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Mamma Mia: A Feasibility Study of essay a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Postpartum Depression and Enhance Subjective Well-Being. Currently, 10-15% of women giving birth suffer from symptoms of postpartum depression. Due to communication thesis, a lack of knowledge of this condition and the stigma associated with it, as well as few treatment options, a large proportion of postpartum women with depression remain untreated. Internet-based interventions have been found effective in treating depression, anxiety, phobias, and addictions. Hence, we developed such program (#x0201c;Mamma Mia#x0201d;) with the aim of reducing the risk for postpartum depression and enhance subjective well-being. Mamma Mia is based on racism media positive psychology, metacognitive therapy, and couples therapy. It starts in gestational week 22, and pages is a word essay, lasts until 6 months after birth. During pregnancy, Mamma Mia is delivered weekly (every Monday).
After birth, Mamma Mia is delivered three times per week for six weeks. The remaining weeks, the program is delivered more sporadically. In total, Mamma Mia consists of 44 sessions. The program is individualized, interactive, and media essay, tunneled (ie, the user is guided through the program in a pre-determined manner). The purpose of the present study was to pilot test the intervention in order to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users. The present paper reports a feasibility study that combined quantitative survey data with semi-structured interviews. Participants (N=103) were recruited via hospitals, well-baby clinics, and Facebook. Due to time constraint in completing the current study, our results were based on thesis on safety participation in one of the two phases: pregnancy or maternity.
Participants in the pregnancy phase were surveyed 4 and 8 weeks after intervention enrollment, and participants in the postnatal phase were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after intervention enrollment. The survey assessed perceived usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, and unobtrusiveness. Racism Media? All measures were filled in by participants at both measurement occasions. Data were analyzed by running descriptives and research papers, frequencies with corresponding percentages. Binomial tests were carried out to investigate whether demographics differed significantly from a 50/50 distribution. Paired sample t tests were used to examine differences between time 1 and 2. Four participants were interviewed in racism essay, the qualitative follow-up study, where they were given the opportunity to address and elaborate on similar aspects as assessed in buy essays online, the survey. More than two-thirds of users found Mamma Mia to be of racism and the essay high quality and how many 15 000 word essay, would recommend Mamma Mia to others.
By far, most also found the amount of information and frequency of the intervention schedule to be appropriate. Racism And The Essay? Mamma Mia was perceived as a user-friendly and credible intervention. Overall, the user acceptance of Mamma Mia was good and our findings add to the feasibility of the program. The effect of communication dissertation Mamma Mia on depression and subjective well-being will be evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial, and if found to be effective, Mamma Mia could serve as a low-threshold prevention program. Postpartum Depression: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment. The postpartum period represents a vulnerable time, where the woman is at increased risk for mental disorders . Studies typically report that 10%-15% of racism and the media essay new mothers experience symptoms of severe emotional distress, frequently labelled postpartum depression (PPD) [2-4]. Postpartum depressive disorders vary in severity; ranging from the mildest kind seen in postpartum blues to moderate or major depression, to the most severe cases known as postpartum psychosis . While only communication, 0.2% of new mothers experience postpartum psychosis, postpartum blues affect as many as 50%-80% of postpartum women and it is thus considered to be a fairly #x0201c;normal#x0201d; phenomenon.
Baby blues occurs during the first 7-10 days postpartum, and is assumed to arise due to hormonal reasons. Eventually, it wanes without treatment, especially with the support of family and friends and with the racism and the reassurance of health personnel that this reaction is quite normal . The PPD falls under the category of major depressive disorder found in pages word essay, the diagnostic manuals (DSM-IV-TR; ICD-10). Racism And The? According to the manuals [4,5], description, symptoms, course, and outcomes of PPD are similar to major depressive disorder. The only difference is the time of its occurrence. The depression strikes in a woman#x02019;s life when she is expected to be as happy as can be, which obviously makes the experience of the depression particularly arduous. In order to fulfill a diagnosis of PPD, one must experience a period of at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of culture interest in almost all activities, as well as experiencing at least four of the following symptoms: change in racism and the media, appetite and weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; and recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts . Factors that put women at elevated risk for PPD include a personal history of depression, family history of my essay com depression, negative life events, partner conflicts or low relationship satisfaction, low levels of essay social support, and certain baby characteristics [6,7].
The most common symptoms of PPD are tearfulness, feelings of hopelessness, inadequacy, guilt, inability to masters thesis defense, cope with and feel joy over the arrival of new baby, agitation and anxiety, loss of appetite, poor concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, fatigue, social isolation, and suicidal ideation . Women who suffer from PPD are less capable of carrying out maternal duties, such as engaging in important developmental activities with the baby, like playing and talking, which may influence the racism and the child#x02019;s cognitive, and socioemotional development , as well as the infant#x02019;s attachment style . Men have an increased risk of depression when their partner is depressed , and children of depressed fathers are at plagiarized, increased risk of essay behavior problems . Finally, many women risk experiencing less severe on-going symptoms long after the depression is considered over, and they are at risk for recurring depression . The personal cost as well as the buy essays online cost to society caused by PPD is large; thus, illustrating the pressing need for effective prevention and early intervention. According to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines , effective treatment of depression is to media essay, provide immediate support and information, problem-solving, and self-help. Several studies have also found cognitive-behavioral therapy , cognitive treatments , and metacognitive therapy  to be effective. However, a large proportion of how many pages 15 000 word those who suffer from PPD do not receive treatment, in racism and the media essay, part due to the stigma associated with the disorder as well as limited access to pages is a 15 000 word, effective treatments .
Another important reason why PPD treatment may be hampered is the under recognition of PPD. The under recognition is not only racism and the essay, due to the brief consultations with the communication medical health professionals, but is also due to the difficulty in distinguishing PPD symptoms from normal symptoms seen in new mothers, such as tiredness, change in racism and the, eating habits, difficulty with concentration and sleeping. New mothers also report to be unfamiliar with what constitute PPD symptoms, and do not know that they suffered from PPD until it was over. Thesis Slides? All these factors combined cause many people to suffer #x0201c;in silence#x02019;#x02019;. In sum, barriers to effective treatment including lack of resources and trained providers and social stigma associated with PPD  suggest a need for innovative approaches to public health prevention and racism and the essay, promotion. Many Web-based interventions have been designed and documented to be effective in treating various mental problems including depression , anxiety , and stress .
Studies document that people with these mental disorders greatly benefit from Web-based interventions [23,24] and that Web-based interventions represent a low threshold service with a high reach . More recently, two studies found support for the feasibility and usability of Web-based interventions targeting PPD [26,27], but there exist no randomized trials testing the efficacy of PPD interventions. On Safety? Web-based interventions have been found successful in reaching women of lower socio-economic status, a group typically found to be harder to reach . It is also noteworthy that young women (ie, women in childbearing age) are the racism and the media essay ones who use Internet most frequently when it comes to how many is a word essay, acquiring health-related information . Racism And The Essay? A Web-based intervention can thus both prevent the development of depressive symptoms as well as reach out to the many people that suffer #x0201c;in silence#x02019;#x02019;, and it seems promising considering that many people prefer first line services (ie, local- and home-based services) rather than regional or specialist health care services. The Web-Based Intervention: Mamma Mia. Mamma Mia is an automated/unguided Web-based self-help intervention. The aim of Mamma Mia is threefold: (1) to thesis on safety culture, prevent PPD, (2) to treat pregnant women/new mothers with mild-to-moderate symptoms of depression, and (3) enhance subjective well-being. Overall, Mamma Mia consists of 3 phases (see Table 1 ). The pregnancy phase starts in gestational week 22 and ends in media, week 40 (estimated due date). The pregnancy phase consists of 16 sessions, which are delivered weekly.
The maternity phase starts when the infant is 1-2 weeks old and lasts for 6 weeks. This phase is the most intense phase as these weeks are considered to comprise the most vulnerable time period for the new mother. Sessions are delivered three times per week, which make up a total of 18 sessions. The final phase is the low-intensity maternity phase, which consists of 10 sessions over 18 weeks. Buy Essays? These sessions are delivered with some variation (weekly at first, and then every other week). In total, Mamma Mia consists of and the essay 44 sessions over a period of 11 months. For each session, the research papers user receives an email with a hyperlink. And The? By activating the how many is a word essay link, the user gains access to Mamma Mia and proceeds in and the media essay, a predetermined/tunneled sequence of Web pages (ie, the tunnel information architecture) . In terms of delivery methods and information architecture, Mamma Mia is similar to previous eHealth programs, and thus represents a well-tested approach to treatment [31-34]. The key components in Mamma Mia are (1) assessment of depressive symptoms, (2) metacognitive therapy, (3) positive psychology, (4) couples therapy, (5) breastfeeding, and (6) psychoeducation. My Essay Com? These components are included because they are identified as important with regards to racism media essay, emotional distress during and shortly after pregnancy.
The same components (except for 5 and 6) are included in the partner version of the program. The most common screening-tool for thesis PPD is the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which assesses depressive symptoms during the last 7 days . The program will monitor the participants#x02019; level of depressive symptoms over time (as measured by the EPDS). Depressive symptoms will be assessed on three occasions during pregnancy and four times after birth. After each assessment, the participants will receive feedback based on their scores on the EPDS. The feedback is divided into#x000a0;three#x000a0;categories: (1) when there are no depressive symptoms, (2) when there are some depressive symptoms, and (3) when the score is and the, indicative of severe depression. If the buy essays review participant#x02019;s score suggest the presence of media essay some/many depressive symptoms, the program will recommend the user to speak to defense, someone they trust about how they are feeling, and if necessary, seek professional help (the program suggests where one can seek professional help). Racism Media Essay? The participant will repeatedly through the thesis on safety program be reminded that this is just a self help program, and if they are experiencing symptoms of depression it is important to get help. To decrease the symptoms of depression, the EPDS-score is additionally used to tailor a therapeutic component that is based on metacognitive therapy. Metacognitive therapy  is a recent development in and the media, understanding and treating mental health problems, which has been proven effective in treating depression .
The approach is based on a specific theory proposed by buy essays online review Wells and Matthews . The theory contends that those aspects of cognition that control mental processes create and maintain emotional or mental health problems. This mechanism leads to patterns of worry, rumination, threat monitoring, high conceptual activity, and counterproductive coping behaviors, and it is referred to racism and the, as the cognitive attentional syndrome. In contrast to cognitive therapy, metacognitive therapy does not deal with the content of specific negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs (eg, #x0201c;I am worthless and incompetent#x0201d;). Buy Essays Review? Rather, it deals with the process of how people arrive at racism and the essay, and respond to communication dissertation thesis, these negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs (eg, self-evaluation). In other words, the product of the thinking process is not as important as the process itself. It is an inflexible and recurrent thinking style in response to racism and the media, negative thoughts, feelings, or beliefs that causes problems and needs to be treated.
In consequence, a key aspect in metacognitive therapy is therefore to plagiarized, help people experience detached mindfulness, which is a disengaged and objective form of awareness in racism media, response to thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. A state of defense detached mindfulness helps the person to racism and the, separate the self from her or his thoughts. Thus, the present program educates users about mindfulness exercises to reduce the functions of thoughts . One such exercise is turning negative thoughts track, which is based on the acceptance and commitment therapy , and uses a combination of acceptance and mindfulness to help people distinguish themselves from thoughts, feelings, sensations, and research, memories. Other concrete tasks that aim to and the essay, enhance mindfulness include #x0201c;the body scanning#x0201d; exercise and #x0201c;the gong#x0201d; exercise. Both tasks are based on buy essays online audiotapes that instruct the person to try to visualize and focus on either a sound (the gong) or a marble travelling up and down on one#x02019;s spine. Thoughts can come and go, one is only to register that they are there, not evaluate them.
Positive psychology revolves around all that is racism media essay, good in life, and aspects that give meaning and enhance life satisfaction. Concrete tasks aimed at enhancing positive emotions, engagement, and a sense of meaning/purpose has been developed . The basic idea for research papers the different tasks is the assumption that the effect of positive emotions extends beyond the immediate moment. Peterson and racism essay, Seligman  argue that engaging in the tasks may enhance well-being, a sense of skill, efficiency, mastery, mental hygiene, as well as a person#x02019;s social network. That is, a person#x02019;s fundamental needs may be strengthened, which in how many pages word essay, turn may lower the risk of mental disorders. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated that various #x0201c;happiness-tasks#x0201d; have not only enhanced a person#x02019;s sense of life satisfaction, but also reduced the prevalence of depression [42,43]. Seligman et al  argue that these studies suggest efforts aimed at preventing/treating depression would benefit from including components based on positive psychology. One of the crucial ingredients in the present program is exactly that. Tasks that aim to enhance or facilitate gratitude, socializing, doing acts of kindness, optimism, and pleasant activities are included. The different tasks are described in some detail below.
The gratitude component involves assignments such as counting one#x02019;s blessings, writing down 3 good things that happened during the day, writing a letter of racism media gratitude, and saying #x0201c;thank you#x0201d; more often than usual. Thesis? In order to increase socialization and thus strengthen the and the media social network, which in turn facilitates social support, one is encouraged to initiate social interaction with friends and relatives. Assignments include calling a friend and inviting him/her out and mapping one#x02019;s social network. One is also advised on how to get new friends, and strengthening existing relationships (eg, find out about a friend#x02019;s plan and follow-up the next week by asking how it went, or give compliments to a partner or friend). In terms of acts of kindness, one is encouraged to do acts of kindness to others, keeping track of such acts, and plan them ahead of research papers time. Examples of kind acts are provided, while one is racism and the, also encouraged to figure out such acts for oneself. The #x0201c;best possible self#x0201d; exercise is defense, intended to increase optimism [45,46]. Here, the person is encouraged to envision scenarios of a future life in which many goals and dreams have been actualized and where much personal potential have been met. Assignments in the coming week will ask the person to elaborate on the scenarios, to recognize what one has already achieved that is in line with the best possible life scenario, challenge and media essay, turn around obstructive thoughts, and break major goals down into achievable sub-goals and milestones. The final positive psychology task is my essay com, based on cognitive behavioral therapy , and is intended to facilitate the engagement in pleasant activities.
The program starts by prompting the person to compile a list of activities that make her/him feel good. Media Essay? In the subsequent weeks, the person is asked to schedule one or more of these activities. She or he is also asked to masters slides, determine a goal for one of the activities. By including such a goal, one is implicitly encouraged to media essay, repeat the activity over time. A recent study suggests relationship dissatisfaction to be the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy [48,49]. Hence, a unique component of the program is pages word, dedicated to enhancing communication between partners and facilitating healthy conflict resolution, which in turn is racism essay, expected to improve relationship satisfaction. Online? The couple#x02019;s therapy is mainly based on a course that has been evaluated as an media essay online program . The course is based on cognitive behavior therapy. Five video clips are presented with the aim of enhancing communication skills, facilitating conflict resolution, and encouraging the expression of positive feelings toward each other.
Following each video clip, one is communication dissertation, encouraged to make use of the techniques that have been introduced. An example of a task is to and the, let one#x02019;s partner know when he or she made you feel appreciated; this task is intended to thesis on safety culture, facilitate the expression of positive emotions between partners. Another task that targets healthy conflict resolution is #x0201c;the active listening#x0201d; task. This task requires that the partner that holds an object is the one talking. The other partner listens. When the person is finished talking, he or she gives the object to the other person and he/she repeats what was said. This task is racism and the essay, intended to encourage listening and to raise awareness in how many is a essay, terms of how one typically and ideally communicates in a relationship.
Research suggests a relation between breastfeeding and depressive symptoms [51-55]. Formative research done prior to the development of Mamma Mia aimed to discover the topics that were most important with regards to well-being and depressive symptoms [56,57]. Racism Media Essay? These studies confirmed that breastfeeding difficulties were strongly linked to masters defense slides, depressive symptoms of postpartum. Hence, a component in and the media essay, the program focuses on thesis breastfeeding, both normalizing difficulties associated with it, providing useful advice and assistance, as well as informing of the optional use of substitute. Every session in the program includes information regarding topics such as emotional lability in pregnancy, changes and challenges in the partner relationship, the importance of social support, the racism media fetus and the infant#x02019;s development, birth etc. Plagiarized Research Papers? Short video clips are available to demonstrate and and the media essay, explain the online infant#x02019;s state regulation system (sleep-wake cycles), and this information is integrated with issues related to the infant#x02019;s capacity to sleep and rest, soothability, interaction/communication etc. The intention is that the program will provide the woman with relevant information adjusted to her own progress through pregnancy and after the child is born. Before disseminating Mamma Mia, we found it pertinent to investigate the feasibility of the racism and the media program. Therefore, we pilot tested the intervention to observe how it is used and perceived by its users, and how this relates to the operation and future development of Mamma Mia. Plagiarized Papers? Consequently, the objectives with the present study were to (1) examine user acceptance of Mamma Mia, (2) examine how it was perceived among end-users, and (3) identify potential issues with use, acceptance, and essay, program-specific needs that might provide added value to Mamma Mia and its operation and my essay com, future development. Survey Design and Data Collection.
The present study combined quantitative survey data with semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users. Survey data were collected by means of Web-based questionnaires at two measurement points (T1 and T2). Due to time constraint in completing the current study, our results were based on participation in one of the two phases: pregnancy or maternity. Participants in the pregnancy phase were surveyed 4 and 8 weeks after intervention enrollment, and participants in the postnatal phase were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after intervention enrollment. Furthermore, program usage was continuously monitored by means of log server registrations. Six items were rated on a scale from 1-7 in order to assess a person#x02019;s belief that using Mamma Mia is useful and racism and the media, helps increasing well-being . Four items were rated on a scale from 1-7 to measure a person#x02019;s belief that using Mamma Mia is free of effort . Four items were rated on a scale from 1-7 to assess whether Mamma Mia is considered credible and online, trustworthy. User Satisfaction is racism and the media essay, measured in terms of how users rate the overall quality and satisfaction of the program, and masters defense, whether they would recommend it to others.
Four items were rated on racism essay a 1-7 scale . Four items were rated on a 1-7 scale to assess whether users have the opportunity to use Mamma Mia seamlessly as part of their daily routines. On Safety Culture? Estimated means of all the measures were reported in Table 4 . Technical problems were measured using a single yes/no option (#x0201c;Have you experienced any technological problems in using Mamma Mia?#x0201d;). Participants that responded #x0201c;yes#x0201d;, were provided an additional open-ended question, #x0201c;Please describe the technological problems you have been experiencing?#x0201d;
Improvements were assessed using a single open-ended question, #x0201c;If you could improve anything in Mamma Mia, what would that be?#x0201d; Participants were recruited at 5 health care clinics and 2 hospitals. Here, midwives/public health nurses handed out a brochure and and the essay, offered to try Mamma Mia. We recruited primarily women, and their partners through the women. The reason why we did it this way is because women often go to on safety, the follow-ups at the well-baby clinics and hospitals by themselves. Potential participants had to take home the brochure and send an email to the administrator of the racism and the media program to register for participation. Upon registration, participants were enrolled consecutively from February to May 2012. Participants were also recruited on Facebook (30% of the how many is a 15 000 word total sample). In order to be included in the study, one had to be in gestational week 22 or 2-3 weeks after birth, or one had to be the partner of and the media essay a women in buy essays online review, gestational week 22 or who had given birth within the last two weeks. The two inclusion criteria we applied were that all participants had to be 18 years or older, and they had to be able to read and understand Norwegian. A total of and the media 103 users were recruited from pages is a 15 000 word essay, February to May in 2012.
By far, most participants were female (82%) and the mean age was 31.4 years (SD 4.3; range 20-41 years). Female participants were on average slightly younger (mean 31.1, SD 4.4) than male participants (mean 33.4, SD 4.0). However, this difference in racism and the essay, age between female and thesis slides, male participants was non-significant ( t 54 =-1.1, P =.28). Furthermore, binomial tests of and the essay 50/50 proportions (all P values, P #x0003c;.02) confirm that most participants were ethnically Norwegian, had 4-5 years of college or university education, currently employed, and thesis on safety, had no previous children ( P#x02264; .02). Most participants who were recruited were in their pregnancy and multinomial tests of equal categories show further that most participants were currently in a relationship ( P#x02264; .01). For more information on participant characteristics, please see Table 2 . Missing data ranged from 4% (41/103)-32% (33/103). Interview Design and Data Collection. A total of 103 participants were recruited to test the usage of Mamma Mia, among which a random subset of 10 was invited to take part in racism and the media, an interview. Four participants (3 women; 1 man) agreed to do the in-depth, semi-structured, tape-recorded interview.
The participants were interviewed in is a word, turn, and media essay, it was decided that it was not necessary to interview additional participants after the 4 interviews had been completed as the analyses reached a satisfactory saturation point (ie, the communication thesis same themes emerged). Racism Essay? An interview schedule was developed with open-ended questions with prompts and follow-up questions employed to elicit a breadth and depth in my essay com, responses . The interview schedule asked participants to describe how they viewed Mamma Mia in terms of its appeal, usability, strengths and opportunities, limitations, and challenges. The interview schedule also addressed the participants#x02019; fidelity to the program, and why there had been a high/low degree of fidelity. Participants were encouraged to discuss both positive and negative feedback.
Participants were also encouraged to think aloud in terms of and the media how to best market the program, and the final question was an open question, where participants could raise issues that had not been addressed in communication dissertation thesis, the interview. All the interviews were conducted by the first author, and they were conducted in her office. They lasted approximately 1 hour. The data were transcribed verbatim. All four (P1-P4) participants had higher education and were married/cohabitant. Three participants had previous children. Racism And The Media Essay? Two participants had tested pregnancy phase, and two had tested the maternity (including high and low intensity) phase. In total, 78.6% (81/103) participants were engaged with Mamma Mia, while 21.4% (22/103) participants did not initiate the use of Mamma Mia. Masters Slides? In the racism and the media essay pregnancy phase, the average number of completed program days was 7.4 (SD 6.9).
Median number of completed program days was 6. In the maternity phase, the research papers average number of completed program days was 11.5 (SD 11.8). The median number of completed program days was 5. Racism And The Media? The program lasted for 11 months. Due to time constraint in completing the current study, however, we chose to study adherence within a limited time frame. Consequently, users have not been given the chance to communication dissertation thesis, complete the program. Racism And The Media Essay? Thus, usage data may not accurately reflect adherence. The response rates varied from 25% (6/24)-58.6% (44/75) (see Table 3 for details).
The response rate was higher in the pregnancy phase compared to the maternity phase. Overall, 65% (67/103) of responders rated Mamma Mia to be of high quality. Moreover, almost 2 out of 3 responders would recommend Mamma Mia to others. A total of 43% (44/103) reported that the information presented in Mamma Mia was relevant to them. In terms of the buy essays review quantity of information in each session (ie, program day), users reported that the amount of information was appropriate. It does not seem to be too much content during sessions, rather some found it a bit too little. In the pregnancy phase of Mamma Mia, 78% (58/75) reported that one session per week was appropriate, while the and the essay rest found one session per week to communication dissertation, be too rare. In the and the media essay maternity phase, 67% (16/24) found three sessions per week to be appropriate, while 33% (8/24) found it a bit too much. Table 4 illustrates how participants rated Mamma Mia in terms of plagiarized usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, unobtrusiveness, and satisfaction.
The theoretical range goes from 1 through 7 for all five scales. Media Essay? Generally, ratings were high, indicating good user acceptance. Pages Is A Essay? Paired sample t tests were performed to compare ratings across time (T1 and T2), and results suggested that the racism ratings were stable over time. Therefore, Table 4 reports the figures from online, T1 only. A total of 47 improvements were suggested by the participants. Figure 1 is a word cloud based on the text users have provided with common words removed (such as prepositions). Racism? A word cloud gives greater prominence to words that appear more frequently in the source text. As can be seen, words like #x0201c;information#x0201d;, #x0201c;adjustment#x0201d;, #x0201c;platform#x0201d;, #x0201c;independence#x0201d;, and #x0201c;multiparous#x0201d; were the thesis defense slides most prominent. If we re-contextualize the words within the media essay source text, a few clear categories become emergent.
First, 36% (17/47) comments were related to individualization or tailoring of intervention content. Based on these 17 comments, five reported that the program should be adjustable to buy essays, gestational week or number of weeks after giving birth. Five participants commented that Mamma Mia should adjust its information to whether one is giving birth for the first time or not. Finally, 6 participants also noted that Mamma Mia should adjust the and the media couples#x02019; therapy so that (1) users without partners can skip the couple#x02019;s therapy and (2) that the couples#x02019; therapy can be repeated so partners more easily can manage to follow it together. Regarding (1), one participant actually reported feeling #x0201c;down#x0201d; when faced with the couples#x02019; therapy as it merely acted as a reminder about a recent sensitive event (ie, most likely a breakup). Although such cases may not occur very frequently, they pose a real threat to the well-being of the thesis defense slides individual and act counterproductive to the objective of Mamma Mia. Regarding (2), it is not exactly clear, based on participants#x02019; comments, what actions can be taken to help couples follow the racism and the media essay couples#x02019; therapy together. It could mean that the program should be isolated from Mamma Mia as a stand-alone component or it could simply mean that better coordination in buy essays review, the program would be helpful. But this quickly becomes speculative and further testing is warranted.
Second, 28% (13/47) comments were concerned with improvements to the information provided in Mamma Mia. It seems that users have a two-fold opinion. On the racism and the one hand, some users request more information, especially about the baby in utero and about mothers#x02019; emotional and physical development during pregnancy. How Many 15 000 Word? On the other hand, some information seems redundant or familiar, especially for women who already have children. The latter may be an important cue for increasing adherence. In a recent study by Tonkin-Crine and colleagues , they interviewed participants to identify reasons for not engaging with a Web-based intervention for chronic illness. What they found was that participants who already knew much about their chronic illness found a lot of the information superfluous, and and the, hence dropped out. Participants suggested that more information should be optional or adjusted according to the level of is a essay knowledge of the participant, which inevitably leads to some form of individualization or tailoring. The third emergent category is racism essay, related to technological development. A total of 23% (11/47) comments mentioned that program adherence was made difficult by my essay com not being available for iPad or smartphones. This means that these participants report that Mamma Mia should ideally be platform independent.
Platform independence ensures the accessibility and ubiquity of Mamma Mia as participants can take the program on-the-go or wherever they are. In conclusion, we have identified three main categories of racism and the media suggested improvements which account for 87% of the variation in participants#x02019; responses. The remaining residual of 13% does not add up to any further coherent or meaningful categories. Typically, the residual consists of individual responses such as #x0201c;discovered typos#x0201d; or #x0201c;option for chatting with health personnel#x0201d;. Reflective Practice and Participant Feedback. The first lesson from the present study is that not all participants seem to read information about 15 000 word, Mamma Mia very carefully during recruitment. It is estimated that roughly 10% of the participants that were recruited, had passed the gestational week 22 or were more than 2-3 weeks passed giving birth. Consequently, participants sign up even though they are passed the point of registration. This results in #x0201c;confusion#x0201d;, #x0201c;misunderstandings#x0201d;, and questions about #x0201c;where can I adjust the program to my gestational week?#x0201d; At least two participants also had to be re-registered from the prenatal phase to the postnatal phase of Mamma Mia, because they signed up late in their final trimester. The second lesson is that including hospitals and health care clinics require greater amounts of time and effort. The key factors that can promote or inhibit the use and implementation of Mamma Mia in health care settings are not known at this point in time.
However, the overall impression during recruitment was that hospitals and health care clinics experienced difficulties recruiting the numbers expected and needed. Essay? Only 61.2% (63/103) participants were recruited at hospitals and health care clinics despite the fact that 925 brochures were handed out and 9 meetings were held about Mamma Mia, at thesis on safety, the very same hospitals and and the essay, health care clinics. Consequently, RBUP (Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health) started recruiting participants online after the recruitment had started at thesis, hospitals and health care clinics, and with less time and less effort they managed to recruit 35% (36/103) participants. Also, due to the slow recruitment, the question #x0201c;Where were you recruited for the user survey of Mamma Mia?#x0201d; was included late into the recruitment period. Out of 7 responses, only 1 reported being recruited at a health care clinic. The remaining 6 participants were either recruited via their private or social network or RBUP. We were interested in the women#x02019;s qualitative experience of Mamma Mia, and in the issues they themselves raised in racism, relation to it. Plagiarized? The analyses relied upon organizing sections of the data into recurrent themes . In accordance with Braun #x00026; Clarke , our approach is based on racism and the media essay a thematic analysis, as opposed to communication dissertation, a theoretical analysis; our themes were identified in an inductive manner, making the themes strongly linked to the data; and we took a semantic approach in that we did not look for and the media a deeper meaning beyond what the participant said. Furthermore, we followed Kissling#x02019;s recommendation  to let the data itself suggest names for the themes, and took direct quotes from the transcripts to illustrate the kind of data classified by each theme.
In an plagiarized research attempt to increase reliability and racism, validity, two researchers analyzed the data, first separately, then jointly. Additionally, the qualitative analyses were carried out without knowledge of the quantitative survey. The themes could largely be categorized either as strength or weakness, or both. Thus, the findings are presented below in terms of strengths and weaknesses for each theme. The accessibility of the program was largely mentioned as one of the communication thesis strengths of the program. The opportunity to complete the sessions at home or at work, depending on when one had the time was greatly appreciated. This is in racism, line with previous research . Participants appreciated that the information was concise and thesis culture, brief, and it was easy to understand.
Moreover, it was presented to them at an appropriate time; they received the information when they felt they needed it. The women enjoyed that the program was organized according to a tunneled sequence; that is, they were guided through the program and had to complete one module before proceeding to the next. As one participant said #x0201c;to me, the program felt like a safe guidance that contained the racism media essay information I needed when I needed it#x0201d; (P1). The frequency of the sessions was found to be appropriate, although it was suggested that the preparation phase of the program could ideally have had more frequent sessions. The interviewees expressed enthusiasm with regards to the information and exercises that targeted the relationship with partner and sensitivity with regards to the infant#x02019;s signals.
As one participant said: #x0201c;With Mamma Mia, you get the knowledge you won#x02019;t get anywhere else#x0201d; (P2). Moreover, they enjoyed how the word program was not a mere channel for information that provides general advice, but it #x0201c;raised#x0201d; questions that stimulated to and the, self-reflection and it provided helpful exercises in an interactive manner. These aspects made learning fun, and stimulated to change. Participants expressed confidence in the program, and the program was reported to be credible. Confidence and credibility were enhanced by the brochure, which described how the program had been developed by buy essays online experts in the field.
It was emphasized in two of the interviews how it was of great importance that health personnel whom they trusted were the ones who conveyed information regarding the racism media program. My Essay Com? One participant (P1) expressed how she felt #x0201c;that the program was developed and racism, provided as part of the public health care system#x0201d;, and thus she felt that the program was a good thing for her. The major reason for high fidelity was the participants#x02019; curiosity in terms of what was to thesis on safety, come in the program. Racism And The Media Essay? Another reason why participants completed the how many is a program was that completing the and the essay sessions proved to be break and a #x0201c;time-out#x0201d; for pages word essay multiparous women in a hectic everyday life. Racism Essay? As one woman said #x0201c;the program provided an opportunity to how many pages word, take the time to connect with the baby in my tummy#x0201d; (P3). Ordinarily they would not have taken the time to focus inward on the fetus, and so the and the media essay program facilitated contact and attachment with the unborn baby. A final reason for completing the program was the desire to be confirmed; confirmed that she was #x0201c;doing the dissertation right thing#x0201d; for her baby (P1). A major limitation had to and the media essay, do with a lack of flexibility. Review? As one participant said, #x0201c;my main complaint is the inflexibility in terms of when you can start with the program, you should be able to start up regardless of where you are in your pregnancy#x0201d; (P2). All interviewees expressed a desire to be able to go back and repeat a previous session. Racism Media? The inability to use the program on tablets and smart phones was also mentioned as a major limitation.
Finally, because of communication its emphasis on racism essay the relationship with the partner, the program was viewed as targeting the nuclear family, and other family constellations (such as single mothers) would likely not find the program to be adjusted to their needs. Pages Is A 15 000 Word? As one participant said, #x0201c;a friend of mine, who is about to become a single mom#x02026;she sort of racism and the media chose to plagiarized papers, have this baby on media her own. She went to Denmark and had a donor. I thought many of the plagiarized themes in the program would be good for her, but then I thought, no, no, it wouldn#x02019;t work, cause the program is really custom-made for the #x0201c;standard person#x0201d; for the nuclear family#x0201d; (P1). Although the racism media information provided throughout the plagiarized program was largely emphasized as one of the and the essay strengths in the program, it was mentioned that the follow-up phase (10 weeks postpartum and onward) could have contained more information regarding the baby#x02019;s development and attachment etc. The inaccessibility for tablets and smartphones was a major limitation and reported as a barrier of thesis on safety use. The interviewees were encouraged to essay, describe how the program could be further improved, and expectations emerged as a common topic.
Specifically, they wanted the program to thesis defense slides, focus more on expectations with regards to breastfeeding. They wanted to learn more about how breastfeeding can be challenging, and that there are alternatives if it turns out to be too problematic. Furthermore, it was suggested that addressing expectations with regards to the postpartum period as a whole would be very useful. Many new mothers plan to do too many things after having a baby, and Mamma Mia could therefore serve as a useful reminder that having a baby is both unpredictable and inherently hectic in and of itself. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptance among program users with regards to the Web-based intervention Mamma Mia, as well as to identify potential issues that could be improved.
The typical user in our study was a well-educated employed woman, living with a partner and being pregnant for the first time. On an average, users in the pregnancy phase completed 7 sessions, while users in the maternity phase completed 12 sessions. The user-survey and interviews identified critical internal and and the media, external success factors for initiation and continued use of Mamma Mia (ie, factors that promote or inhibit intervention adoption) . Internal factors refer to the strengths and weaknesses internal to the intervention such as its information quality, while external factors refer to the opportunities and threats presented by the external environment to online review, the intervention such as technological changes or lack thereof. Importantly, the aspects emphasized by and the the interviewees were in line with findings from the questionnaires.
The main internal strengths were the quality and relevance of the information provided in the program. More than two-thirds of users found Mamma Mia to be of high quality and would recommend Mamma Mia to others. By far, most also found the amount of information and frequency of the intervention schedule to be appropriate. Moreover, Mamma Mia was perceived as a user-friendly and credible intervention. In terms of internal weaknesses, it was mentioned that the program sessions could be more frequent during the online review pregnancy phase, and in the maternity phase there could be more information regarding the media baby#x02019;s development and attachment. Opportunities and Threats for Real Implementation.
Mamma Mia is operated on my essay com a stable platform and racism and the media, there were few reports of technical problems. In line with previous research , the accessibility of the communication dissertation thesis program in terms of allowing users to and the, complete the sessions at home or at work emerged as an my essay com important advantage of the program. Health care workers that conveyed the information regarding Mamma Mia emerged as both an external threat and media essay, potential strength. They constituted strength in terms of enhancing the credibility of the program, which in turn made the participants more eager to try the program. Plagiarized? However, as described earlier, many health care workers failed to racism, inform potential participants about the program, which posed a fundamental barrier to initiation of the program. Buy Essays Online? In order to achieve a successful dissemination of Mamma Mia, it is necessary to have credible sources (ie, health care workers) that are committed to the program. More research is needed in order to determine how this form of commitment can best be achieved. The main external threat, however, was the inaccessibility for racism essay tablets and smartphones. As many failed to understand that the intervention starts in gestational week 22 one has to take great care to communicate clearly when the intervention starts when releasing Mamma Mia among potential end-user. Communication and marketing plans have to ensure that users are registered at the right time according to gestational week, and my essay com, one has to carefully plan how to implement Mamma Mia during point of care in health care settings.
Findings suggest a need for improvements in mainly three domains: (1) making Mamma Mia available for iPads and smartphones to increase accessibility, (2) provide more information, and (3) individualization to gestational week, couples versus singles, first-time parents versus second-time parents. The most common barrier of use was the inaccessibility for and the media essay tablets and smartphones. In turn, improvements were made such that the final version of Mamma Mia is available for online review iPads and smartphones. More frequent program sessions during the pregnancy phase as well as more information regarding breastfeeding, sleep, child development, and racism and the media, attachment were requested, and thesis on safety, all of these requests were taken into racism and the media essay, account and incorporated in the final revision of the program. All interviewees expressed a desire to thesis culture, be able to go back and repeat a previous session.
Thus, the final version of Mamma Mia includes a #x0201c;personal#x0201d; home page, which gives an overview of all the racism and the sessions one has completed, and all the buy essays review sessions that are to racism media essay, come. After a program session has been completed, one can go back and repeat it as often as one likes. In terms of individualization , there is buy essays online review, a definite long-term goal to and the, adjust Mamma Mia to the needs of single parents, parents who have premature infants, parents with previous children, as well as non-Norwegian speakers. Participants in the present study also requested an improved flexibility in terms of program initiation. Participants wanted the program to research, be adjusted to their respective gestational week. Media? This request has not been accommodated, however. Mamma Mia starts in mid-pregnancy because it is considered optimal to promote relationship satisfaction and how many pages is a, prenatal attachment early (but not too early when the risk of miscarriage is still high) when the essay goals are to prevent depression and enhance well-being.
In consequence, the program initiation continues to be limited to gestational week 22. The main concern with the present user study has to do with generalizability. Due to thesis slides, the use of a convenience sample the findings may not be representative for all mothers (eg, ethnically diverse users, fathers or partners, and users with lower socio-economic status). There was a substantial dropout from the treatment program in media essay, this study. However, treatment dropout is common to most Internet-based programs . Particularly, for comprehensive multi-session interventions, like Mamma Mia (ie, for each session added), an opportunity for dropout is also added . Importantly, however, we were able to deliver and test a substantial number of program sessions. As in all qualitative research, a potential confounding variable in this study is the influence of the interviewer on the respondents. As the interviewees were aware that the interviewer had a professional interest in Mamma Mia, it may have influenced the responses in different ways. For instance, the participants may have wished to come across in a socially desirable manner, and hence were likely to give positive feedback.
On the other hand, they may have felt that the interview was the perfect opportunity to on safety, communicate directly what could be improved to the developers of the program. As the and the media interviewees all gave nuanced feedback, it is likely that they felt comfortable being honest in the interview setting. It is important to note that while additional nuances would probably be captured with a larger sample; the main themes described herein would remain . Culture? Moreover, the themes from the interviews were in line with the findings from the quantitative data, which adds to the reliability of the media findings. It is of essence that participants are invited to use Mamma Mia when they are in gestational week 22, which is why follow-ups in hospitals and buy essays online review, well-baby clinics are thought to be the racism best settings to recruit women. Buy Essays Online Review? That way midwives and doctors can inform women of the program when they are close to gestational week 22. In the essay present study, the primary setting for recruitment was the hospital and well-baby clinics, and yet only thesis on safety culture, 60% (62/103) of racism participants were recruited there. Moreover, several participants had failed to understand that the intervention started in gestational week 22. It is not clear what inhibited successful/efficient promotion of Mamma Mia in hospitals and well-baby clinics; nevertheless, it is clear that one has to essay, find an efficient way to organize and and the, deliver Mamma Mia which is unobtrusive to health care personnel.
A more comprehensive monitoring of the recruitment process may have revealed the sticking points and thus been informative for further evaluation studies as well as real world implementation of Mamma Mia. We were able to review, deliver a substantial number of sessions, and the high scores on measures of usefulness, ease-of-use, credibility, unobtrusiveness, and user satisfaction suggest a high level of acceptance. Findings from the user survey and interviews were consistent, which add to the reliability of the results. The recruitment process revealed that Mamma Mia was more appealing to pregnant women, rather than women who have just given birth. This is and the media essay, advantageous and thesis culture, not surprising as the racism and the media essay program is my essay com, designed to racism media, follow women through both the pregnancy and postpartum months.
There is a challenge in attracting several segments of the population such as more ethnically diverse users, fathers or partners, and users with lower socio-economic status. My Essay Com? In order to further increase user acceptance of and the media this and similar programs, making such programs more adaptable to individual needs and preferences seems to be a key factor. Plagiarized? The study revealed certain barriers of use, and improvements have been made to eliminate these in the final version. Overall, the user acceptance of Mamma Mia was fairly good and our findings add to racism and the media essay, the feasibility of the program. We find it appropriate to proceed to the next step of evaluation: a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of Mamma Mia on online review well-being and postpartum depressive symptoms.
Mamma Mia was developed by Changetech AS in collaboration with RBUP for racism and the media essay NKS (The Norwegian Women's Public Health Association).
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Additionally, most of the and the, links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at plagiarized, the end of the citation; these can be used to racism essay, access the publications if the how many is a word, links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of racism and the media essay, all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. Culture. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the and the essay, publications if the my essay com, links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to racism and the essay, go to the NYU oriented version of this page.)
Description – Scope, Organization, and on safety Access : The scope of the racism and the media, topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of how many 15 000 essay, inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the racism and the media, unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. To understand a structural characteristic of some kind of my essay com, inequality – such as legitimization processes in a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of racism and the, fundamental questions about plagiarized papers, social inequalities, seeking to investigate the general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of inequality.
Examples of these topics include: what are the roles of interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and and the disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in is a 15 000 the field. The class organization and goals . The class is intended for both beginning and racism and the media essay advanced graduate students. Online Review. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on and the media essay, discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an pages word essay analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).
While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the and the media, approach in this class seeks to thesis, develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on inequality. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for further study for and the, each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on my essay com, students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.
We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to media essay, get to the articles. Masters Thesis Defense Slides. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in media essay Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and is a Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in essay Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for the original publication or an appropriate alternative. Note: Links for all readings will appear in the online version of the course guide.
A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for communication thesis, an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an media essay obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. How Many 15 000. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to and the media essay, collapse all the hidden sections to thesis slides, their usual look). The table of media essay, contents at the top of the page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about thesis culture, Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.
3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the racism media, importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the on safety culture, range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is racism media essay ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to my essay com, the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. Racism Media. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into pages is a essay our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of inequality . For each of these two kinds of and the media essay, inequality, consider an research papers example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to racism media essay, conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind.
This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is research papers fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about and the media essay, kinds of inequality to consider is also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. Dissertation Thesis. For each of these two kinds of racism and the, inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. Plagiarized Papers. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by racism and the essay, inequality, not what causes it. Try to communication dissertation, specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Consider also the relationships between the media, disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and dissertation indirect. Racism Essay. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to my essay com, ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to racism and the, embrace the how many is a 15 000 word, range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).
To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the racism and the essay, appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Dissertation. Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to media essay, measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is communication thesis low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to racism and the essay, look at communication thesis, any society or group and determine if some aspect of inequality is essay high, medium, or low? Focus on realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for the same aspects of inequality when they apply to other kinds of inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in your examples that seem most decisive.
For each of the thesis slides, two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in racism and the essay the circumstances of how many pages 15 000 essay, advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in and the media essay social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of my essay com, social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of inequality consistently differ from and the media societies that have low levels, in thesis ways other than the difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Racism Media. Most people responding to communication dissertation, the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.
Vol. 4. Media Essay. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Masters Defense Slides. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.
2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , edited by and the media essay, Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. What are common forms of thesis, social inequality?
What is the range of and the media, social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and how many 15 000 ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and texts on race, class, and gender. Racism Media Essay. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in communication dissertation two societies. Racism And The Media Essay. The goal is to see the range of inequalities that exist in different societies.
The remainder of this task description just tries to show how to approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is my essay com fine to racism and the media, use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an research interesting challenge to media, use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from two different parts of the world or from on safety culture different points in time. Racism And The Media. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of social inequality that persist over time. How Many Pages Is A 15 000 Essay. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of racism media essay, some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to buy essays online review, a higher level of generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to of the same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and and the media Chinese minorities) The aim here is thesis on safety not to see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to see how diverse the forms of inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. And The Essay. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to my essay com, what degree is the racism and the essay, inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is culture unequal, that is what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the racism, inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of thesis culture, inequality, but not for others. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in essence, this asks how are the advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and racism could, in theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.
Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). How Many Is A. To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in racism one society than the other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?
Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in thesis the other? For the ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in racism and the essay the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into how many is a essay two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and racism media disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to my essay com, the structure and organizational dynamics of a society than do others?
If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning. Racism Media Essay. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and buy essays online review Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and racism essay Occupational Prestige. Thesis Defense Slides. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. (especially pp.
19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Health, Income, and and the essay Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in how many is a 15 000 the Inner-City Ghetto. Racism. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. On Safety Culture. 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?
We often use the term inequality to refer only to forms of inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Racism Media Essay. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to masters defense, extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and racism and the essay the degree of agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.
When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of my essay com, two kinds of media, inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the acceptance of the inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . Thesis. These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for racism and the, social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the two kinds of inequality and the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is masters thesis defense perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for each of the essay, two kinds of inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to thesis culture, distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Racism. Many of the specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.
Some aspects of thesis defense slides, these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and essay kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for pages is a, the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the and the, legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the plagiarized research papers, inequality is contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to racism and the media, distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.
The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to my essay com, get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of and the, legitimacy claims regarding four examples of inequality (based on two types of defense, inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the media, role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in systems of inequality. My Essay Com. Elaborate each of media, these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and word essay not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of them as informed speculations about what might be true.
They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about and the media essay, if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. My Essay Com. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Power and the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of racism essay, Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.
1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to communication dissertation, Personal Entitlement: The Role of racism essay, Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in culture Experimental Social Psychology , edited by P. Media Essay. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. Communication Dissertation. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on Legitimation.
Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. Racism And The Media. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Online Review. Max Weber and and the essay the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of plagiarized research papers, Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Politics , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol.
409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and media essay Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?
Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in my essay com Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.
45, No. 4 (2002), pp. And The Essay. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.
Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and on safety the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.
6 (1989), pp. Racism And The. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of dissertation, Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.
Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. 1975. James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of racism and the media, self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.
38, no. How Many Pages 15 000 Word Essay. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of racism, placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of papers, Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).
Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. Racism Media. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the thesis defense slides, different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and and the media disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Thesis Slides. Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is crucial for analytic clarity. Racism. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the 15 000, achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . And The Media Essay. The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Dissertation Thesis. Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.
As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from and the essay both examples of status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of impact on thesis on safety, people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to racism and the media, differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of status inequality. The goal is to produce a list of plagiarized research papers, plausible differences, and to get a first sense of what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of and the media, status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of dissertation, each category to make the media, simplest control for 15 000 word essay, other sources of and the media essay, variation among the phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from culture your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for racism media essay, Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of plagiarized papers, Social and Economic Organization . Translated by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.
Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. Racism Media. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . Dissertation. . VI.
How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of and the essay, honorific inequality. Masters Defense. High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to racism and the, honorific inequalities is that people compete for thesis, recognition and deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.
Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of and the media, honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and thesis political inequalities. Media. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in practice and what is the logic of their processes? Select two (or more) examples of honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for on safety, recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and and the power rewards. But we are looking for forms of inequality where honorific status is pages is a 15 000 word essay central. And The Essay. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the review, like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?
Is deference to others determined as much by their perceived prestige as by their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of and the media, them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about how many pages is a essay, ways that the racism media essay, lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of masters thesis, those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and who should defer to us. (Think about essay, titles, awards, forms of dress, access to thesis, activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for racism and the media, honor. What decides the distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. On Safety Culture. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?
Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and racism media the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Plagiarized Research Papers. Try to identify two or more important differences and racism essay two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of dissertation thesis, these differences and similarities exist. In short , the and the media, aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is communication thesis secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.
Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. And The Essay. Pp. Thesis. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Media. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001345] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.
7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Thesis Defense. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and and the media essay productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.
46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on masters thesis defense, inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of and the, inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Here we want to my essay com, think of racism and the essay, experience not only on safety culture, as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of racism essay, inequalities. The experiences of thesis defense slides, inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of and the media, inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for communication dissertation, the systems of media, inequality?
Select two systems of inequality : one in thesis defense slides which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to racism, select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of pages is a word, inequality. If possible, use a form of positional inequality for racism, one example and dissertation status inequality for media essay, the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and online the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of racism and the, inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.
This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and it is difficult to reduce the how many 15 000 word, varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and racism internal, the goal here is to move beyond the individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and cultural understandings. My Essay Com. In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to racism and the media, start is by thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in how many 15 000 essay what ways do people recognize the inequality and think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of racism and the media, social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about culture, fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in essay their own position? and how do they think about the fairness of the thesis, existence of inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of racism and the media essay, talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in my essay com external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the racism and the essay, possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for research, failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and racism and the essay subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in buy essays online review a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at and the essay, a different level? how do they differ in their trust in communication authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of inequalities.
That is, do people differ in their experience of a location in a system of inequality depending on how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in and the media essay other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. Plagiarized Research Papers. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and whites in South Africa or women and men in racism and the many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of inequality depending on their location in other important forms of plagiarized research papers, inequality? (For example, how does the experience of being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the and the essay, patterns of similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the experience of inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in thesis defense slides the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. And The. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.
419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. How Many Is A 15 000 Essay. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Subjective Social Location: Data from racism and the media 21 Nations. International Journal of how many is a 15 000 essay, Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the Ethnic Composition of essay, White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.
1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. My Essay Com. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to racism and the media, interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of inequality and (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and research papers ambiguous interests, and so on.
Simply put, every theory of racism media, inequality relies on a theory of review, interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and racism and the who are the disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the my essay com, objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and racism media essay workers in a corporation may have divided interests about the communication dissertation thesis, distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at racism media essay, odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to research papers, characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of racism and the media, inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.
As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to thesis, the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the characteristics of objective interests or the structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the racism media essay, conception of interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on slides, conceptions that ignore or even oppose the objective interests.
What institutional and cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in racism and the media essay your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to 15 000 word essay, identify and racism essay pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to dissertation thesis, misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and racism under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?
What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in culture biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to racism media essay, develop some initial ideas about the thesis, ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the racism essay, character of a single instance. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the range of 15 000 essay, objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the racism and the media essay, Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of dissertation thesis, Social Inequality The American Journal of racism and the, Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. (2012).
Self-interest and the theory of action. Dissertation. The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. Racism And The. The Opt-Out Revolution. How Many 15 000 Word Essay. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. Racism And The Essay. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of my essay com, Ideas , Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. Racism And The Media Essay. - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of pages is a essay, Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on racism and the essay, Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of Sociology , Vol.
44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of papers, Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of racism and the media, Social Conflict; University of communication dissertation, Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. And The Media Essay. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. Buy Essays Online Review. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.
83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 103, No.
4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of racism and the, inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on social mobility and status attainment (and on buy essays online review, placement within organizations). Essay. More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to thesis on safety culture, them; and racism essay the demographic profile defined by the number of positions of each type.
A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of buy essays online, people through it, both within careers and between generations. Essay. These two components of structure – the communication dissertation thesis, static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the occupational structure of racism and the essay, a modern society or the hierarchy of positions within a complex organization. Note that, in communication dissertation thesis this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.
Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only loosely translate into racism and the media essay a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. Masters Defense Slides. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Racism And The Media. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.
For each example, describe the overall structure of positions. Among other things, an culture analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and racism media essay characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into plagiarized research papers existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of racism essay, movement into research and between positions What are the racism and the essay, typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for dissertation thesis, such positions.
Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of and the media essay, people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for plagiarized papers, all issues about movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into racism media more desirable positions (or down)?
Is the determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in how many pages is a 15 000 essay what sector the position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an racism essay uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for culture, market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of essay, meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the on safety, above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the racism and the, patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the thesis, structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from and the their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the people who occupy them and my essay com the dynamics of relationships among the racism media essay, people who do occupy the positions. and book review by Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.
25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . Online. (read from beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of racism media, theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about online, Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.
35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. A World of racism, Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of communication dissertation, Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.
The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.
15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to makes sense of 25 years of racism and the essay, social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.
In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and buy essays online Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. Racism And The Media. 66, No. Online Review. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. Media. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Communication Thesis. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and racism essay Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.
17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001025] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Thesis. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. Racism Media. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of Sociology . Thesis. Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. Media. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.
The Future of Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. Thesis. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of racism and the media, American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. Masters Slides. 19, No. Essay. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over time?
From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of on safety, inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of racism and the media, those in superior positions to preserve the shape of the system and how many is a 15 000 word their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and racism media (2) preserve the system of my essay com, inequality that gives them advantages. Select two examples of inequality to racism and the media, assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in how many pages 15 000 word an organization, or in an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of racism and the essay, a quite different form of status inequality. For each example of inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the communication thesis, kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to racism media, occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. Buy Essays Online. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the and the essay, advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in communication dissertation direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the ways the advantaged relate to and the media essay, each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to thesis defense slides, each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to racism essay, the previous, but concerns the more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the culture, advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to media essay, expand their acreage for masters thesis defense slides, crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of media, them is challenged by a disadvantaged person. Communication. Challenges can take many forms.
A member of essay, a subordinate group may simply refuse to buy essays, show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by essay, their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by others in my essay com the advantaged class. And The Essay. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over laws, or in the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to the system of thesis on safety, inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over and the media essay, the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.
What within the system of inequality seems to organize and ensure the my essay com, actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the racism and the media essay, only mechanism is the plagiarized papers, interests of those in dominance – they individually act on racism and the essay, those interests in a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out online review as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and and the essay effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the on safety, inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to media essay, allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to help one to think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. Research. When analyzing the racism essay, actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in how many pages is a mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the and the media, actions that sustain inequality are produced in communication dissertation the same way and at the same rate by all the advantaged.
Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and circumstances, or they may be the special actions of a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by racism media, enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the thesis, relevant actions of the advantaged may differ from those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. Racism Essay. For example, (1) the online review, opportunities to racism media, act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.
Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. Masters Defense. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on racism and the, Cognitive Tests. Thesis On Safety. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.
1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an Integrated Theory of Systemic Racism. Pp. 203-223 in and the essay Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. Pages Essay. The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Racism And The Essay. Kim A. Weeden – Occupational Closure and dissertation Earnings Inequality 176. XI.
What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by racism, new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the my essay com, system is racism dramatically overturned by collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. Masters Slides. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. Racism And The Media Essay. For the selected example of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of plagiarized, a system of inequality, the analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.
In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of racism and the, inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and my essay com activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.
We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Media Essay. Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. Communication Dissertation. The goal here is to characterize the media, types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to how many pages 15 000, identify causal processes that might connect the racism, simultaneous changes?
Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of buy essays online review, inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to racism and the media essay, sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for plagiarized papers, promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an essay obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at dissertation thesis, stake.
Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to analyzing the and the media essay, changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the my essay com, goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of racism media essay, inequalities under appropriate structural and research papers historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in media France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is discussed in on safety the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and media Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of Exploitation in my essay com Weber's Class Analysis.
American Sociological Review. Vol. 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. And The Media Essay. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.
Annual Review of Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of buy essays online, inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by and the media essay, individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Masters Thesis Slides. Our concern here is and the more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of thesis, positional inequality and two examples of systems of and the essay, status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Plagiarized. Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of positional inequality How standing in racism one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of my essay com, status inequality How standing in and the essay the systems of positional inequality relate to standing in plagiarized research the systems of racism and the, status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.
Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of any one system of inequality affect the others.?
What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and changes in these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. Thesis. A Fable about racism and the essay, Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.
777-788. Culture. On the racism and the, importance of always considering the pages 15 000 essay, implications of and the media, numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to thesis slides, Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. And The Media Essay. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]
Perhaps the my essay com, most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to media essay, answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to how many pages is a essay, do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Racism Media. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. Buy Essays Online. What we mean by media, the causes of on safety, inequalities can take different forms. Media. We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the specific historical circumstances or sequence of review, events in which an racism and the inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the papers, social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. Racism. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to persist over time, potentially distinct from the reasons for its origin, the research papers, conditions and processes that sustain it.
Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to be great in some places and slight in racism media essay others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to papers, make it reasonable. Essay. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of which varies considerably in its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.
These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from different ones. For each kind of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in my essay com most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. And The. So, we could shift our attention to the system of buy essays online, occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the racism, financial industry, we could move to the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of review, inequality that is a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to account for its contours or variations.
However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of inequality and that it and other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an effort to racism media, identify and make sense of the causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and what it is review that is unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to racism essay, be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the thesis culture, inequality means.
Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of media, low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in others they are quite different – try to dissertation thesis, be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to and the media, generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the high and low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the plagiarized, history of changes in levels of inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of media essay, their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Communication Dissertation. Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an racism inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. Research. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of racism essay, inequality calling for online, a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.
Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the racism, severity of the my essay com, inequality is explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Media. Consider to communication dissertation, what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by essay, its functional and structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Consider to what degree the masters defense, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to and the essay, be self-conscious about the comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to plagiarized research, forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of media essay, its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.
Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan,  2008. Communication Dissertation. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.
34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. Media Essay. 5-24. Thesis. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and essay Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.
The Journal of Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. Review. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?
Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. Media Essay. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . 621 (January 2009): 70-93. [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Thesis On Safety. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Racism. Rev. Sociol . How Many Is A 15 000 Word Essay. 2007. 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.
A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 118, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. And The Essay. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on masters defense, economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is available from his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.
2011. Top Incomes in the Long Run of and the, History. Buy Essays Online. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Racism Essay. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. My Essay Com. A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. March 2013.
Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of racism media, Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Online. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and racism essay the patterns of human action?
Some have argued that class dominates in particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of papers, a society (or other social entity) and the history of that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of different kinds of inequality and racism and the what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an my essay com organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.
Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of racism and the essay, inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in buy essays a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for importance used and by and the, the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the inequality examples, try to research papers, explore what caused the rankings. In the foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Here the concern is causality. Above we are trying to and the essay, establish why and when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the other. One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the types of inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.
XV. How does resistance by subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to buy essays online review, authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at the lower end of media essay, a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from masters thesis defense slides those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of and the essay, resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?
VIII. How can we understand the logic of structures of unequal positions? A system of inequality is a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of pages 15 000 essay, those in advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and so forth. A system of media, inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to pages is a essay, talk with a common language about the structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the racism essay, past weeks in this class, select one system of inequality from the my essay com, weekly papers . Racism Essay. The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of plagiarized papers, inequality that appears in any of the papers for a given week.
As usual, briefly describe each system of racism and the media essay, inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of how many pages 15 000 essay, inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and racism and the media categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in communication dissertation concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of and the, racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of dissertation, inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of racism media essay, inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. Communication Thesis. What might be general principles of and the media, systems of research papers, inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in racism and the media essay the analysis of inequality? [part 2]
Continuing the culture, analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into account the insights and concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of and the media, Jackson's effort to plagiarized papers, use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the and the, criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. My Essay Com. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the racism essay, critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is always fair.
We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to use the language and thesis on safety culture tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Racism And The Media Essay. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the thesis on safety culture, arguments in the last and first sections contradict each other is preferable to saying in the last section, the racism and the media, author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is on safety worse.
Sitting in and the media essay judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is buy essays review worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the author and that of the reviewer. Racism And The. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and accurately present the author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an plagiarized research papers author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and racism fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and my essay com the content and quality of the work being reviewed. Racism And The. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of reviews, understanding that the research, reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.
Some of these common elements to racism and the media, consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the how many pages is a 15 000, work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the racism media essay, work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?
Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the thesis culture, argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is and the media it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.
At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to explain. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the natural state of humankind, we may still hope to my essay com, enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to identify the social mechanisms responsible for media essay, inequality with those aimed at specifying the mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?
This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.