings and decorations In work connected with brick, ceme nt, pottery and glass. In work connected with chemicals, oil, soap, c.. In work connected with skins, hair and feathers In work connected with paper, prints, books, c. Essay About Our Country India. In work connected with textile fabrics . In work connected with dress . In work connected with food, tobacco, drink an d lodging.
In work connected with gas, water and electric supply, and sanitary service Other general and undefined workers and dealers Total 6665 Among those in professional occupations are a clergyman, five law clerks, ten schoolmasters, teachers, c., thirty-seven painters, engravers and sculptors, and seven photographers. Of those not engaged in kernel resume occupations, 235 have retired from business, and 245 are living on their own means. Probably a very large number of the remainder were out of work or engaged in odd jobs at the time of the essay about our country india census; it would certainly be incorrect to take the words Without specified occupations or unoccupied to mean that those classified as such were permanently unable to support themselves. The commonest occupations of men are bootmaking (555), tailoring (429), farm-labouring (287), general labouring (257), carpentry (195), cabinet-making (142), painting, decorating and glazing (95), French-polishing (88), harness-making, c. Kernel Resume. (80). The commonest occupations of women are dressmaking (484), domestic service (367), laundry and washing service (230), tailoring (170), shirtmaking, c. (81), charing (79). In Munich there are about essay about our country india, sixty deaf artists, especially painters and sculptors. In Germany and Austria generally, deaf lithographers, xylographers and university, photographers are well employed, as are bookbinders in Leipzig in particular, and labourers in the provinces. In France there are several deaf writers, journalists, c., two principals of schools, an architect, a score or so of painters, several of whom are ladies, nine sculptors, and a few engravers, photographers, proof-readers, c.
Italy boasts deaf wood-carvers, sculptors, painters, and architects graduating from the universities and academies of fine arts with prizes and medals; also type-setters, pressmen, carvers of coral, ivory and essay about our country india, precious stones. Two gentlemen in the office of the Norwegian government are deaf, as are four in the engraving department of the land survey; one is a master-lithographer, another a master-printer, a third a civil engineer, and the rest are engaged in the usual trades, as are those in Sweden. The deaf form societies of their own to guard their interests, for social intercourse and other purposes. In England there is the British Deaf and Dumb Association; in America the National Association of the Deaf and many lesser societies; Germany has no fewer than 150 such associations, some of which are athletic clubs, benefit societies, dramatic clubs, and so forth. The central Federation is the essays on calcium largest German association. France has the National Union of Deaf-Mutes and others, many being benefit clubs. Italy has some societies; Sweden has eight.
In the United States there are no fewer than fifty-three publications devoted to the interests of the deaf, most of them being school magazines published in the institutions themselves. Great Britain and Ireland have six, four of them being school magazines. France, Germany, Sweden, Hungary have several, II 87 788 12 144 568 3 151 503 46 485 470 153 46 137 238 407 1829 194.22 and Finland, Russia, Norway, Denmark and Austria are represented. Canada has three. There are many Church and other missions to essay about india, the deaf in England and abroad, which are much needed owing to the difficulty the average deaf person has in understanding the archaic language of both Bible and Prayer-book.
Until they have this explained to 1 day resume reviews, them it is useless to place these books in their hands, and even where they are well-educated and can follow the services, they fail to get the about our country india sermon. In English. Chaplains and essay about our country, missioners engage in all branches of kernel resume, pastoral work among them, and also try to find them employment, interpret for essay about india, them where necessary, and interview people on their behalf. The difficulty of obtaining employment for the deaf has been increased in Great Britain by the Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Acts, for masters are afraid - needlessly, as facts show - to employ them, under the impression that they are more liable to accidents owing to their affliction. The new After-Care Committees of the 1 day London County Council are a late confession of a need which other bodies have long endeavoured to supply. Education should be a development of the whole nature of the child. The board of education in England provides for intellectual, industrial and physical training, but does not take cognizance of those parts of education which are far more important - the social, moral and spiritual. Some teachers, both oral and manual, do an incalculable amount of good at the cost of great self-sacrifice and in face of much discouragement. Our Country. They deserve the highest praise for so doing, and such work needs to be carried on best writing services dc affordable after their pupils leave school. History. 2 - Who hath made man's mouth ? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind ? Is it not I the essay our country Lord ? (Ex. iv.
11). Such is the first known reference to kernel resume, the deaf. But the significance of this statement was not realized by the ancients, who mercilessly destroyed all the defective, the deaf among the rest. India. Greek and Roman custom demanded their death, and they were thrown into the river, or otherwise killed, without causing any comment but that so many encumbrances had been removed. They were regarded as being on a mental level with idiots and utterly incapable of helping themselves. In later times Roman law forbade those who were deaf and dumb from birth to make a will or bequest, placing them under the care of guardians who were responsible for them to the state; though if a deaf person had lost hearing after having been educated, and could either speak or write, he retained his rights. Essay On Television. Herodotus refers to a deaf son of Croesus, whom he declares to have suddenly recovered his speech upon our country india, seeing his father about to be killed. Gellius makes a similar statement with reference to 1 day reviews, a certain athlete. Hippocrates was in advance of about, Aristotle when he realized that deaf-mutes did not speak simply because they did not know how to; for the last-named seems to have considered that some defect of the intellect was the cause of kernel resume, their inability to essay about our country india, utter articulate sounds.
Pliny the elder and Massala Corvinus mention deafmutes who could paint. The true mental condition of the deaf was realized, however, by few, if any, before the time of Christ. University Of Georgia Action Essay. He, as He opened the ears of the deaf man and loosened his tongue, talked to him in his own language, the language of signs. St Augustine erred amazingly when he declared that the deaf could have no faith, since faith comes by hearing only. About India. The Talmud, on the other hand, recognized that they could be taught, and were therefore not idiotic.
It is, however, with those who attempted to vous essayez, educate the deaf that we are here chiefly concerned. The first to call for notice is St John of Beverley. The Venerable Bede tells how this bishop made a mute speak and essay about india, was credited with having performed a miracle in so doing. Probably it was nothing more than the first attempt to teach by the oral method, and the greatest credit is due to him for on calcium, being so far in advance of his times as to try to instruct. his pupil at all. Bede himself invented a system of counting on the hands; and essay about our country india, also a manual speech, as he called it, - using his numerals to indicate the number of the letter of the alphabet; thus, the sign for seven would also signify the letter g, and kernel resume, so forth. But we do not know that he intended this alphabet for the use of the deaf. It is not until the 16th century that we hear much of anybody else who was interested in the deaf, but at this date we find Girolamo Cardan stating that they can be instructed by writing, after they have been shown the signification of words, since their mental power is unaffected by their inability to hear. Pedro Ponce de Leon ( c. 1520-1584), a Spanish Benedictine monk, is more worthy of notice, as he, to use his own words, taught the deaf to speak, read, write, reckon, pray, serve at the altar, know Christian doctrine, and confess with a loud voice. Some he taught languages and science. That he was successful was proved by other witness than his own, for Panduro, Valles and essay our country, de Morales all give details of his work, the last-named giving an account by one of Ponce's pupils of his education.
De Morales says further that Ponce de Leon addressed his scholars either by signs or writing, and essay on television in english, that the reply came by speech. It appears that this master committed his methods to writing. Though this work is lost it is probable that his system was put into practice by Juan Pablo Bonet. This Spaniard successfully instructed a brother of his master the about our country constable of Castile, who had lost hearing at the age of two. His method corresponded in a great measure to that which is now called the combined system, for, in the work which he wrote, he shows how the essay in english deaf can be taught to speak by reducing the letters to their phonetic value, and also urges that finger-spelling and essay about our country india, writing should be used. The connexion between all three, he goes on vous essayez to say, should be shown the pupils, but the manual alphabet should be mastered first. Our Country India. Nouns he taught by pointing to essays, the objects they represented; verbs he expressed by pantomime; while the value of prepositions, adverbs and interjections, as well as the tenses of verbs, he believed could be learnt by repeated use.
The pupil should be educated by interrogation, conversation, and essay our country india, carefully graduated reading. The success of Bonet's endeavours are borne witness to by Sir Kenelm Digby, who met the teacher at Madrid. Bonifacio's work on signs, in which he uses every part of the body for conversational purposes, may be mentioned before passing to John Bulwer, the first Englishman to on calcium, treat of teaching the our country deaf. In his three works, Philocophus, Chirologia and Chironomia, he enlarges upon Sir Kenelm Digby's account, and argues about the possibility of teaching the deaf by speech. But he seems to have had no practical experience of the art. Dr John Wallis is more important, though it has been disputed whether he was not indebted to his predecessors for some ideas. He taught by on calcium, writing and articulation. He took the trouble to classify to a certain extent the various sounds, dividing both vowels and open consonants into our country, gutturals, palatals and labials. The closed consonants he subdivided into mutes, semi-mutes and semi-vowels. Language, Wallis maintained, should be taught when the pupil had first learned to write, and the written characters should be associated with some sort of manual alphabet.
Names of things should be given first, and then the parts of those things, e.g. body first, and then, under that, head, arm, foot, c. Then the singular and plural should be given, then possessives and possessive pronouns, followed by particles, other pronouns and of georgia early action essay, adjectives. These should be followed by the copulative verb; after which should come the intransitive verb and its nominative in essay about our country india the different tenses, and the transitive with its object in the same way. Lastly, prepositions and university of georgia early essay, conjunctions should be taught. All this, Wallis held, ought to be done by writing as well as signing, for he did not lose sight of the fact that we must learn the pupil's language in order to teach him ours. Our Country. Dr William Holder, who read an services, essay before the Royal Society in 1668-1669 on the Elements of Speech, added an appendix concerning the about our country india deaf and resume writing dc affordable, dumb. Essay About India. He describes the organs of vous essayez, speech and their positions in articulation, suggesting teaching the pupil the sounds in order of simplicity, though he held that he must learn to write first. Afterwards the pupil must associate the letters with a manual alphabet. Holder notices that dumbness is due to the want of hearing, and therefore speech can be acquired through watching the lips, though he admits the task is a laborious one. About Our Country India. He also urges the teacher to be patient and to make the work as interesting to the pupil as possible. Command of language, he maintains, will enable the reviews deaf person to essay our country, read a sentence from the lips if he gets most of the on television words; for he will be able to supply those he did not see, from his knowledge of English.
Johan Baptist van Helmont treated of the work of the vocal organs. Amman says that Van Helmont had discovered a manual alphabet and used it to our country india, instruct the deaf, but had not attained very good results. George Sibscota published a work in 1670 called the Deaf and on television, Dumb Man's Discourse, in which he contradicts Aristotle's opinion that people are dumb because of defects in the vocal organs; for they are, he believed, dumb because never taught to speak. They can gain knowledge by sight, he maintained; can write, converse by signs, speak and lip-read. Ramirez de Carrion also taught the deaf to speak and write, as did P. Lana Terzi. About George Dalgarno more is known. He wrote, in 1680, his Didascalocophus, or Deaf-Mute's Preceptor, in which he makes the mistake of saying that the deaf have the advantage over the blind in opportunities for about our country, learning language. The deaf can, in his opinion, be taught to speak, and also to resume, read the lips if the letters are very distinct.
They ought to read, write and spell on essay about india the fingers constantly, but use no signs. Best Writing Services Dc Affordable. Substantives are to be taught by associating them with the things they represent; then adjectives should be joined to them. Verbs should be taught by suiting the action to essay our country, the words, and associating the of georgia early action essay pronouns with them. Other parts of speech should be given as opportunities of explaining them present themselves. Dalgarno invented an our country india, alphabet, the letters being on the joints of the fingers and kernel resume, palm of the our country left hand. John Conrad Amman published his Dissertatio de Loquela in 1700.
In the first chapter he treats, among other things, of the nature of the breath and voice and the organs of speech. Vous Essayez. In the second chapter he classifies sounds into vowels, semi-vowels and consonants, and a detailed description of each sound is our country, given. The third chapter is essays, devoted to about india, showing how to produce and control the voice, to utter each sound from writing or from the lips, and to combine them into university of georgia early action, syllables and words. It was only after the pupil had attained to considerable success in essay india articulation and lip-reading that Amman taught the meaning of words and language; but the name of this teacher will long stand as that of one of the most successful the world has known. Passing over Camerarius, Schott, Kerger (who began teaching language sooner than Amman did, and depended more on writing and signs), Raphel (who instructed three deaf daughters), Lasius, Arnoldi, Lucas, Vanin, de Fay (himself deaf) and many others, we come to Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira, the essays on calcium pioneer of deaf-mute education in France, if we except de Fay. Beginning his experience by essay about india, instructing his deaf sister, he soon attained to considerable success with two other pupils; his chief aim being, as he said, to make them comprehend the kernel resume meaning of, and essay about, express their thoughts in, language.
A commission of the vous essayez French Academy of Sciences, before whom he appeared, testified to the genuineness of his achievements, noticing that he wrote and essay about india, signed to his pupils, and stating that he hoped to proceed to the instruction of lip-reading. Pereira soon after came under the notice of the duc de Chaulnes, whose deaf godson, Saboureaux de Fontenay, became his pupil; and in on calcium five years this boy was well able to speak and read the lips. About Our Country India. Pereira had several other pupils. Probably kindness and affection were two of the secrets of on calcium, his success, for the love his scholars showed for him was unbounded. Our Country India. His method is essays on calcium, only partly known, but he used a manual alphabet which indicated the about our country pronunciation of the letters and some combinations. He used reading and writing; but signs were only called to his aid when absolutely necessary. Language he taught by founding it on action where possible, abstract ideas being gradually developed in later stages of the education.
We now come to best resume dc affordable, the abbe de l'Epee. The all-important features in this teacher's character and method were his intense devotion to his scholars and their class, and about, the fact that he lived among them and talked to them as one of themselves. Meeting with two girls who were deaf, he started upon the task of kernel resume, instructing them, and soon had a school of sixty pupils, supported entirely by essay about our country, himself. He spared himself no expense and kernel resume, no trouble in essay india doing his utmost to 1 day resume, benefit the deaf, learning Spanish for the sole purpose of reading Bonet's work, and making this book and Amman's Dissertatio de Loquela his guiding lights. But de l'Epee was the first to attach great importance to essay, signs; and he used them, along with writing, until the vous essayez pupil had some knowledge of language before he passed on to articulation and lip-reading. Essay Our Country India. To the latter method, however, he never paid as much attention as he did to instructing by signs and writing, and vous essayez, finally he abandoned it altogether through lack of time and means. He laboured long on a dictionary of india, signs, but never completed it. He was attacked by Pereira, who condemned his method as being detrimental, and this was the university action beginning of the disputes as to the merits of the different methods which have lasted to essay our country india, the present day; but whatever opinions we may hold as to the best means of instructing the reviews deaf we cannot but admire the devoted teacher who spent his life and his all in benefiting; this class of the community. Samuel Heinicke first began his work in 1754 at Dresden, but in 1778 he removed to essay about our country, Leipzig and started on the instruction of nine pupils.
His methods he kept secret; but we know that he taught orally, using signs only when he considered them helpful, and spelling only to combine ideas. He wrote two books and vous essayez, several articles on the subject of educating the deaf, but it is from about our country Walther and Fornari that we learn most about best resume writing, his system. Our Country India. At first Heinicke laid stress on university written language, starting with the concrete and going on co the abstract; and he only essay our country passed to oral instruction when the pupils could express themselves in fairly correct language. Subsequently, however, he expressed the essays on calcium opinion that speech should be the sole method of instruction, and, strange to say, that by speech alone could thoughts be fully expressed. Henry Baker became tutor to essay, a deaf girl in 1 day 1720, and his success led to about our country, the establishment of a private school in London.
He also kept his system a secret, but recently his work on lessons for the deaf was discovered, from which we gather that he adopted writing, drawing, speech and lip-reading as his course of kernel resume, instruction. The point to about india, notice is that after the primary stages Baker turned events of every-day life to use in his teaching. On Calcium. His pupils went about with him, and he taught by conversation upon about our country, what they saw in the streets, - an excellent method; but it is a pity that such a good teacher had not the of georgia action essay philanthropy to make his methods known and to give the poorer deaf the benefit of essay about our country, them, as de l'Epee did. A school was established in Edinburgh in 1760 by Thomas Braidwood, who taught by the oral method. He taught the sounds first, then syllables, and finally words, teaching their meaning. In 1783 Braidwood came to Hackney, whence he moved to Old Kent Road, and in 1809 there were seventy pupils in what was lately the Old Kent Road Institution. Braidwood's method was practically a development of Wallis's. We must regard him as the founder of the first public school for in english, the deaf in England.
It was only at india, the beginning of the 19th century that a brighter day dawned on the deaf as a class. With the sole exception of kernel resume, de l'Epee no teacher had yet undertaken the about instruction of a deaf child who could not pay for it. Now things began to be different. Institutions were founded, and their doors were opened to nearly all. Dr Watson, the first principal of the Old Kent Road Asylum, taught by articulation and lip-reading, reading and writing, explaining by signs to some extent, but using pictures much more, according to Addison, and composing a book of these for the use of his pupils.
From Addison ( Deaf Mutism, pp. Vous Essayez. 248 ff.) we learn what developments followed. Essay India. In Vienna, Prague and Berlin, schools had been founded in rapid succession before the 10th century dawned, and in 1810 the Edinburgh institution opened its doors. Nine years later the Glasgow school was established and, under the able guidance of resume, Mr Duncan Anderson (after several other headmasters had been tried) from 1831, taught pupils whose grasp of English was equal to that of the very best educated deaf in England to-day, as has been proved by conversation with the survivors. Mr Anderson's great aim was to teach his pupils language, and we might look almost in vain for a teacher in our country England to resume reviews, succeed as well with a whole class in the beginning of the essay about our country india 10th century as he did in the middle of the loth. He wrote a dictionary, used pictures and signs to explain English, and apparently paid little or no attention to most of the numerous subjects attempted to-day in schools for the deaf, which, while excellent in themselves, generally exclude what is far more important from the curriculum. Addison further mentions Mr Baker of Doncaster, a contemporary of Anderson, as having compiled many lesson books for deaf children which came to essay on television in english, be used in about ordinary schools also, and essay on television in english, Mr Scott of essay, Exeter as having, together with Baker, exercised a profound influence on the course of 1 day, deaf-mute education in this country. Written language, explained by signs where necessary, was the watchword of these teachers. Moritz Hill is credited with being principally responsible for having evolved the German, or pure, oral method out of the about india experimental stage to that at which it has arrived at the present day. Arnold of kernel resume, Riehen is about our country, also honourably mentioned.
The great oral revival now swept all before it. The German method was enthusiastically welcomed in all parts of Europe, and at the Milan conference in 1880 was almost unanimously adopted by resume, teachers from all countries. Those in high places countenanced it; educational authorities awoke to about india, the fact that the deaf needed special teaching, and vous essayez, came to the conclusion that the essay about our country india pure oral method was the panacea that would restore all the deaf to a complete equality with the hearing in any conversation upon any subject that might be broached; many governments suddenly took the deaf under the shelter of their own ample wings, and on calcium, the bottomless pocket of the ratepayer, instead of the purse of the essay about our country charitable, became in many cases the fount of supply for what has been a costly and by no means entirely satisfactory experiment in the history of their education. Kernel Resume. The pure oral method has had a long and unique trial in England in circumstances which other methods have never enjoyed. Meanwhile in the United States Dr Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was elected in 1815 to go to Europe to inquire into the methods of educating the essay deaf in vogue there. Early Essay. This was at a meeting held in the house of a physician named Cogswell, in Hartford, Connecticut, and was the result of the latter's discovery that eighty-four persons in the state besides his own little girl were deaf. Henry Winter Syle, himself deaf, tells how four months were spent in learning that the doors of the essay india British schools were ` barred with gold, and opened but to golden keys,' and best resume writing services, how, disappointed in England, Gallaudet met with a ready response to his inquiries in Paris. Essay About. With Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher, he returned to the United States in 1816, and the Connecticut Asylum was founded a year after with seven pupils.
The name was changed to on calcium, The American Asylum later, when it was enlarged. About. This was followed by early, the Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky institutions, with the second of which the Peet family were connected. Dr Gallaudet married one of his deaf pupils, Sophia Fowler, and, after a very happy married life, Mrs Gallaudet accompanied her youngest son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, to the Columbia institution, Washington, D.C., which afterwards developed into the National Deaf-Mute College. Mr Kendall gave the first building, and, when the essay about college was empowered to grant degrees in 1862, he retired from best services dc affordable his office of president in favour of young Gallaudet with the words, To you more than to any other man is it indebted for its rapid progress. Essay About India. This college is supported by congress. The following account of the work done at kernel resume, the National DeafMute College at Washington is worth attention, as the results are unique, and are often strangely ignored. Here is a statement of the course for the B.A. degree: First year: Algebra, grammar, punctuation, history of England, composition, Latin grammar, Caesar.
Second year: Algebra (from quadratics), geometry, composition, Caesar (Gallic War), Cicero (Orations), Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar, Myer's General History, Goodwin's Greek Grammar (optional), Xenophon's Anabasis (optional). Third year: Olney's or Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Loomis's Analytical Geometry (optional), Orton's Zoology, Gray's Botany, Remsen's Chemistry, laboratory practice, Virgil's Aeneid, Homer's Iliad (optional), Meiklejohn's History of English Literature and Language (two books), Maertz's English Literature, Hadley's History, original composition. Fourth year: Loomis's Calculus (optional), Dana's Mechanics, Gage's Natural Philosophy, Young's Astronomy, laboratory practice, qualitative analysis, Steel's Hygienic Physiology, Edgren's French Grammar, Super's French Reader, Demosthenes on the Crown (optional), Hart's Composition and Rhetoric, original composition, Hill's-Jevon's Elementary Logic. Fifth year: Arnold's Manual of essay our country india, English Literature, Maertz's English Literature, original composition, Guizot's History of Civilization, Sheldon's German Grammar, Joynes's German Reader, Le Conte's Geology, Guyot's Earth and Man, Hill's Elements of Psychology, Haven's Moral Philosophy, Butler's Analogy, Bascom's Elements of Beauty, Perry's Political Economy, Gallaudet's International Law. Even in 1893 we were told that of the graduates of the college fifty-seven have been engaged in vous essayez teaching, four have entered the ministry; three have become editors and publishers of newspapers; three others have taken positions connected with journalism; fifteen have entered the civil service of the government, - one of these, who had risen rapidly to essay about our country, a high and responsible position, resigned to enter upon the practice of law in patent cases, in Cincinnati and Chicago, and has been admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of the essays United States; one is the about india official botanist of a state, who has correspondents in several countries of Europe who have repeatedly purchased his collections, and he has written papers upon seed tests and essays on calcium, related subjects which have been published and circulated by the agricultural department; one, while filling a position as instructor in a western institution, has rendered important service to the coast survey as a microscopist, and one is engaged as an engraver in the chief office of the survey; of three who became draughtsmen in architects' offices, one is in india successful practice as an architect on essays on calcium his own account, which is also true of another, who completed his preparation by a course of study in Europe; one has been repeatedly elected recorder of deeds in a southern city, and two others are recorders' clerks in the west; one was elected and still sits as a city councilman; another has been elected city treasurer and is at present cashier of about india, a national bank; one has become eminent as a practical chemist and assayer; two are members of the on television in english faculty of the essay about our country india college, and two others are rendering valuable service as instructors therein; some have gone into mercantile and other offices; some have undertaken business on their own account; while not a few have chosen agricultural and mechanical pursuits, in which the advantages of thorough mental training will give them a superiority over those not so well educated. Of those alluded to as having engaged in teaching, one has been the principal of a flourishing institution in action Pennsylvania; one is now in his second year as principal of the Ohio institution; one has been at the head of a day school in Cincinnati, and later of the Colorado institution; a third has had charge of the about our country india Oregon institution; a fourth is at the head of a day school in St Louis; three others have respectively founded and are now at in english, the head of schools in New Mexico, North Dakota, and Evansville, Indiana, and others have done pioneer work in essay establishing schools in Florida and in vous essayez Utah.
Later years would unfold a similar tale of subsequent students, the number of whom in college reached a hundred in india 1898. There is kernel resume, a normal department attached to the college, to which are admitted six hearing young men and women for about, one year who are recommended as being anxious to study methods of teaching the deaf and likely to profit thereby. Their course of study for 1898-1899 included careful training in the oral method, instruction in Bell's Visible Speech, instruction in best resume services the anatomy of the vocal organs, lectures on sound, observation of methods, oral and manual, in Kendall School, lectures on various subjects connected with the deaf and their education, lectures on pedagogy, lessons in our country the language of signs, practical work with classes in resume writing Kendall School under the direction of the teachers, correction of essays of the introductory class, c. But the greatest advantage of the year's course is essay about our country india, that the halfdozen hearing students live in the college, have their meals with the hundred deaf, and mix with them all day long - if they wish it - in social intercourse and on television in english, recreation. We are very far indeed from saying that one such year is sufficient to about, make a hearing man a qualified teacher of the deaf, but the arrangement is based on the right principle, and resume reviews, it sets his feet on the right path to learn how to teach - so far as this art can be learned. The recent regulation of the board of education in England, prohibiting hearing pupil teachers in schools for the deaf, is india, deplorable, retrograde and inimical to the best interests of the deaf. It shows a complete ignorance of their needs. The younger a teacher begins to vous essayez, mix with that class the better he will teach them. In 1886 a royal commission investigated the condition and essay our country, education of the deaf in Great Britain, and in 188 9 issued its report. Some of the recommendations most worthy of vous essayez, notice were that deaf children from seven to sixteen years of age should be compelled to attend a day school or institution, part, or the whole, of the expense being borne by about our country, the local school authority; that technical instruction should be given, and best resume dc affordable, that all the children should be taught to essay about our country, speak and lip-read on the pure oral method unless physically or mentally disqualified, those who had partial hearing or remains of speech being entirely educated by that method. To the last mentioned recommendation - concerning the method to be adopted - two of the kernel resume commissioners took exception, and another stated his recognition of some advantage in our country india the manual method.
As a result of the report of the royal commission a bill was passed in 1893 making it compulsory for vous essayez, all deaf children to be educated. This was to about india, be done by the local education authority, either by providing day classes or an institution for them, or by essay in english, sending them to an already existing institution, parents having the choice, within reasonable limits, of the school to which the child should go. School-board classes came into existence in almost every large town where there was no institution, and sometimes where one existed. Those who uphold the day-school system advance the arguments that the pupils are not, under it, cut off from the influence of home life as they are in institutions; that such influences are of great advantage; that this system permits the deaf to mix freely with their hearing brethren, c. The objections, however, to this arrangement outweigh its possible advantages. The latter, indeed, amount to essay india, little; for home influences in many cases, especially in the poorer parts of the large cities, are not the best, and communication with the hearing children who attend some of the day schools may not be an unmixed blessing, nor is freedom to run wild on 1 day reviews the streets between school hours. But it may be urged further that it is difficult, except in very large towns, to obtain a sufficient number of deaf children attending a day school to classify them according to their status, while it is more than one teacher can do to give sufficient attention to several children, each at a different stage of instruction from any other.
Moreover, the deaf need more than mere school work; they need training in morals and manners, and receive much less of it from their parents than their hearing brothers and sisters. This can only be given in an institution wherein they board and lodge as well as attend classes. The existing institutions were from 1893 placed, by the act of essay about india, that date, either partly or wholly under the control of the school board. They were put under the inspection of the government, and as long as they fulfilled the requirements of the 1 day resume reviews inspectors as regards education, manual and essay about our country india, physical training, outdoor recreation and suitable class-room and dormitory accommodation, they might remain in the hands of a committee who collected, or otherwise provided, one-third of the total expenditure, and essays on calcium, received two-thirds from about our country india public sources. Vous Essayez. Or else, the institution might be surrendered entirely to the management of the public school authority, and then the whole of the expenditure was to be borne by that body. Extra government grants of five guineas per pupil are now given for class work and manual or technical training. Such is the state of things at the present day, except, of course, that the school board has given place to the county council as local authority.
Some teachers have asked for the children to essay our country, be sent to school at the age of five instead of seven. This savours of another confession that the pure oral method had not done what was expected of it at first. First, the demand was for resume, the method itself; then came requests for our country india, more teachers, so that, the classes being smaller, each pupil should receive more attention; this meant more money, and so this was asked for; then day schools would remedy the failure by giving the pupils opportunities of talking with the public in general; then we were told the teachers were unskilful; finally, more time is needed. Kernel Resume. And yet the language of the essay pupils is no better to-day than it was in 1881, even though they were at school only four or five years then as opposed to nine or ten now. To Addison's Report on reviews a Visit to some Continental Schools for the Deaf (1904-1905) we are indebted for essay about our country, the following information. The new school at Frankfort-on-Maine, accommodating forty or fifty children at a cost of ?40 to ?50 per head, is modelled on the plan of a family home.
The main objects are to obtain good speech and lipreading and to use these colloquially; the work is very Foreign thorough and the teaching very skilful. At Munich those schools. of the hundred pupils who have some hearing are separated from the others and taught by ear as well as eye. At Vienna (Royal Institution) a small proportion of the pupils are day scholars, as they are at writing services dc affordable, Munich, and the teaching is, of course, carried on by the oral method, as it is all over Germany. Here, however, the teachers think it impossible to essay, educate fully all deaf. mutes by the oral method only. In the Jews' Home at Vienna the semi-deaf are taught by the acoustic method, and are not allowed to see the teacher's lips at all.
At Dresden, a large school of 240 pupils, the director favours smaller institutions than his own, considers the oral method possible for all but the weak-minded deaf, and divides his. pupils into A, B and C divisions, according to intellect. In the first division good speech is obtained. Kernel Resume. Saxony boasts a home for deaf homeless women, grants premiums for deaf apprentices, and our country, trains its teachers of the deaf in the institution itself - a good record and plan. In the royal institution at Berlin Addison saw good lip-reading and thorough work, though the reviews deaf in the city - as in most of the about our country schools - signed. The men in Berlin like the adult deaf generally, were all in favour of university of georgia early essay, a combination of essay about our country, methods, and condemned the pure oral theory as impracticable.
At Hamburg, again, hand signs were used at least for Sunday service. Schleswig has two schools. Pupils are admitted first to the residential institution, where they are instructed for best services, a year, and our country india, are then divided into A, B and C classes, according to on calcium, intellect. The lowest class (C) remain at this institution for the rest of the eight years, and a certain amount of signing is allowed in their instruction. A and B classes are boarded out in the town and attend classes at a day school specially built for them, being taught orally exclusively. In Denmark Addison saw what impressed him most.
All the children of school age go to Fredericia and remain for a year in the boarding institution. They are then examined and the semi-deaf29% of the whole - are sent to Nyborg. About Our Country India. The rest - all the totally deaf - remain another year at Fredericia and 1 day resume reviews, are then divided into the A, B and C divisions before mentioned, and on the same criterion - intellect. About India. Those in essay C - the lowest class, 28% of the totally deaf - are sent to essay our country india, Copenhagen, where they are taught by the manual method, no oral work being attempted. Those in B class, numbering 19% of the best dc affordable deaf, remain in the residential institution in Fredericia and are taught orally, while the best pupils - A class - are boarded out in the town and attend a special day school. These form 26% of the deaf, and those with whom they live encourage them to speak when out of as well as when in our country school. The buildings and 1 day resume, equipment generally are excellent. Hand signs are used at Nyborg, indicating the position of the vocal organs when speaking, and, as might be expected, the lip -reading is essay, 90% more correct when these symbols - infinitely more visible than most of the movements of the vocal organs and kernel resume, face when speaking - are used at the same time. About. The idea of these hand signs, by the way, corresponds to that of Graham Bell's Visible Speech, in which a written symbol is used to indicate the position of the vocal organs when uttering each sound; it is a kind of phonetic writing which is to a slight extent illustrative at kernel resume, the same time. Essay India. We find natural signs of the essays on calcium utmost value when teaching articulation, to describe the position of the india vocal organs. Reviews. We give these details from Mr Addison's notes because it is to Germany that so many look for guidance to-day, and it is the home of the so-called pure oral method; while the system of classification in Denmark into the four schools which are controlled by one authority, struck him very favourably and so is given rather fully.
In France most of the schools are supported by charity, and the only three government institutions are those at Paris for boys, with 263 pupils lately, at Bordeaux for girls, having 225 inmates, and at Chambery with 86 boys and 38 girls. In the great majority the method of instruction is professedly pure oral. But, said Henri Gaillard ( Report, World's Congress of the Deaf, Missouri, 1904), this. is only in appearance. In reality all of the schools use the combined method; only they are not willing to admit it, because the oral method is the our country official method, imposed by the inspectors of the minister of the interior. On Calcium. In Italy, again, we are told that the teachers sign in about most of the schools, which are professedly pure oral. In Sweden, schools for the deaf have ceased to depend, as they did up to 1891, upon on television in english, private benevolence. The system is generally the combined, and in schools where the oral method is about india, adopted the vous essayez pupils are divided into A, B and C divisions, as in about Denmark and Dresden, in university essay the two latter divisions of which signs are allowed. In Norway the method is the about our country india oral. There have always been two principal methods of teaching the deaf, and all education at the present time is carried on kernel resume by means of one or other or both of these.
Where there is our country india, sufficient hearing to be utilized, instruction is sometimes given thereby as well, though this auricular method does not seem to make much headway, and experience is not in favour of believing that the early action essay sense of hearing, where a little exists, can be cultivated to any marked degree. It is really impossible to draw hard and essay about india, fast lines between these means of instruction. One merges into another, and reviews, this other into the next; and no two teachers will, or can, adopt exactly the same lines. It is not desirable that they should, for much must be left to individuality. Orders, rules, methods, should not be absolute laws.
Observe them generally, but dispense with them as circumstances, the essay our country india pupil and opportunity may require. Strong individuality, sympathy, enthusiasm, long intercourse with the deaf, are needed in the teacher, and it is surely obvious that every teacher should have a full command of all the primary means of instruction to reviews, begin with, and essay about india, not of one only. Where deafness is absolute, or practically so, we have to best, seek 130 words a minute can be attained when spelling on the fingers. Words are quite readable at this speed. Although reading and writing are common to both methods, the manual and essay, oral, as a matter of fact they seem to be used considerably more in the former than in the latter. In the oral method articulation and lip-reading are chiefly relied upon; reading and writing are also adopted. The phonetic values of the letters are taught, not the names of the letters; for instance, the sound of the letter a in hat is taught instead of the name of the letter (long A), though of course the latter is taught where such is the proper pronunciation, as in hate. s The Manual Alphabet.
(One-handed.) P z ?'A4 B C FIG. 2. - The Manual Alphabet. (Two-handed.) for 1 day reviews, means that will appeal to essay our country india, the eye instead of the services dc affordable ear. Of these, we have the essay about india sign language, writing and printing, pictures, manual alphabets and lip-reading. We have to choose which of these is to be used, if not all, and essays, which must be rejected, if any. Moreover, we have to decide how much or how little one or another is to be adopted if we employ more than one. Hence it is obvious that there may be many different systems and subdivisions of about our country, systems. But the two main methods are the manual, which generally depends upon all the above-mentioned means of appealing to the eye except lip-reading, and the oral, which adopts what the services manual method rejects, uses writing and printing and about our country india, perhaps pictures, but excludes finger-spelling and (theoretically) signs. To these two we must add a third means of instruction - the combined system - which rejects no means of teaching, but uses all in essays on calcium most cases. The dual method need hardly be called a separate method or system, for it implies simply the use of the manual method for india, some pupils and of the oral for others. Nor need we call the mother's (= intuitive or natural) a separate method in the sense in which we are using the word here, for essays on calcium, it is rather a mode of procedure which can be applied manually or orally indifferently.
The same may be said of the essay india grammatical method ; also of the word method, which is really the mother's. The eclectic method is practically the combined system, or something between that and the dual method, and hardly needs separate classification. Let us notice the manual method, the oral method, and the combined system, considering with the last the dual method. The chief elements of the manual method are finger-spelling, reading and writing and signing. These are used, that is to say, as means of teaching English and imparting ideas. Signs are used to awaken the child's thoughts, fingerspelling and writing are used to kernel resume, express these thoughts in the vernacular. The latter are used to express English, the essay india former to explain English.
ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS. We give two manual alphabets, the one-handed being used in America, on the continent of Europe with some variations and additions, in Ireland, and also to some extent in England; the two-handed in Great Britain, Ireland and Australia. A speed of vous essayez, Here is a chart which was lately in use Articulation Sheets. Order in which the Vowel Sounds are to be taught. a wall aw, o wol a o u e e o i a u oe path hot blu(e) set see ton(e) pi(e) lat(e) mul(e) boy a o u e i ou ai ei iu oi ee path hot blu set si toun pai leit miul boi The consonants are as follows, though the order of essay about our country, teaching them varies: p; f; s; h; sh; v = th (thin; moth); th (then; smooth); 1; r; t; k; b; d; g (go; egg); z=s; m; n; ch=tsh; j =dzh=g; ph=f; kc=k; cs=s; q=kw; x=ks; ng; w=oo; wh=hw; y=e.
a u i hut hit u i hut hit Diacritic hat Mark 11 a Phonetic '- hat Spelling Diacritic Mark 2 Phonetic Spelling Diacritic Mark - ? Phonetic Spelling The following mode of writing the sounds is now preferred by some as it renders the 1 day resume reviews diacritic marks unnecessary: Middle, Broad and Long Vowel Sounds. ar or oo ee er oa igh ai ew oi ou aw ea ir o-e i -e a-e u-e oy ow au ur ay a Short Vowel Sounds. a o 00 e i u Consonants. h p Ph i s th sh chck 1 r m n ng w b v d z th zh dzh g These charts are given as examples of those used, but they vary in different schools, as does the about our country india order of teaching the vowel and consonant sounds and the combinations. The exact order is resume reviews, not important. Words are made up by combining vowels and consonants as soon as the pupil can say each sound separately. Here are extracts from the about india directions on articulation written by a principal to the teacher of the lowest class, which show the method of procedure: (i) Produce the sound of on television in english, a letter. Each pupil to reproduce, and write it on the tablet. (2) Point to the letter on the tablet, and make each pupil say it. (3) The same with combinations of vowels and consonants. (4) Instead of tablet, each pupil to use rough exercise-book. (5) Write on tablet and make each pupil articulate from teacher's writing.
(6) When a combination is made of which a word may be made make all write it in their books, thus: ` to - tea,' ' shoshow,' ' ov - of,' ' nalz - nails,' c. When one pupil produces a combination correctly make the others lip-read it from him. In this way make them exercise each other. (8) When they have a good many sounds and combinations written in their books make them sit down and say them off their books as hearing children do. Make them say the sounds off the cards, and form combinations on the cards for them to essay about our country, say. Take each vowel separately and make each pupil use it before and after each consonant. (i Take each consonant and put it before and after each vowel. The above will suggest other exercises to the teacher. Give breathing exercises. Incite emulation as to deep breathing and slow expiration.
Never force the voice. Make the pupil speak out, but do not let him strain either the voice or vocal organs. Do not force the tongue, lips, or any organ into essays on calcium, position more than you can help. Do all as gently as possible. Register their progress. ' A ' (as in ' path '; ' father '). Essay. As ` A ' is the basis of all the vowels, being most like all, it is taken first. It is an open vowel. Do not make grimaces, or exaggerate. If false sound be produced do not let the pupil speak loudly; make him speak quietly.
If nasal sound be produced do not pinch the nose, but first take the back of the child's hand, warmly breathe on it, or get a piece of kernel resume, glass, and let the child breathe on it, or press the back of the essay about our country india tongue down. Show the child that when you are saying ' a ' your tongue lies flat or nearly so, and you do not raise the back of the tongue. Prefix ' h ' to ' a ' and make the pupil say ` ha ' first, then ' a ' alone. 'P.' If the child does not imitate at the first the teacher should take the back of the vous essayez hand and let the child feel the puff of about india, air as ' p' is formed on the lips. ' P ' is produced by the volume of air brought 1 into the cavity of the mouth being checked by 1 day resume reviews, the perfect closure of the lips, which are then opened, and about, the accumulated air is propelled.
The outburst of this propelled air creates the sound of ` p.' Take the pupil to see porridge boiling. Pretend to smoke. ` P ' is taken first because it has no vibration and is the most simple. The consonants should first be joined to essays on calcium, each vowel separately, and to prevent the pupils making an after-sound the letters should be said with a pause between, viz. Essay About Our Country. 'A .. 1 Day Reviews. p,' and as they become more familiar with them, lessen the pause until it is pronounced properly: ' ap.' These directions, which are only brief examples of those given for essay, one particular subject in one particular class, will give an essay on television in english, idea of the mode of beginning to teach articulation and lipreading. The combined system, as before mentioned, makes use of both the manual and oral method, as well as the auricular, without any hard and fast rule as regards the amount of instructon to be given by means of each, but using more of one and less of another, or vice versa, according to the aptitude of the child. Essay Our Country. It thus follows the sensible, obvious plan of fitting the method to the child and not the unnatural one of forcing the child to try to fit the method. The following is the way the same principal would teach language to beginners by the combined system: The letters p, q, b and d of the Roman text are to kernel resume, be taught first. The pupils are to do them 9 in. Essay About Our Country. long on the blackboard or tablet first; then trace them on in english the frames; then on slips of paper with pen and ink, or in rough exercise-book with pen and ink. The whole of the Roman text is then to about, be taught in vous essayez the same manner, also the small and capital script.
When the English alphabet has been mastered in about the above four forms the pupil may proceed to the printing and writing of his own name. Essay In English. Then his teacher's and class-mates' names. Then the names of other persons and essay about our country, the places, things and actions with which he has to do in his daily life. Every direction the teacher has to university of georgia action, give in school and out of school should be expressed in speech, writing or finger-spelling, or by any two or all three means. Repetition of such directions by the pupil enables him to learn words before he has finished the alphabet. All words to be spelled on one hand first; then two. When a few words have been memorized, they should be written on essay india slips of kernel resume, paper, then in the exercise-books and dated.
After this there should be further repetition and exercising. Our Country India. The same course should be taken with phrases and short sentences. Names of persons should be written on cards and slips of paper and pinned to the chest. Names of things to of georgia action, be affixed to them, or written on them. Names of apartments on cards laid in the rooms. Where the object is about india, not available use a picture, or draw the outline and make pupil do the same. Early Action Essay. Never nod, or point, or jerk the finger, or use any other gesture, without previously giving the word, and when the latter is understood drop the gesture altogether. Never allow a single mistake to pass uncorrected, and make pupils always learn the about our country india corrections.
Language should be a translation of life. It should proceed all day long, out of 1 day, school as well as in about india it. If spoken so much the better, but finger-spelling is not a hindrance but a valuable help to its acquisition. In most language lessons, especially those exemplifying a particular form of sentence, the pupils should: (i) Correct each other's mistakes. Correct 'mistakes' designedly made by the teacher. (2) Teacher rubs out services, a word here and about our country, there on the blackboard or tablet; pupils to supply them. (3) Pupils to answer questions, giving the subject, predicate and object of the sentence as required, e.g.' A farmer ploughs the ground.' ` Who ploughs the ground? ' ' What does a farmer do? ' ' What does he plough? ' Also additional and illustrative questions; e.g. ` Does the ground plough the farmer? ' ` Does a farmer plough the 1 day resume sea? ' ' Does he eat the ground? ' c.
The pupils should learn meanings or synonyms of unfamiliar words before such words are signed. (4) Teacher gives a word, and requires pupils to essay about our country india, exemplify it in a sentence, e.g. ' sows,' ' He sows the seed.' (5) Let them give as many sentences as they can think of in the same form. Quite satisfactory result . Moder to success. Occurrences, incidents, objects, pictures, reading-books, newspaper cuttings and correspondence should all be used. The pure oral method, as before noticed, came with a bound into popularity in the early seventies. University Of Georgia Action. Since then it has had everything in its favour, but the results have been by no means entirely satisfactory, and there is a marked tendency among advocates of this method to with draw from the extreme position formerly held. Opinion has gradually veered round till they have come to seek for some sort of via media that shall embrace the good points of both methods. Some now suggest the dual method - that those pupils who show no aptitude for oral training shall be taught exclusively by the manual method and the rest by the oral only. About Our Country. While this is a concession which is positively amazing when compared with the title of the booklet containing utterances of the kernel resume Abbe Tarra, president of the Milan conference in 1880 - The Pure Oral Method the Best for All Deaf Children ! - yet we believe that in no case should the instruction be given by the oral method alone, and that the best system is the combined. That the essay our country combined system is detrimental to lip-reading has not much more than a fraction of truth in action essay it, for essay, if the command of language is better the pupils can supply the lacunae in their lip-reading from their better knowledge of English. It is found that they have constantly to guess words and letters from the vous essayez context.
Teach all by and through finger-spelling, reading, writing and signing where necessary to our country india, explain the English, and teach those in whose case it is worth it by vous essayez, articulation and lip-reading as well. Signs (7) (9) (io) should be used less and less in class work, and English more and more exclusively as the pupil progresses - English in any and every form. A proportion of teachers should be themselves deaf, as in essay America. On Calcium. They are in perfect understanding and sympathy with their pupils, which is not always the case with hearing teachers. Statistics which we collected in London showed the following results of the essay our country education of 403 deaf pupils after they had left school: - That the combined system should show to slightly less advantage than the exclusively manual method is what we might perhaps expect, for the time given to oral instruction means time taken from teaching language speedily, the kernel resume manual method being, we believe, the best of all for this.
But it may be worth while to lose a little in command of language for the sake of gaining another means of expressing that language. Hence we advocate the combined system, regarding speech as merely a means of about our country india, expressing English, as writing and finger-spelling are, and a good sentence written or finger-spelled as being preferable to a poorer one which is spoken, no matter how distinct the speech may be. It is no answer to point to a few isolated cases where the oral method is considered to have succeeded, for one success does not counterbalance a failure if by another method you would have had two successes; and, moreover, these oral successes would have been still greater successes - we are taking language in reviews any form as our criterion - had the essay teacher fully known and judiciously used the writing services manual method as well as the oral. The exclusive use of the oral method leads, generally speaking, to comparative failure, for the following, among other, reasons: - (I) It is a slow way of teaching English, the learning to speak the elements of sound taking months at least, and seldom being fully mastered for years. The word method, by our country india, the way, starts at once with words without taking their component phonetic elements separately; but it has yet to be proved that any quicker progress is made by this means of of georgia, teaching speech than by the other. (2) Lip-reading is, to the deaf, sign-reading with the disadvantage of being both microscopic and partially hidden. The deaf hear nothing, they only partly see tiny movements of the vocal organs. Finger-spelling, writing, signing, are incomparably more visible, while 130 words a minute can be attained by essay about india, finger-spelling, and read at that speed. Essay In English. (3) The signs - as they are to the deaf - made by the vocal organs are entirely arbitrary, and have not even a fraction of the redeeming feature of essay about india, naturalness which oralists demand in university of georgia early action ordinary gestures. (4) Circumstances, such as light, position of the speaker, c., must be favourable for the lip-reading to approach certainty. (5) Styles of speech vary, and it is a constant experience that even pupils who comparatively easily read their teacher's lips, to whose style of essay india, utterance they are accustomed, fail to read other people's lips. Kernel Resume. (6) There is a great similarity between certain sounds as seen on the lips, e.g. between t and d, f and v, p and b, s and z, k and g. Which is meant has usually to be guessed from the context, and this requires a certain amount of essay about, knowledge of language, which is the very thing that is needed to be imparted. (7) The deliberate avoidance by the teacher of the pupil's own language - signs - as an aid to teaching him English. If a hearing boy does not understand the meaning of a French word he looks it up in the dictionary and essays, finds its English equivalent. If the deaf boy does not understand a word in English, the simplest, quickest, best way to explain it is, in most cases, to sign it. (8) The distaste of the pupil for the method. This is common. (9) The mechanical nature of the method.
There is nothing to rouse his interest nor to appeal to his imagination in it. (I o) The temptation to the teacher to use very simple phrases, owing to the difficulty the pupil has in essay about reading others from his lips. On Television. Consequently the pupil comparatively seldom learns advanced language. Other means of educating the deaf in addition to the oral should have a fair trial in modern conditions for the same length of time that the oral method has been in operation. To consider pupils taught manually in oral schools fair criteria of what can be done by the manual method or combined system, when those pupils have confessedly been relegated to essay our country india, the manual class because of dulness (as in essay on television in english the case of the C divisions in Denmark and Dresden), is obviously unfair. This division, moreover, assumes that the pure oral method is the best for about our country, the brightest pupils. The comparing of oral pupils privately taught by a tutor to themselves with manual pupils from an institution crippled and hampered by need of funds, where they had to take their chance in a class of twelve, and the comparison of oral pupils of twelve years' standing with combined system pupils of four years', are also obviously unfair. Reference may be made on vous essayez this subject to Heidsiek'sremarkablearticles on the question of education, which appeared in the American Annals of the Deaf from April 1899 to essay, January 1900. The opinions of the deaf themselves as to the relative merits of the kernel resume methods of teaching also demand particular attention. The ignoring of their expressed sentiments by those in authority is essay about, remarkable. In the vous essayez case of school children it might fairly be argued that they are too young to know what is good for them, but with the india adult deaf who have had to learn the value of their education by bitter experience in the battle of life it is otherwise. In Germany, the home of the pure oral method, 800 deaf petitioned the emperor against that method.
In 1903 no fewer than 2671 of the adult deaf of Great Britain and Ireland who had passed through the schools signed a petition in favour of the best writing services dc affordable combined system. The figures are remarkable, for children under sixteen were excluded, those who had not been educated in schools for the deaf were excluded, and the. Essay Our Country. education of the deaf has only lately been made compulsory, while many thousands who live scattered about the country in isolation probably never even heard of the petition, and so could not sign it. In America an overwhelming majority favour the combined system, and it is in America that by far the best results of education are to of georgia early essay, be seen. At the essay about india World's Congress of the Deaf at resume reviews, St Louis in 1904 the combined system was upheld, as it was at Liege. Essay Our Country. From France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, Finland, Italy, Russia, everywhere in 1 day resume fact where they are educated, the essay about deaf crowd upon us with expressions of their emphatic conviction, repeated again and action essay, again, that the combined system is what meets their needs best and brings. most happiness into their lives. The majority of deaf in every known country which is in essay about favour of this means of education is so great that we venture to say that in no other section of the community could there be shown such an overwhelming preponderance of opinion on one side of essays, any question which affects its well-being. In the case of the rare exceptions, the pupil has almost always been brought up in the strictest ignorance of the manual method, which he has been sedulously taught to regard as clumsy and objectionable. 2. Blind and deaf. 3. Blind, deaf and dumb and essay about, lunatic. 4. Blind, deaf and lunatic . 5. Deaf and dumb and lunatic. 6. Deaf and lunatic . 7. Blind, deaf and dumb and feeble-minded . 8. Blind, deaf and feeble-minded.
The Blind Deaf. In the summary tables (p. Kernel Resume. 283) of the 1901 British census the following numbers are given of those suffering from other afflictions besides deafness: I. Blind and about india, deaf and dumb 58 9. Deaf and essay on television, dumb and feeble-minded. Io. Deaf and feeble-minded . In addition to essay about india, these, 2 are said to be blind, dumb and best resume writing, lunatic; 20 dumb and lunatic; 3 blind, dumb and feebleminded, and 222 dumb and essay india, feeble-minded. Essays On Calcium. These are certainly outside our province, which is the deaf. Essay About. The dumbness in these four classes is aphasia, due to some brain defect. Of those in the list, classes 7, 8, 9 and io are (we are strongly of opinion) incorrectly described, being, as we think, composed of those who are simply feeble-minded as well as, in classes 7 and best services dc affordable, 8, blind. Our Country India. Their so-called deafness is merely inability of the brain to notice what the ear does actually hear and to writing, govern the essay vocal organs to produce articulate sound.
Many of best writing services, classes 9 and io, however, may not be feeble-minded at essay india, all, but only rather dull pupils whom their teachers have failed to educate. It is safe to say that in some instances in classes 3, 4, 5 and 6 the persons were only assumed to be deaf. Again, cases of deaf people who to all appearance could not fairly be called insane but who may have had violent temper or some slight eccentricity being relegated to an asylum have come to our notice. A good teacher might accomplish much with some of on television in english, these described as lunatic in classes 5 and 6. Finally, classes 3 and 4 may have become lunatic owing to the loneliness and brooding inseparable to a great extent from essay india such terrible afflictions as blindness and deafness combined. Probably the isolation became intolerable, and if only university early action essay they had had some one who understood them to educate them their reason might have been saved. We are most concerned with the first two classes, and in considering them have to take individual cases separately, as there is no regular institution for them in Great Britain.
221 I 00 Mr W. H. Essay About Our Country India. Illingworth, head master of the of georgia early Blind School at Old Trafford, Manchester, tells how David Maclean, a blind and deaf boy, was taught, in the 1903 report of the conference of teachers of the deaf. The boy lost both sight and hearing, but not before six years of about india, age, which was an advantage, and could still speak or whisper to some extent when admitted to school. His teacher began with kindergarten and attempts at proper voiceproduction. He gave the sound of ah and made David feel his larynx. Then he tickled the boy under his arms, and when he laughed made him feel his own larynx, so that the boy should notice the similarity of the vibration. Then, acting on the theory that brain-waves are to some extent transmittable, Mr Illingworth procured a hearing boy as companion, and, ordering him to keep his mind fixed on the work and to place one hand on David's shoulder, made him repeat what was articulated.
The blind-deaf boy's right hand was placed on Mr Illingworth's larynx and the left on the companion's lips. Thus the pupil felt the best resume writing services dc affordable sound and the companion's imitation of it, and soon reproduced it himself. From this syllables and words were formed by degrees. The pupil knew the forms of india, some letters of the alphabet in the Roman type before he lost sight and hearing, and vous essayez, the connexion between them and the Braille characters and manual alphabet was the next step achieved. This, and all the steps, were aided to a great extent by the hearing and seeing boy companion's sympathetic influence and our country india, concentration of 1 day reviews, mind, in essay about our country Mr Illingworth's opinion.
After this stage his progress was comparatively quick and vous essayez, easy; he read from easy books in Braille, and essay about our country india, people spelled to him in the ordinary way by forming the letters with their right hand on his left. From Mr B. H. Payne of Swansea comes the following account of vous essayez, how four blind-deaf pupils were taught: - We have received four pupils who were deaf-mute and blind, one of them being also without the sense of smell. One was born deaf, the others having lost hearing in childhood. There was no essential difference between the methods employed in their education and those of ' sighted ' deaf children. Free-arm writing of ordinary script was taught on about the blackboard, the teacher guiding the pupil's hand, or another pupil guiding it over the teacher's pencilling. The script alphabet was cut on a slate, and the pupil's pencil made to run in the grooves. The one-hand alphabet, used with the vous essayez left hand, was employed to about our country, distinguish the resume writing services letters so written. The script alphabet was also formed in wire for him.
The object was to enable the pupil when he had gained language to write to friends and others who were unacquainted with Braille, but the latter notation was taught to enable the pupil to profit by the literature provided for the blind. Both oneand two-hand alphabets were taught, the teacher forming the letters with one of his own hands upon the pupil's hand. The name of the object presented to the pupil was spelled and written repeatedly until he had memorized it. Qualities were taught by our country, comparison, and actions by performance. The words' Come with me' were spelled before he was guided to any place, and other sentences were spelled as they would be spoken to a ' hearing ' child in appropriate associations.
The blind pupil followed with his hands the signs made by junior pupils who were unacquainted with language, and in this way readily learned to sign himself, the art being of kernel resume, advantage in stimulating and in forming the about india mind, and explaining language to him. One of the pupils was confirmed, and in preparation for the rite over 800 questions were put to essays, him by finger-spelling. His education was continued in Braille. The deaf-born boy developed a fair voice, and could imitate sounds by placing his hand on a speaker's mouth. Two of india, them had a keen sense of humour, and would slyly move the early action essay finger to the muscles of their companion's face to feel the smile with which a bit of pleasantry was responded to. In connexion with the pupil who was confirmed, the vicar who examined him declared that none of his questions had been answered better even by candidates possessed of all their faculties than they were by this blind-deaf boy. Mr W. M. Stone, principal of the Royal Blind School at West Craigmillar, Edinburgh, gives this very interesting information: We have five blind-deaf children at this institution, and all are wonderfully clever and intelligent. In all cases the children possessed hearing for a time and had some knowledge - very slight in some cases - of language. Essay About Our Country. The method of teaching is, first to teach them the names of of georgia action, common objects on their fingers. A well-known object is put in the child's hand and then the our country india word is spelled on the hand, - the vous essayez child's hand of course.
The child learns to associate these signs - he does not know they are letters - with the object, and so he learns a name. Other names are then given and similar names are associated together, and by noticing the difference in the names the child gradually grasps the about our country idea of an alphabet. For instance, if he learns the resume words cat, bat and mat, he will quickly distinguish that the about our country words are alike except in their initial letters. When in this way language has been acquired he is taught the 1 day resume reviews Braille system of reading for essay india, the blind and on television in english, his progress is now very rapid. Essay India. This method may appear very complicated and difficult, but in reality it is not so. There are no institutions in Great Britain specially for the blind-deaf, nor are there any in America.
I do not know of any on the continent. Our own blind children here are receiving the same education as our other children, and in some ways are more advanced than seeing and hearing children of their own ages. They not only vous essayez read, write and do arithmetic, but they do typewriting and much manual work. Mr Addison mentions two deaf and blind pupils who were taught by the late Mr Paterson of Manchester, and a third in about india the same school later on. Another was taught in the asylum for the blind in Glasgow, though she only lost hearing and became deaf at ten. Mr William Wade has written a monograph on the blind-deaf of America, in the preface to resume writing, which he points out, rightly, that the education of the blind-deaf is not such a stupendous task as people imagine it to essay our country, be.
It may not be amiss, he says, to kernel resume, state the methods of teaching the first steps to a deaf-blind pupil, that the public may see how exceedingly simple the fundamental principles are, and it should be remembered that those principles are exactly the same in the cases of the deaf and of the deaf-blind, the only difference being in essay india the application - the deaf see, the deaf-blind feel. Some familiar, tangible object - a doll, a cup, or what not - is given to the pupil, and at kernel resume, the same time the name of the object is spelled into its hand by the manual alphabet. (The one-hand alphabet is in essay our country india vogue in America.) By patient persistence, the pupil comes to recognize the reviews manual spelling as a name for a familiar object, when the next step is taken - associating familiar acts with the corresponding manual spelling. A continuation of this simple process gradually leads the essay pupils to the comprehension of language as a means for communication of thoughts. Essays On Calcium. Mr Wade is right. Given a sympathetic, resourceful teacher with strong individuality, common-sense, patience, and the necessary amount of time, anything and our country, everything in the way of teaching them is not only possible but certain to be achieved.
Language, - give the deaf and the blind-deaf a working command of that and everything else is easy. In the New York Institution for resume reviews, the Deaf ten blind-deaf pupils were educated, up to the year 1901. Nearly all of these lost one or both senses after they had been able to essay about, acquire some knowledge with their aid. Essays. In the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston, five were taught. It was here that Laura Bridgman was educated by Dr Samuel G. Howe; all honour is due to him for being the pioneer in attempting to teach this class of the community, for she was the first blind-deaf person to be taught. Many other schools for the deaf or blind have admitted one or two pupils suffering from both afflictions. In all, seventy cases are mentioned by Mr Wade of those who are quite blind and deaf, and others of people who are partially so. The most interesting, of course, of all these is Helen Keller, if we except Laura Bridgman, in whose case the essay initial attempt to teach the blind-deaf was made.
Helen Keller was taught. primarily by finger-spelling into her hand, and signing (which she, of course, felt with her hands) where necessary. Her first teacher was Miss Sullivan. The pupil acquired language by practice and kernel resume, habit rather than by study of rules and definitions. Fingerspelling and essay about, books were the two great means of educating her at all times. After her grasp of language had been brought to a high standard, Miss Fuller gave her her first lessons in speech, and Miss Sullivan continued them, the essays on calcium method being that of making the pupil feel the vocal organs of the teacher.
She learnt to speak well, and to tell (with some assistance from finger-spelling) what some people say by feeling their mouth. Her literary style became excellent; her studies included French, German, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, ancient and modern, and poetry and literature of every description. Of course she had many tutors, but Miss Sullivan was eyes and ears at all times, by essay, acting as interpreter, and this patient teacher had the satisfaction of seeing her pupil pass the entrance examination of Harvard University. To all time the success attained in educating Helen Keller will be a monument of vous essayez, what can be accomplished in essay about our country the most favourable conditions. (A. H. P.) 1. The two words are common to vous essayez, Teutonic languages, cf. Essay About India. Ger. taub and kernel resume, dumm (only in the sense of stupid ), Dutch doof and dom; the original meaning seems to have been dull of perception, stupid, obtuse, and about, the words may be ultimately related. The Gr.
TucpXos blind, and Ti or, smoke, mist, probably show the same base. 2. For our resume of the history we are indebted solely to Arnold ( Education of Deaf Mutes, Teachers' Manual ) as far as the date of the founding of the Old Kent Road Institution. - Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites).