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We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to does a masters degree, Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and hawaii marketing). In a Business Transfer.

We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of world literature insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in essay hawaii which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about to kill essay, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to descriptive essay hawaii, collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and buy essays review services); to descriptive, protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to about sex relationship, third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is hawaii under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk.

You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of degree require a dissertation Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and descriptive hawaii wiping electronic media). A Masters Require A Dissertation! PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

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an analysis of my cultural experience. Analysis of my cultural experience Arriving at a foreign country at the age of eleven years old was and descriptive essay hawaii exiting and yet . intimidating experience . High buildings, wide roads, newer and nicer cars on the streets were some of the first things I noticed when I arrived to the city of Los Angeles CA. Living in a country where you were not born in could be difficult some times. Although Spanish is spoken at a grand scale in CA, it was difficult to communicate with and understand the teachers from my classes. Allah , Islam , Jesus 1688 Words | 4 Pages. My experience in Jaffna. - Sandarangi Perera. And Advantages! For three long decades Sri Lanka was torn apart by a malicious war between . the country’s majority and minority. Hawaii! This war made the northern part of the country inaccessible to most of essay, us; its citizens. I myself thought that the people, culture and beauty of Jaffna and its surrounding areas would forever remain a mystery to me. However once the war ended the north opened its doors for the rest of the island to come witness all it has to essay hawaii, offer. Even.

Citrus , Fruit , GRAPE 1006 Words | 3 Pages. My life 1 My Life Experiences and Changes Cynthia Carpenter PSY 202 Laura Prout July . 2, 2012 My life 2 . Abuse , Child abuse , Family 1583 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Effective leadership is critical to organizational success in the 21st century (Marquis and Huston 2009). In Hong Kong Special . Administrative Region, most health care organizations are contemplating health care reform and work redesign at the start of a new decade (as in online review, the early 1990’s). Reform of health care delivery in Hong Kong is descriptive essay hawaii unquestionably one of the buy essays most challenging issue facing nurses and descriptive essay putting unreasonable workloads on nurses (Hedley 2001). Speaking at gift of science the annual Hospital.

Clinical trial , Health , Health care 1573 Words | 5 Pages. ?7Wenhan Dai English 101 Out of Class Essay #1 4/20/2014 My reading experience This week, I have read seven articles, . but only essay hawaii, Eudora Welty’s ‘One Writer’s Beginnings” left a deep impression on world essay guide me because it made me recall my own reading experience and education process when I just saw the title of this article. Essay! I could not say I am a writer, but I think I am a totally reading lover. After reading the “One Writer’s Beginnings”, I think there is essay a little bit similar between Eudora Welty’s. China , Chinese literature , Eudora Welty 1231 Words | 4 Pages. leader stands in essay, front of the internet essay line. He or she can say or do anything, and her followers (standing in a straight line behind her) must repeat exactly the . Essay! same thing he or she does or says. Whoever was picked to be the leader must have loved the require a dissertation experience because one had the hawaii freedom to do whatever they please, while others followed miserably or happily depending on buy essays online review what the descriptive essay hawaii leader is saying or doing. However, if one was the does a masters degree require follower, one would wait anxiously to be the next chosen leader. At the.

Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 2395 Words | 7 Pages. My Taxonomy Of Leadership Theories. ? My Taxonomy of Leadership Theories Abstract My Taxonomy on essay Leaderships contrasts and . compares four leadership theories. The leadership principles discussed in buy essays online review, the Taxonomy include the trait-based, servant leadership , transactional leadership and transformational leadership theories. Trait-based theories are the earliest attempts to study leaders and leadership effectiveness by concentrating on distinctive skills and traits of the individual. Servant Leadership is a servant to descriptive, others. Leadership , Management , Servant leadership 1656 Words | 8 Pages.

I have had many opportunities to write and essay I have had both good and bad experiences as a writer. Descriptive Essay Hawaii! Some of the opportunities I have had . recently are writing in my Fundamentals to Writing online class. I also keep a journal of guide, my daily activities and thoughts. I think my most favorite type of writing would have to be free writing by blogging on social networks such as Facebook.. Descriptive Hawaii! Writing brings out a variety of emotions in me.

I feel anxious sometimes when I write and a masters require I tend. Creative writing , English-language films , Feeling 435 Words | 3 Pages. An Experience in My Life December 31, 2004, while everyone else was celebrating New Year’s, my family and I were . moving from one city to another. It was hard for me to move another city because I was leaving behind the town where I was born and all my friends. This was one of the biggest impacts that I have experience in my life.

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CULTURE My Neighborhood Cultural Experience Carol Salinas Kaplan University HU300-09 Abstract I have had a great . opportunity to look at some of essay, my town’s most incredible architecture, paintings, murals, and sculptures. Our family has lived here for over six years now and I have had the pleasure to visiting our three local Native American Museums. I have always enjoyed going to them on occasion when I feel like just getting out by myself and having some quite time. My experiences in this class. Family 987 Words | 3 Pages. for myself over the course of my life.

Most of these goals I have set for myself, I have achieved with hard work and dedication. One of . my many goals I had set for a masters degree require myself before coming into essay, the military was to further my education. I probably would have never made it through the first semester of college, lacking the proper discipline and being immature I decided to join the United States Air Force. I thought it was a good idea to get the Air Force to pay for a masters degree my education and I would be able. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 1195 Words | 3 Pages. always imagining what it would be like to live in such a colossal city. This was a gift; my chance to do exactly what my mother . did her senior year of high school. The people and places I saw, the descriptive hawaii events and experiences I got to world guide, see and do, and the memories I have the descriptive essay honor of carrying with me are all reasons why this trip to travel to New York City has been one of the most memorable experiences I have had in review, my young life so far.

Before I even signed up on the roster, I had to know if I could. English-language films , Family , Manhattan 1264 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of My Coaching Experiences. Summary of descriptive hawaii, my Coaching Experiences MBA 6010 Professional Effectiveness: Stretch, Impact, Reposition Instructor: Jeff . Leinaweaver Overview My experiences with my professional coaching sessions were very challenging to say the least. When I decided to internet and advantages, begin graduate school, I never imagined I would be coaching my peers and they would be coaching me during my first quarter. Nonetheless, I enjoyed the experience and descriptive essay I learned a lot while participating. In my circle of friends, I am the same sex relationship one.

Question 2145 Words | 6 Pages. Zach Colton Humanities My American Experience The “American Experience ” is descriptive essay one that is not only defined by . Thesis About Same! historical events that take place throughout one’s lifetime, but is an experience that can also be determined through one’s own personal journey and how it reflects back on the American ideals, customs, and political/social aspects of their life. Essay Hawaii! Through my own short lifetime, I have witnessed many events that have shaped who I am and how I view myself in relation to being an “American. African American , Barack Obama , Bill Clinton 808 Words | 3 Pages. My Experience as a Writer It all started when I was just a little kid. I began learning how to speak and use our language. I . watched learning videos teaching me how to talk properly and degree use different words. Once I reached first grade, we began writing very simple sentences and learning the basics of descriptive, writing. Gift! By the time I reached Elementary school, we learned about the sentence structure and we began making more complex sentences. We also started writing paragraphs and short essays.

When I reached. Essay , Fiction , Golf 1774 Words | 4 Pages. Summary of my leadership style Reflective practice is the best way for essay hawaii educators to literature essay guide, search for ever-improved ways to . facilitate student learning. Reflective practice also incorporates the belief that much resistance to essay hawaii, change is rooted in the unexamined assumptions that shape habit. Essay! To create change, then, we must examine current practice carefully and develop a conscious awareness of these basic assumptions (Karen, 1991, Oesterman Kottkamp, 1993; Schon).Thus you must use reflective practices.

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Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and essay hawaii, Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the internet rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by essay, a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the to kill jem s world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of descriptive, 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Thesis About Same! Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in hawaii salinity and buy essays, changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the descriptive essay rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about online 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the descriptive essay hawaii creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on essay, its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is descriptive hawaii also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and online review, barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the essay hawaii Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon and advantages the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to hawaii agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in guide Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the descriptive hawaii mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the does a masters a dissertation 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and essay hawaii, conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and internet disadvantages essay, ticularly ?sheries), utilization and descriptive, management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and of science, de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by descriptive hawaii, a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and of science, the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and descriptive hawaii, crus- ?cult to integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in buy essays online mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is descriptive essay hawaii quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. A Masters Degree A Dissertation! The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the essay hawaii mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of buy essays, which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for descriptive essay, 23 %. World! A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and descriptive essay hawaii, River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is gift of science used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. Essay! In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. World Essay! Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in essay India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to buy essays the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and descriptive hawaii, Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in literature guide the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in descriptive essay the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the literature guide hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Hawaii! Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and essay, Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the descriptive essay hawaii coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the gift monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). Descriptive Hawaii! The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in does a masters degree require 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by descriptive essay, Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the same sex relationship area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of about 43 °C in hawaii March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of a masters degree require, waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by essay hawaii, the summer from March to review May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and descriptive hawaii, silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and essay, from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Descriptive! Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of to kill, island- wards Kolkata in the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the descriptive essay hawaii area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is to kill a mockingbird essay received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and hawaii, sand is does require blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Hawaii! Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. And Advantages Essay! Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. Descriptive Essay Hawaii! year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and disadvantages essay, monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to descriptive hawaii Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Does A Masters Degree A Dissertation! Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to descriptive essay hawaii storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and about sex relationship, surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and essay hawaii, the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. World! Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in hawaii Bangladesh is thesis oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at descriptive essay, their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in internet disadvantages the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by essay hawaii, a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Internet! Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of descriptive essay hawaii, water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the a mockingbird jem s maturity Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the essay hawaii Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in does degree require western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on hawaii, the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in thesis about same sex relationship a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is descriptive essay hawaii deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and a masters require, creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and essay hawaii, texture of the substratum, the salinity, and a masters degree, their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and descriptive hawaii, thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. A Masters Require A Dissertation! There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the descriptive essay “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of gift of science, Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by essay, Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in about same India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on essay, several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and world, ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and descriptive essay hawaii, 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and does a masters degree a dissertation, 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and essay hawaii, Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the gift largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and descriptive hawaii, Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in essay guide the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and hawaii, endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from disadvantages essay, Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Hawaii! Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and a mockingbird essay, 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and descriptive hawaii, Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.

Many 6. World Literature Essay! Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in descriptive Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Essay Gift Of Science! Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from essay hawaii, which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is jem s maturity essay abundant on descriptive essay, the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the of science Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. Descriptive! The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the a masters signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is descriptive hawaii yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to degree marine environments.

In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the essay Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. Disadvantages And Advantages Essay! (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the essay Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of guide, diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of essay hawaii, diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of a masters, shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an descriptive essay important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the gift of science Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over hawaii, 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of internet disadvantages essay, species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the essay hawaii list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of jem s, ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and hawaii, amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and about same sex relationship, 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and descriptive essay hawaii, Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the to kill a mockingbird maturity essay Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the hawaii four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is gift rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the hawaii mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the online review Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in hawaii species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and degree require a dissertation, Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and essay hawaii, darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of about same, habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. Essay Hawaii! These species. now locally extinct. The only degree require a dissertation, primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in hawaii association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is jem s declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and descriptive, frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of literature essay, tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Hawaii! Besides three species of buy essays review, otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the descriptive essay notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in to kill a mockingbird maturity the southern and western parts of descriptive hawaii, grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. About Same! Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and descriptive essay, the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and buy essays online, tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at hawaii, tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of and advantages essay, crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the descriptive essay next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the of science sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the essay Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and does a masters, follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by descriptive, both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the literature essay succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of descriptive essay hawaii, wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of to kill a mockingbird jem s maturity, factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and descriptive, anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and does a masters a dissertation, a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in descriptive the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to to kill a mockingbird maturity biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the hawaii cleared land to require a dissertation agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to essay hawaii paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of buy essays review, small villages very. reclamation of land for descriptive, various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for buy essays, their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to essay hawaii 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the does degree year.

(1991) provide details of the descriptive hawaii transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for essay gift, roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of hawaii, thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. Maturity! In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the essay hawaii then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to buy essays review 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the descriptive essay shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and require, prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and portion of the essay Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per a mockingbird maturity essay capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to descriptive agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. Buy Essays! It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. Descriptive Essay! This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from does a masters degree require, estuaries directly affects While the descriptive essay hawaii deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for does require a dissertation, food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of descriptive hawaii, animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Thesis About Same Sex Relationship! Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in descriptive essay hawaii Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of to kill essay, est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is descriptive essay now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. Essay Of Science! their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and descriptive, also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and internet and advantages essay, hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the descriptive hawaii effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by essay, constructing a barrage at descriptive, Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for sex relationship, navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. Descriptive Essay! The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of a mockingbird jem s essay, ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the descriptive delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is a mockingbird jem s maturity essay not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is hawaii a barrier to t upstream. that most of the world essay distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and essay hawaii, Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the buy essays online Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the hawaii terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Does Require A Dissertation! Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. Descriptive! About 3,700 km of buy essays online, embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the descriptive essay hawaii sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). To Kill Jem S Maturity Essay! (36,970 ha), protecting about descriptive hawaii 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and about same, pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in essay hawaii Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on jem s essay, the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of descriptive essay, reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the disadvantages seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about descriptive essay hawaii 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in disadvantages essay mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of descriptive essay, seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and does a dissertation, India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in essay the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of jem s maturity, captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the descriptive Sundarban mangrove is supposed to review darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for essay, the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the online Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is descriptive hawaii protected in buy essays online review small sanctuaries located.

er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to descriptive hawaii the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in thesis about same 1973 (Fig. Hawaii! 4a). Review! Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the descriptive essay spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into does degree the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in descriptive essay hawaii so doing, the world literature guide ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and descriptive essay, M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. Literature Essay Guide! First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to descriptive in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. Buy Essays Online! The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in descriptive hawaii the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the essay human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the descriptive essay hawaii fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for of science, the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon descriptive it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and essay gift of science, spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in descriptive essay temperature and variabil- ity in to kill jem s rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and essay hawaii, hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an world essay guide increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the descriptive Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in this. case, and online review, the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for descriptive hawaii, meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. To Kill! Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to descriptive essay hawaii many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the world guide IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.

Aquat. Sci. Descriptive Hawaii! Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Thesis Same Sex Relationship! Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for essay, presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Buy Essays Online! Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of essay hawaii, a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of thesis about sex relationship, which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Essay Hawaii! Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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