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Identity and Belonging - English Works
Business Groups Looted by Controlling Families, and the Asian Crisis. The uthor recommends that concerned governments should adopt as their primary policy focus the strengthening of corporate governance mechanisms and context belonging transparency so as to counter this abusive behavior by some controlling owners. To a large extent, the Asian financial crisis is a corporate governance crisis. This was particularly so in Korea, where a series of homework help, bankruptcies of large business groups, called chaebols, was mainly responsible for the triggering of the crisis. The mismanagement of context essays identity belonging, foreign exchange assets and liabilities was another critical factor for the loss of confidence in the Asian economies.
However, even with substantial improvement in their liquidity conditions, these economies are hardly out of the trouble, indicating the informal essay vs formal essay, seriousness and tenacity of the structural weaknesses in these economies (Nam, 2001). The main problems of the corporate sector are widely believed to context identity, have been attributable to weak corporate governance that could not check over-leveraged business expansion and inefficient investment. Effective internal mechanisms for the supervision or monitoring of management were virtually absent; neither did creditor banks nor the capital market play their proper roles. At the center of the crisis and in business administration a still lingering problem in each of the essays identity, crisis-hit Asian economies are family-based business groups exerting extensive control over national wealth. However, these groups had actually been the engine of growth in the previous decades of rapid economic development. We could not adequately explain the Asian crisis without due account of the essay vs formal essay, nature and behavior of the family-based business groups in these economies, which is the primary purpose of this paper. Lacking a solid theoretical basis, there have often been confusions and inconsistency in interpretation of the behavior and performance of business groups as well as proposals for associated reform. For instance, it has usually not been made clear whether some of the problems can be attributed to their organizational structure (diversified conglomerate) or their governance type (family-based). This distinction has to be made clear when advice is context, given to some of the transitional economies including the People's Republic of China (PRC) that are interested in capm research paper, fostering business groups for their industrial development. The group structure with its clear multi-divisional form facilitates business diversification, though diversification can be pursued within a firm to a considerable degree.
A more important difference between diversification within a firm and context essays identity within a group has to do with the difference in their ownership structure. Educating The Girl Child? Each of the context belonging, subsidiaries of a business group, being a legally independent company, has its own set of shareholders, with varying ownership shares held by the controlling owner. Homework? This could enable the controlling shareholder to context essays belonging, get personal benefits by transferring resources from dissertation in business one subsidiary to another where he has a bigger stake. Incentives for expropriation are strong since, through devices like ownership pyramiding, controlling owners usually have much smaller cash flow rights than voting rights. Expropriation of outside shareholders by controlling owners may actually be an important motivation for forming a business group in addition to maximizing the identity, potential benefits of business diversification. In Section 2, our attention is directed to family-based groups a dominant form of business groupings in european, East Asia with the context, discussion of their advantages and risks. Several explanations as to why business groups are dominantly owned and controlled by families are also discussed, even though this is a rather universal phenomenon except for a few countries. Then, after a brief review of motivations for forming business groups, a hypothesis is presented concerning the primary objective of family-based business groups. It is argued that these groups pursue the goal of long-run wealth maximization of the controlling families. This goal would generally deviate from the educating the girl child essay, profit or equity-value maximization of a business group or its member subsidiaries. It is so because the interests of controlling families can be furthered at the expense of essays, outside shareholders mainly through the internal transactions among subsidiaries.
If the deviation is substantial, efficiency in group-wide resource allocation will be greatly compromised and their competitive position weakened. The above hypothesis is evaluated in Section 3 by discussing the behavior and performance of Korean chaebols before the crisis. Business groups with the economics, objective of maximizing the interests of controlling families are expected to show a set of distinct behavior. First of all, the controlling families would make every effort to context essays identity, keep their management control by directly involving themselves in managerial functions or tightly controlling managers. In order to avoid substantial ownership dilution that might endanger management control, the economics s thesis proposal, groups will mainly depend on debt for financing their ambitious investment plans.
They will also aggressively diversify their businesses adding new subsidiaries, which may be utilized as tools of abusive internal transactions. Entry into context belonging the financial industry should be of strategic importance, since it further opens a large room for internal resource reallocation. The consequence is the girl child essay, poor profitability and essays belonging fragility of their financial structure making them extremely vulnerable to shocks. These predictions are borne out strongly by master, the behavior and performance of Korean chaebols. The discussions and existing empirical evidence seem to confirm the concern that the real corporate governance challenge is the agency problem of how to protect outside shareholders from the expropriation of controlling owners. The expropriation is context belonging, not just a distribution problem between controlling and outside shareholders, since much of the distorted resource allocation is occurring before corporate profits are determined. It is imperative to dissertation, put basic corporate governance mechanisms in place and ensure their effectiveness. Some governments of crisis-hit economies have directly intervened in reforming the organizational structure of business groups and imposed outright bans on some of their problematic behavior. Context Belonging? These policy responses can be counterproductive, since the main source of the problem is poor governance in family-controlled businesses. Thus, primary policy efforts should be better directed to corporate governance reform and let the dissertation administration, strengthened governance mechanisms deal with the dubious behavior of controlling owners.
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Identity and Belonging - English Works
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The Problem-Solution Essay Sample |[Introduction engages reader] | Landu Kalemba is a student at the University of Wyoming . | | |(UW), and essays he, like many other students, smokes. Since he has live in the dorms, he has had to find a | | |place where he can smoke. He is just one of the many students gathered outside any of the residence | | . Barracks , College , Dormitory 896 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay - The Smoking Paradox. knowledge that smoking is bad for your health and can lead to in business serious diseases, or even death. Shortness of breath, increased heartbeat, and . jitters are some of the early effects of smoking on your body.
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Kinney Dec 6, 2012 Smokers have the right to smoke At the NOVA Alexandria campus there has been a debate whether NOVA should ban smoking . in all areas in identity campus. This debate is capm model, very critical because there are a lot of smokers in Alexandria campus. They may restrict smoking in certain areas but they can’t prevent students to smoke in the hall campus. Context Essays Belonging? If NOVA will ban smoking in all areas, that will create hate behavior between smokers and non-smoker students. Smokers argue that they have the right to. Extreme weather , Human rights , Passive smoking 953 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Smoking among the Students of Puntod National High School: A Basis for Preventative Measure To Deter Student from Smoking . ?CHAPTER 1 The Problem Introduction The use of tobacco is in business, not a recent phenomenon. It has been said that tobacco plants have grown in North and South America since 6,000 B.C.1. It was also believed that tobacco had many healing qualities which made its use widespread2. In the 17th. Premium 14136 Words 57 Pages Smoking Tobacco smoking From.
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Miscarriages, still births, low. Breastfeeding , Childbirth , Infant 1422 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Dangers Of Smoking Smoking is a down right filthy habit that affects not only your health, but the health of others around you. . A pity on your children if you smoke around them. And as governments continuously impose higher taxes on tobacco, the costs of lighting up can run into the thousands per year for each smoker. Context Essays? So why do people still smoke?
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Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and homework inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and essays cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on child, academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for essays belonging, Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University.
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Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Cause Effect Essay Mr. Gilbert 11/3/14 Cause and Effect Essay One of the vs formal essay, leading causes of death among society is . smoking . Most people start smoking due to high stress, peer pressure, and personal issues. People seem to believe that smoking relieves their stress and belonging helps them cope.
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Keywords: Nicotine, Addiction, Advertising. Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Health care 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of economics s thesis proposal a situation? “Hateful Things” is an essays, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and proposal judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Effects of Smoking on Reproduction. Effects of Smoking on context belonging, Reproduction Stacie L. Thomason Tusculum College Abstract The effects that smoking has on . reproduction can be extensive. It not only affects women and children, but men as well. Smoking before getting pregnant can cause infertility in both men and women.
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She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Revision Essay Smoking Smoking is one of belonging a new disease that affects most of the society. These days . smoking has spread by a large while everyone know that it doesn’t affect the informal essay, smokers only, but the essays identity belonging, nonsmokers also which called passive smoking or secondhand smoking . Such as people who are sitting near the smokers who are breathing the dissertation administration, smoke, the baby of the smoker pregnant woman and the pregnant woman who are not smoking . There are many researches which can help us to know what are the smoking effects. Asthma , Childbirth , Lung cancer 476 Words | 2 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of context essays identity belonging being literate in european essays this fashion.
Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Context Essays Belonging? Just as . the news tries to in business administration stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the context belonging, essay . This is research paper, done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to context essays identity think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. Homework Er? It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. ? Smoking Questionnaires Please indicate your response by context belonging, checking the appropriate box or by capm, filling the blank. Essays? 1. Name . ______________________ 2. Sex: ( ) Male ( ) Female 3. Age: __________ 4. Capm Research Paper? Occupation _________________ Which type of Smoker you are? Regular Smoker: ( ) Irregular Smoker: ( ) Chain Smoker ( ) Do you smoke your first cigarette.
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Posted in Machinist Resume Qualifications. Tapping blind holes to depth on essays identity belonging, an NC machine presents it#8217;s own problems with solutions that are as unique to each situation, that is why there is such a variety of taps and holders for those taps. This story is homework help er about 10-32 holes in 4340 steel heat treated to 38 RC (gooey). The goal was to have the essays identity, holes to depth prior to final heat treat so the holes would not be so difficult to chase with a hand tap. We tried many solutions to try and get the holes to depth at the NC even going so far as to hand tap the holes at dissertation administration, the machine. After a little research I tried re-running the tap cycle after discovering the essays identity, tap would not cross thread using the proper (floating) tap holder. Paper! Key to identity belonging this process was clearing out the wad of chips in the bottom of the hole prior to running the tap a second time (using straight flute bottom taps because they have a thicker web and are stronger resulting in fewer broken taps).
By re-running the tap cycle we could tap the holes to depth and it took far less time than hand tapping, was more rigid again resulting in fewer broken taps. Not too many operators were interested in model paper this procedure but I continued to do it feeling that it saved time and money. One day while running these same parts, I had a (then Superintendent) team leader ask what I did to get threads to depth and I explained it to essays identity him resulting in the commendation below. Famous European! There were ten holes in each manifold and we ran over context essays 10,000 of them. The savings were significant. Extra effort was recognized. Results-driven manufacturing expert with over 20 years experience (10+ machinist) in the full spectrum of aerospace manufacturing arena with a proven commitment to absolute customer service, internally and externally.
Recognized for informal vs formal, solving complex problems with innovative solutions created from manufacturing, engineering, and quality experience . Areas of expertise include: CNC Set-Up 4 5 Axis Horizontal CNC Mill Vertical CNC Mill CNC Lathe Manual Lathe Manual Mill Tool Setting Lean Manufacturing Kaizen Six Sigma Training Interpretation and context essays belonging Understanding of Technical Specifications Blueprint Reading/interpretation Leadership Experience Inventory Control Corrective Actions In-Process Inspection Continuous Improvement Team Leader. Parker Hannifin Corp, Ogden, UT. March, 1984- September, 2007. Responsible for all aspects of homework help er, non-conforming material, review, dispositions, planning and process improvement to eliminate further non-conformances. New, legacy, and special process planning, quality plans, contract review, and supplier review. Leader Continuous Improvement Team. Context Essays Identity! Preparation, control and audit of First Article Inspection Reports per essay vs formal, AS9102. Increased quality rating in two piston lines from 60% to 98% in two years. Negotiated design change with customer to reduce 737 Rudder Piston rejections from 60% to less than 1%. Reduced rejection of chrome plating on context essays identity belonging, piston heads 25% through drawing interpretation and process improvement. Introduced new tooling techniques to reduce set-up times and increase production times for help er, tungsten/carbide flame spray process.
Continuous improvement team leader to context essays belonging reduce rejections of “grind burns” on high carbon steels to economics proposal less than 1%. Achieved on most programs. Over 40 piston processes in essays three piston lines, all first articles brought into compliance to AS9102 standards in 6 months. Crossed aisles with manufacturing teams and shifts, team leaders, design engineering, manufacturing engineering, buyers and customers to educating the girl essay achieve manufacturing improvement goals. Technical Associate, Quality 1994 2004.
Inspection lead, responsible for daily activities of receiving, in-process, NDT, assembly and final inspection. CMM programmer for highly complex manifolds, pistons, links, levers and essays identity other components inspecting to a range of tolerances from ± .0001 to ± .125 and positional tolerances of .001. Mechanical inspection of the paper, same products listed above using surface plate height stands and other hand tools (ie. micrometers, calipers, etc#8230;). Essays! Leader, “quality at the source” Kaizen event, reducing inspection time by 40%. Reverse engineered 8 manifolds to help develop new ECM process (electro chemical machining) requirements for manufacturing.
Developed quality plan for ECM on over 300 features. Successfully converted over 200 CMM programs from outdated equipment to modern 3D CMM programs achieving better results in less time. Er! Used manufacturing experience to assist and train others in context essays drawing, CMM results and interpretation. Introduction of Sub-Programs for faster confirmation of dissertation, positional tolerances reducing first/single piece inspection time. Helped develop process for “Quick Change” fixtures for context identity, manufacturing to less than .00005 positional tolerance ensuring proper location at machine center.
Helped train others less experienced than myself resulting in essay several promotions for my understudies. CNC MACHINIST PRECISION/SET-UP 1984 1994. Set up 4 and 5 axis horizontal CNC mills for machining of complex hydraulic manifolds and cylinders. Run and maintain quality of the same. Essays Identity! Tolerances held positional of .001 and Diametrical of s thesis proposal, .0001. Strive to continually reduce cost by improving processes. Successfully learned and trained others on new KT 200 Gemini Controller update with no factory training (accommodation received). Experimented and successfully tapped to essays belonging depth 14 holes on over 8,000 manifolds, greatly reducing hand tap requirements (accommodation received). Changed process on 737 manifold to achieve 100% acceptance on a previously troubled program (accommodation received). Worked with engineering to successfully implement first Statistical Process Control program and six sigma process control throughout the facility in the 1980’s (accommodation received). Implemented in-process inspection plans to reduce wait time on first article (first piece) inspection.
Quality Circle team Leader. EDUCATION and CERTIFICATIONS. 16.0 Credit hours, 3.71 GPA General Studies. Certified Quality Auditor. Economics S Thesis! Certified Quality Technician. Certified Quality Improvement Associate. Note: ASQ membership expired.
90 hour Real Estate Pre-license course and exam Passed. 12 hour continuing education certification. Real Estate Buyer Agency Council. 20 hour Accredited Buyer Representative course and exam Passed. Essays Identity Belonging! 12 hour relocation expert course and exam passed. 1980 Equivalent GED. CURRENT NON-RELATED EXPERIENCE. European! Real Estate Sales Agent 2007 2010. Belonging! Real estate sales, self employment.
Contract management, marketing, market research, customer satisfaction. -Microsoft Office Suite -MAC OSx, -MAC iWork, -ZipCAD, -Leica Disto Laser, Real Estate Purchase Contract. A historically difficult part to manufacture is educating the girl usually due to design. Machine capability rarely has an effect, operators can have a huge affect. Being involved in a run of this particular manifold I used to watch operators check a ± .001 location of a feature and immediately make an adjustment prior to running the next part. These parts had a 6.5 hour run time, so set it and context identity wait to see what happened next time. Capm! This would make me crazy, I knew the machine was not moving or varying enough to context belonging throw this location out each time! My early training in SPC (1980#8217;s) told me we needed to chart this feature and make it mandatory that we see a trend prior to model paper making a move (3 or more points in one direction). It was kind of poorly administered but the point was getting across. Finally I had an opportunity to move these parts to the area where I normally worked and convert to 5 axis.
We made many improvements from context belonging removing drill jigs to use deep hole, and gun drill techniques, to charting locations. We found that we were no longer making moves based on the inspection of one location but charting to determine trends. We finally ended up reducing inspection of the feature and everyone got comfortable with not adjusting for each part. Essay! The results: Not only the essays identity, first order of perfect parts through final inspection, but the proposal, first of essays identity, many to come. Perfect run of historically difficult parts. Master Proposal! I had been running the old 1980#8217;s KT 5 axis horizontal mill for several years when I learned that we would be receiving two rebuilt machines with new controllers in the spring. Great news to me. I was excited to actually have an opportunity to make the essays, most out of a machine with a modern controller.
I went to work right away. We had several spare manuals so with permission I grabbed one for child, my own. After taking the manual home and reading it cover to cover (operator and context identity programming manual), I was ready. We received word that there would be no factory training, working with programmers we got to work right away. Discovering many features of the machine and it#8217;s capabilities we cut down run times and greatly improved quality of numerous operations.
Combining operations, using modern probing capabilities, the larger tool string capability and the ability of the machine to read ASCII data statements, set-ups were no longer a guess. We could store tooling, reload tool data, probe and straighten fixtures and no longer were waiting for inspection to capm research paper tell us it was okay to run after a set-up. I was able to context essays train other operators in the use of the controls and worked closely with programming to master proposal try innovative ideas. Essays Belonging! No crashing of my machines was allowed! After about 6 months with no factory training I received the following commendation. I am proud to have received this award and to have been recognized for my efforts, and it was fun. Currently part time at C's Precision, available for full time, part time or contract work.
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Context essay identity and belonging …
essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Belonging? Its origins were complex. Famous Essays? Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Context? Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the help Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of belonging, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in economics proposal, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on essays Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and informal essay essay invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the essays identity British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the dissertation case in the past. They have sought instead to identity, understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and homework er submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for essays the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Economics S Thesis Proposal? The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the identity superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of educating child essay, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of belonging, their Empire if they did not support France and educating child Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in context essays identity belonging, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.
Romania prevaricated about homework er, which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Essays Identity Belonging? They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the economics master greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in essays, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Er? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the context essays French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the capm research paper German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the context essays identity belonging ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to educating the girl, the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to identity belonging, retreat to informal essay vs formal essay, positions of essays identity, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on informal essay vs formal France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.
These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and identity their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the famous european essays Germans stood mainly on context belonging the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of administration, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on context identity the German line: in the spring of 1915 in homework help er, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to context, breaching the economics master proposal German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Context Essays? But the British line held in front of educating child essay, Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the context essays identity German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the educating child trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Context Identity Belonging? For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and economics s thesis proposal Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Context Essays Identity Belonging? Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and economics s thesis proposal cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on context belonging the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the educating the girl child essay military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Essays? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and essays the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against context essays belonging, Russia in Galicia; against Italy in model research, the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on context essays identity belonging Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on capm research paper the German decision to identity, seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out master s thesis proposal, of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is belonging, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in essay vs formal, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the identity Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the homework help Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in identity, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. In Business Administration? On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the identity belonging Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and informal vs formal essay then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Context Belonging? In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and famous declared Salonika to be the context belonging biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of homework, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Context? Here the capm research paper war was characterized by context the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and dissertation in business disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and context identity was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in essay vs formal essay, April 1916. Context Essays Belonging? Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Dissertation In Business? Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of identity belonging, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the essay vs formal bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the essays better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the famous european Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Identity? German resort to essay essay, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of context essays identity, American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to famous european, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in essays identity, defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the dissertation #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Context Belonging? This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and administration treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for essays belonging very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Homework Er? This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and context belonging compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the educating essay success of context belonging, their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of master s thesis, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the essays identity German army to help er, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to context essays identity belonging, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Dissertation? His bloody attempt to win the context identity belonging war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on homework help er two fronts, against France in context essays belonging, the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by educating child the military-dominated German government. Context Essays Identity? A military solution was sought instead. Capm Model? The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the essays identity belonging other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the economics master proposal German armies would turn east and defeat Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an identity belonging, army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the economics master s thesis Schlieffen Plan gave the context identity belonging First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Er? As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the context essays inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on capm research the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the essays belonging Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and informal essay vs formal without political judgement. Context Essays Identity? In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the dissertation in business administration Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the context identity crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to capm model paper, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Essays Belonging? British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of capm model, German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the identity belonging economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the european essays world's great industrial powers.
Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and essays identity much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of proposal, food and belonging credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the homework help 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of context essays identity, war. Help Er? From about belonging, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the educating the girl essay reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to context identity belonging, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of famous essays, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of essays, much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and essay psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Identity Belonging? This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to capm model research paper, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Context? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.
Fresh allies would be encouraged into famous european essays the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the context essays belonging Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to help, their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the essays war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for informal essay essay War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and context essays the Russians were strong enough to homework help, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the war and identity decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the educating British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Essays Identity? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. Essay? The British could not afford to context belonging, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Dissertation In Business? The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and essays identity be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in informal essay vs formal essay, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and essays belonging David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from in business December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.
They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in essays identity belonging, the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to economics master proposal, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an identity, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Informal Essay Vs Formal? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to identity, stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on essay 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.
Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and context essays identity understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Famous? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Context Identity Belonging? Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of educating child essay, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Essays? This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. European? Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for essays identity belonging years at the girl child essay a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of essays identity belonging, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and essay deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of essays identity, unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the european range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Identity Belonging? They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of famous essays, it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of essays, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of famous european, iron resolve.
The results were barren of essays, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of european essays, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the context identity belonging mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the the girl child open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in essays identity belonging, order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Economics Master S Thesis? Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by identity an enemy obstruction. As a result the educating child essay coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and context essays identity often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.
It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by homework help maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in context essays belonging, large numbers. Essays? High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against context essays identity belonging, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of capm, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of identity, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the economics s thesis proposal Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to context, inflict disastrous casualties on famous essays attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to context belonging, a halt. From the autumn of educating, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to essays identity, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and help smoke.
The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and context bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and educating the girl child mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Context Belonging? The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on homework help er a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into context essays identity the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and child destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to belonging, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and model research paper their command and essays control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon informal essay enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and essays belonging exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and informal essay vs formal increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in identity belonging, the gift of soldiers alone. Homework Help? It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in context essays belonging, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of homework help, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and context Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into paper a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in essays identity, 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Child Essay? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in essays, the British army during the war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in educating the girl, Mesopotamia alone) and context essays belonging a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. In Business? Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on context identity belonging industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of help, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only context belonging, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Homework? All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of essays belonging, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the informal essay Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of essays, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in informal vs formal essay, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Context Essays Identity Belonging? And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of dissertation, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the context essays belonging establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Dissertation? France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Context Identity Belonging? Italy was disappointed by famous european essays the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Context Identity Belonging? The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and informal essay imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to context belonging, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for informal essay vs formal twenty-five years.' The cost of context identity, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at er European self-confidence and context belonging pretension to essay, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.