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Personality theories essay

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How to write your resume for a job in personality theories International Development. For want of a proper chair, Jessica sits on the old radiator in essay quoting film my office, looking out at the still bare trees and personality theories, the green grass we’re all hoping is heralding spring. We are talking about a new job opportunity for counseling direction essay spiritual, her, and personality essay, she’s hesitating. “I’m just not sure if I’m qualified for it,” she tells me. We met for the first time in film September; she was looking for essay, a way – any way – to get her foot in the door of the comparison essay on dracula NGO world, and I was looking for an intern for my project. She ended up joining another team at the organisation, in a part-time administrative role, and soon became a familiar face at the office. “I took this job because I just wanted to get my foot in the door. But I can do more than this. I’m not meant to just be doing admin work.” My heart goes out to her; Jessica should not be in this situation.

She’s smart, empathetic, speaks four languages, and has worked in three countries. I shake my head, trying to personality, reassure her that she is, indeed, qualified for comparison, the job, and she should apply for personality essay, it anyway. “My friend works there, I can ask him to keep an eye out for your application. And anyway, you’re already qualified for the job.” She doesn’t believe me. “I think I have quite a bit of hot to write a book, experience, but it seems like it’s not enough, and I’m a bit surprised and personality theories essay, a bit disappointed. I’ve done everything I could, I’ve gone abroad, I’ve done internships.” Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook, writes about this in her book Lean In: “Men apply for a job when they meet only 60% of the qualifications, but women apply only if they meet 100% of them.” I remember doing this too. A few years ago, fresh from a breakup with a guy I loved, I was unemployed, broken-hearted, and list for writing essays, back to living with my parents. My Instagram stayed pretty: snapshots of the orchid show in downtown Miami, blue skies, lots of personality essay, palm trees, but my life felt like one big uncoordinated mess of job applications, late night Netflix binges, and online college research, dinner every night with my parents, when we’d all skirt around that untouchable question, “So what are you going to do?”

I’d drag myself out of personality theories, bed every morning for months on end only to start and end the counseling essay day in essay front of the computer, browsing job postings in Nicaragua, Rwanda, Paris, Mumbai, all of which seemed to require ten years of experience and essay history, five thousand other qualifications. Personality Theories. Most of the time, I was so intimidated, I didn’t even apply. And when I did apply, every time I found something that seemed perfect for online research papers, me, I didn’t even get called for an interview. Then I’d feel really disappointed, grumpily wondering why they couldn’t just send a brief message to say, “Sorry, it’s not you this time. » After seventeen consecutive rejections, I realized that I had to a) widen my search and b) make my resume show what I was capable of doing. Up until then, I had only applied to essay, jobs I was certain I could do; I began to explore opportunities that offered new levels of responsibility and learning, and adjusted my resume to show my track record of direction essay, success and passion for personality theories essay, development, rather than a grocery list of jobs I’d once had. Rejections gave way to requests for interviews, and soon, I was picking between job offers. But because I’d put in so many applications, requests for interviews continued to flood my inbox, even after I’d already accepted a plum offer in Haiti and was no longer in the market for spiritual, jobs. I’d roll over in bed at six in the morning, getting ready to wake up, pick up the Blackberry provided to me, and scroll through my email; beneath a couple of personality essay, updates from friends and my mom, there were five messages asking when I was available for a Skype interview, and what about Wednesday at 10 a.m. Pacific?

And I thought to myself, why not have fun with this? So once I got fed up with my job in reference for writing Port-au-Prince, I politely accepted one of the many interview requests in my email. Two months later, I walked into a new position in Germany, smiling. “We’re so happy to have you here,” they told me. “Me too,” I nodded, with a grin. Since that horrible Florida winter, I haven’t been unemployed, not even for a weekend. Essay. I’ve jumped from one wonderful NGO to another, learnt new skills, become a lot better with Excel, and taken on essay, more responsibility, to my current role managing a seven-million-dollar project in four countries. Listening to Jessica, I think about that time I was in essay a job-hunting frenzy; it seems so long ago. After our conversation ends, I get back to work, and open up Outlook to check my work email. Jessica has sent me her resume, asking if I could take a look. Here’s what I told her: I double-clicked on essay, the file in Jessica’s email, and out tumbled nine pages of information, with several different colours and fonts.

One is sufficient, and all that most hiring managers have time for. 2. Use a traditional format. Because she had worked in theories advertising before, Jessica had used a lot of the online college research papers graphic design skills she had to essay, illustrate her skills and list for writing essays, experience, but that confused me rather than making it clear what she was good at. Hiring managers see so many resumes; nontraditional formats can be difficult to decode. Keep it simple with your name and contact information at the top; then list only the work experience that is pertinent to that particular position for which you are applying. Earlier that day, we were speaking in French with a French colleague, and while I was chatting with a Mexican friend, Jessica walked in and joined in the conversation in essay Spanish.

I knew she could speak several languages, including German and English, but they were buried under lots of other information on her CV. Online. In international organisations, because you’re constantly interacting with people from all over the world, the ability to speak to stakeholders in their own language, or a common lingua franca, is invaluable. Put the personality theories essay languages you speak at the very top of your CV. The first three pages of Jessica’s CV talked about her values and skills, but I still kept wondering, where does she want to go with this? A resume is not a log of every job you’ve ever had, it’s a marketing document.

Using your previous experience, tell the story of a young professional with a goal to on dracula, create impact through a particular career trajectory. Under “Work experience”, Jessica had listed the organisations for which she had worked, and the tasks she had completed for them in blocks of text. I got a little lost, not sure what to focus on. Use bullets to talk only personality about what’s relevant to the kind of work you want to do, and highlight your accomplishments rather than explaining the day-to-day tasks you were expected to do. Essay. It will show your value and the fact that you are impactful to the team and the organisation. “Flexible and dedicated work ethic with great ability to self-initiate and bring multiple projects to completion under pressure,” read one line on page three, and theories essay, maybe it’s true for Jessica, but how many hundreds of thousands of quoting, people out theories, there say they are flexible self-starters and can work under pressure? Instead, under “Experience”, talk about reference list how you wrote a 5000 word report in personality one month, or drafted a one-year marketing plan with a $1000 budget. 7. The only personal information you need is on dracula, your name, email address, and telephone number. On page one, Jessica had listed her date of birth, age, height, weight, place of birth…this is a job application, not an online dating profile. Stick to what’s absolutely necessary in order for the organization to personality, contact you for an interview, and research papers, cut out the personality theories rest.

8. Education at the bottom, unless you have a PhD. This is how LinkedIn does it, and you should, too, because in the professional world, your work experience matters more than the hot to write a book title of personality, your degree. 9. Achievements matter more than timelines. Fully thirty per cent of the essay quoting page space of Jessica’s resume is dedicated to dates and timelines. But I’m not looking at those; I’m trying to find out what she has accomplished in the last couple of years, and personality, if any of it is interesting. It doesn’t matter that you spent two years working on a project if all you did was send emails all day long. Focus on essay film, what you did to drive impact, not how long you spent doing it. Before leaving the office, I run into Jessica near the printing machine, a cappuccino in her hand. “I sent you my CV, did you see it?” she asks. “Yes!

But I’m still not sure what you really want to do,” I tell her, fumbling with the keys to personality essay, my bicycle parked outside. “You’re right,” she says, “I know that I want to do work I’m passionate about. And work for an organization whose work really helps people.” 10. Start with the college papers end in mind. Working in development is no longer confined to the Peace Corps, or working as an economist on growth policy. NGOs and theories, international organisations now look for many of same skills as in other industries, including Jessica’s background in design work and event management. Pick the essay kind of personality theories, position and job title you want to have, and tailor your resume show how you already know (at least 65%) how to do that role’s expected skills and tasks. Essay Language. You might not end up with that exact job, but you’ll come close enough to get your foot in the door and start your career in personality essay international development.

Top photo via Austin Kleon, photo in Haiti by my friend Lisa Palmer. I have always just put how flexible I am and never really shown it. I will certainly start giving a lil more detail on that. Essay. And I don’t have much professional experience yet so most of what’s on my resume is my academic background. But I guess that’s ok for now. @Hepsibah, think of your “experience” as every single project you’ve worked on, every group you’ve been in, and every activity you’ve participated in.

And then you’ll have more than you think #128578; This is such an interesting and helpful read! I usually would list all the tasks of every job and my resume would be pages and pages so it’s great to personality, know that employers are only looking for english, the highlights. Thank you very much for this useful article. It is very true, I tend to apply only when I meet at least 70% of the personality theories essay requirements but that’s possibly not the right approach. Essay English Language History. I shortened my CV to personality theories, one page and essay english language, my 4 foreign languages are now much more visible!

This is golden advice! Job hunting can be so daunting when done wrong! I’ve always been an advocate of the theories essay one-page CV, but now I realize that I might have told more than showed many times, and insisted on useless timelines… Thanks for the tips and all the best to job hunters around here! Beautifully written. Well done.

I definitely saved this page for when I next apply for a job application. You are absolutely right about thinking about the end result when applying for online college research papers, a job, and personality, demonstrating that we are the role we are applying for. I loved how you put your personal experience into this article, which I am sure a lot of us can connect with. Can I ask how is it that you all of a sudden received multiple interview offers out of the blue, where you were actually able to choose and comparison essay on dracula, pick from. Was it just luck?

Brilliant, continue writing. Thanks Clarisse! So glad you liked it. “Out of the blue” haha. Thing is, I had applied for over 20 different jobs around the world. Once you get the ingredients and process right, you are always baking a delicious cake. Therefore, though I was surprised at the time, after several years of using these strategies, I’ve realised it’s nothing more than a) being consistent and personality essay, b) applying the right strategies. Great article.

I think it summarizes everything that is important in a CV in order to be successful. Also, it was a good idea to reference for writing essays, bring an personality theories essay, example, it brings the story closer to people who are also looking for a job. Thank you for your wisdom. This just inspired me to overhaul my CV and have the courage to apply for jobs that will not only be challenging but will also broaden my skill set! Thanks so much for writing this post. List For Writing. I’m currently in somewhat of a professional slump and this post has made me feel a bit better about the situation, as well as motivate me to work on my CV a bit more, as I realise that it may be part of the problem. My main problem is personality theories, keeping it short – it just seems impossible to keep to one page. I’ve done a few short-term consultancies recently and those take up a lot of space – any idea of how to manage that? Hi Juliette, so glad this article was a little bright spot for you.

One easy tip: read your CV out loud, and whatever sounds superfluous, take out. Or, delete everything and start from scratch, stopping when it goes over one page. For Consultancies, focus ONLY on what your deliverables were (refer to reference for writing essays, your TOR, which itself should not be much more than one page). Malaika, your article spoke about my own experience of identifying opportunities, applying for them and personality, then be fed the politely worded rejection letters. After 5 months I am desperate to break this cycle. My Covering letter has bullet points to essay film, match the essay requirements of the position with my experience. CV is in two pages with core competences mentioned clearly along with a professional summary. I try my best to align the job specification with the CV/Covering Letter by essay english customising both. However, not even an interview call thus far.

Anyone who knows me, or has worked with me, vouches for my ability to see things through successfully. However, what am I doing wrong that it is not getting through my paperwork? What kind of a person do I come across through my application? Hey and thank you sooo much for a good article! I’d like to have your input on one of your statesments. “8. Personality. Education at the bottom, unless you have a PhD.”. I graduated a year ago and my only work experience consists of part time jobs during my studies, like hotels and sales.

In my eyes this experience is not relevant, so I always list my educational background first. I argue that the fact that I’ve studied in three countries should somehow reflect my intrest in the world and counseling spiritual, ability to adapt to new enviroments. What is personality theories essay, your input on this? Also, during my studies, I was on the board for a mid-size studentorganization and been voluenteering for a major NGO for three years. In my current resume I’ve listed this experience under “Volunteering and other” – is that a smart thing or should I move in to the “work experience” bracket? Thanks again!

I really enjoyed reading your post and hot to, it gave me some new ideas and motivation #128578; @IMP, you want to think, how can I make it MOST SIMPLE for the reader to understand what I’ve done? Do not split your experience. You can learn skills even if you are not being paid. Essentially, you’ve had three years of exposure to the inside of an NGO, that’s good stuff #128578; your education in 3 countries is personality, nice, but that is common in the development sector so it does not make you stand out. Thank you for writing this article. It will definitely help me with tailoring my resume as well as my cover letter. Like you mentioned, my resume should be a marketing tool to counseling direction essay spiritual, advertise myself not my autobiography.

Once again, thank you for personality theories, taking time to counseling direction spiritual, write this article. I look forward to reading more on personality essay, how to tailor my resume and cover letter (s) when deciding to apply for a position with a specific company. Persuasion and creativity to present your self and essay quoting, communicate your skills effectively are key in theories essay the race for getting into on dracula, development work. Very useful post and personality theories, tips, thanks! I love the Ask a Manager blog for resume advice! She is a book, a committed advocate of the personality theories 1-2 page format.

This is one of the hot to write a book most useful posts I have read in a while. I felt like I was reading my own story, because I am in personality that period of time when I only have rejections and sometimes I don’t know if my experience will be enough… After ten years working as a lawyer, I have decided to start over and despite all those rejections and write a book, all those who don’t really understand why I want to leave behind my “successful” career in a law firm, I am still positive about future. So, I really hope my story turns like yours pretty soon. Thank you so much! Trust yourself and personality theories essay, your desire for reference essays, something new and different. Theories Essay. You can access my free guide to reference for writing essays, writing your application for NGO jobs in personality theories the column on the right. Sir I love the essay english language ambition of essay, Jessica to realise her dreams. Hot To A Book. I am here in a country under human trafficking and still having a hope to essay, ever come out .Reading this story I had to shade tears and say so this is how life treats people also before they come to comparison on dracula, a realisation. Personality Theories. As I talk now presently I need someone to just help me out how I could even get my documents but every morning and eveBing I cry to no aveille but still have the faith.I plead on every one who reads my message and knows what I can do to help myself out of this to tell me pls.Thank u. Hi Malaika, thank you so much for your article, it is very helpful and I already took note of reference for writing essays, your recommendations to update my resume. I’m a social worker and currently work in an emergency shelter for theories, women victims of conjugal violence.

I was wondering if you have any suggestions on quoting, how to highlight accomplishments when job responsibilities are to provide support (follow-up) and care to personality, people in crisis… I find it difficult to measure achievements when my work is to provide services to people in crisis. Thanks again, your articles is essay language history, motivating! @Nathalia, we’re all so used to personality essay, “helping” that we forget the ocean is made up for individual drops. Essay History. What does the shelter measure its work on? E.g. number of women who don’t return to the same abusive partner? Match your individual actions to the goals of the shelter, and look for ways in which you’ve contributed to the bigger picture goals.

Providing services can be measured, too ! […] Once you’ve identified the jobs you want to theories, apply for, it’s time to start tailoring your CV to the position. Here’s how to get started. […] Hi I have just finished my masters in economics and Im looking to enrich my CV to get into international development as well. So far whatever volunteering experience I have is in India where I belong. I was wondering how do you manage to counseling essay, do so many internships in personality theories essay different countries in terms of financials.

International internships don’t pay usually and even if they do it doesn’t fund flight and visa costs! So how do I get this ‘international’ experience to make a stronger case for a good job in comparison essay this area? Muchos Gracias for your post.Really thank you! Staschke. Great article – makes me feel a little better during a time when it seems to be impossible to personality theories, find a job in the field of international development / global health / disaster management.

I think that you make an excellent point about the length of the CV. I have been battling with this for a long time now – any time I try to fit all my jobs into essay film, 2 pages (I haven?t even tried to fit them into one) the end result is theories essay, too small fonts and essay quoting film, the layout is very cramped. This is probably because I have never held a internship or a job for personality essay, long, but my experience comes from counseling direction essay, several shorter periods in personality theories essay different places. Do you have any tips on this? I have tried to leave the “non-relevant” ones out, but there are two problems with this: a) it leaves gaps that don?t look good b) all of the positions have given me different experience, most of which seem relevant to essay quoting film, most entry-level jobs.

@Mike, thanks for personality, your comment! You want to a) read your CV aloud and remove what sounds “Fluffly”, b) make sure every single item is 70% relevant to the job description, and c) remove everything you wouldn’t tell a stranger within 5 minutes (e.g., your grades, your hobbies). Try these, and write a book, you should be able to slim down your CV. Thanks fo finally talking about How t? wite your resume for a job in International Development | Internationa? NGO Jobs Loved it!

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5 Ways to Keep Our Beaches Clean, Safe, and Beautiful. Summertime in the Northern Hemisphere means beach time for many of us, but as we use these amazing public resources, we often forget that beaches are under threat. Pollution, harvesting of sand for personality a variety of uses, and encroachment by development are issues at beaches around the world. Here are five easy ways you can help keep beaches clean, public, and accessible so they#8217;ll be enjoyable for everyone, including the next generation of people and comparison on dracula wildlife: Think trash doesn#8217;t belong on a beach? You and me both. Beaches worldwide are covered in junk cast aside by visitors as well as the waves, and theories essay pollution in waterways reaches beaches, too. But it doesn#8217;t have to be that way. Organized cleanup efforts like California Coastal Cleanup Day enlist armies of thousands to essay swarm beaches and remove garbage.

In California, that trash is personality theories, actually carefully cataloged and studied to provide more information about the makeup of reference list essays, beach pollution. You don#8217;t have to wait for an organized event, though. You can make a habit of cleaning up when you#8217;re at the beach, or you can adopt a beach with a group of theories essay, friends and make it an ongoing project. Another option is to contribute to groups that provide cleanup services after oil spills and other industrial accidents. In this case, it#8217;s too dangerous for everyday citizens to be involved personally in the cleanup, but they can help by donating funds and in-kind goods (make sure to donate supplies that organizations say they actually need), as well as helping cleanup workers. After a long day sweltering in write a book a Hazmat suit, a friendly face with some food or something to drink can be a great thing to see. When they#8217;re not responding to disasters, these groups act as lobbyists to promote beach protection, prevent future incidents, and defend wildlife. Your contributions will be an immense help. 2. Personality Theories! Get Involved in Local Politics.

Some of the most important decisions about beaches are made at the local level, or by comparison on dracula, politicians who started locally and personality theories essay worked their way into positions of higher power in the state government. Get involved at the ground (sand?) level by participating in elections, campaigns and other events locally. Know your politicians and get ready to comparison on dracula do some advocacy work. If your politician promotes environmental protection, make sure to send notes of appreciation and support. If your representative doesn#8217;t, find out why not, and prepare convincing arguments to persuade your representative to reconsider. This includes attending planning commission meetings and other events that might touch upon beach issues, like approvals for theories new developments, ordinances that change the online, way beaches can be used, and personality theories measures to set aside beaches as public spaces. Hot To Write A Book! For residents of California and other states where public access laws enshrine public access to beaches, it#8217;s especially important to get involved in these events in order to essay make sure that beaches aren#8217;t taken from the public and turned into private spaces limited to those who can afford them. 3. Support Beach Restoration Projects.

Beaches are fragile environments, easily damaged by inappropriate usage, heavy storms and counseling direction spiritual development. If a beach is badly damaged and starting to erode, it might need replanting with native vegetation, rebuilding of sandbars and berms, and other measures to protect it. Local beach restoration projects frequently need support from members of the public, including volunteer labor on workdays as well as financial support from people who may not have the time or ability to put in volunteer hours. These projects do more than making a beach pretty and usable again. They can also protect habitat for threatened or endangered species, and they help ensure that the beach continues to act as a weather buffer. This is an important role for personality essay beaches, which act as part of an interconnected system of wetlands and beaches to protect inland environments, ensuring that they#8217;re able to survive harsh storms. Without these buffers in write place, permanent environmental changes can occur, including flooding, damage to native habitat and changes to vegetation that force animals to theories essay look elsewhere for food and quoting shelter. 4. Join a Wildlife Monitoring Program.

Citizen scientists are important figures in beach communities. They can help with initiatives that require a lot of time on the ground, but don#8217;t have the resources to provide staff to personality watch every foot of a beach. If you become a wildlife monitor, you#8217;ll have a section of beach to watch for turtles, birds and other species of interest, and you can record everything about them while also protecting them from interference; for example, you might monitor turtles during nesting season to make sure they aren#8217;t disrupted. Your work will help to rebuild dwindling animal populations, protect species that need a little help, and gather important data for hot to write a book scientists working on environmental protection issues. If you don#8217;t have the time or ability to volunteer, you can also contribute funds to personality essay monitoring programs to help them pay for staff, training and equipment; for counseling direction example, if you don#8217;t live by a beach, but you visit one every year with your family, maybe you can contribute to its monitoring program every year as part of personality, your visit. 5. Join and Support Beach Protection Organizations. Groups like the Surfrider Foundation work constantly on beach advocacy work, including lobbying, education, cleanups and research. They can use assistance from members of the public as both active and online research contributing members with the personality theories essay, time, funds and energy to commit to helping with beach conservation. Many provide helpful tools for members, like action items and reference essays briefs with pre-written letters to help people contact elected officials, along with packages of educational material for people who want to advocate in their communities.

This work gives beaches a voice in politics and society, ensuring that they have a chance of surviving not just climate change and theories the harsh realities of nature, but the abuses of humans as well. Essay Quoting! Love This? Never Miss Another Story. Unfortunate that there is so much rubbish to pick up. Essay! There must be a way if one cares enough. If everyone picked up a bit of litter when they visited the beach, we would eventually make a big impact on this problem! recently my small niece pointed out essay quoting a plastic wrapper floating in the sea, so I picked it up and personality theories put in in the bin explaining that birds and animals could be hurt by it, she was horrified that people would actually drop litter in the sea! i ALWAYS pick up trash when we go to comparison essay on dracula the beach. People are slobs. Good ideas, thanks for personality essay sharing. Language! Success!

After 315,000 Sign Care2 Petition, Red Squirrels in personality theories essay Scotland are Safe. Film! A thousand years ago, red squirrels were plentiful in woodlands all over Britain, but in time.

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Essay on Personality Theories - 779 …

Cold War and Global Hegemony, 1945-1991. University of Virginia. We are accustomed to viewing the cold war as a determined and heroic response of the U.S. to communist aggression spearheaded and theories essay orchestrated by the Soviet Union. This image was carefully constructed by on dracula, presidents and personality theories their advisers in hot to their memoirs (1). This view also was incorporated in some of the first scholarly works on the cold war, but was then rebutted by a wide variety of revisionist historians who blamed officials in personality essay Washington as well as those in quoting film Moscow for the origins of the Soviet-American conflict (2). Nonetheless, in the aftermath of the cold war the traditional interpretation reemerged.

John Gaddis, arguably the most eminent historian of the cold war, wrote in the mid-1990s that the cold war was a struggle of good versus evil, of wise and democratic leaders in the West reacting to the crimes and inhumanity of Joseph Stalin, the brutal dictator in the Kremlin (3). This interpretation places the cold war in personality essay a traditional framework. It is one way to understand American foreign policy between the papers end of World War II and the breakup of the theories Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in language 1991. Personality Essay. But for quite some time now, historians, political scientists, and economists have been studying the cold war in a much larger global context. They do so because the new documents from the Soviet Union and essay its former empire as well as older documents from the theories U.S. and a book its allies suggest that Stalin conducted a more complex and theories inconsistent foreign policy than previously imagined and that U.S. officials initially did not regard Stalin, notwithstanding his crimes and brutality, as an unacceptable partner with whom to collaborate in stabilizing and remaking the postwar world. Most scholars looking at Soviet documents now agree that Stalin had no master plan to spread revolution or conquer the world. He was determined to establish a sphere of influence in eastern Europe where his communist minions would rule. But at college research, the same time, Stalin wanted to get along with his wartime allies in order to control the rebirth of personality theories essay German and Japanese power, which he assumed was inevitable. Consequently, he frequently cautioned communist followers in France, Italy, Greece, and elsewhere to college research papers avoid provocative actions that might frighten or antagonize his wartime allies. Within his own country and his own sphere, he was cruel, evil, almost genocidal, just as Gaddis and other traditional scholars suggest (4). Yet U.S. and British officials were initially eager to work with him.

They rarely dwelled upon his domestic barbarism. Personality Essay. Typically, President Harry S Truman wrote his wife, Bess, after his first meeting with Stalin: I like Stalin. He is straightforward. Knows what he wants and will compromise when he can't get it. Essay Quoting Film. Typically, W. Averell Harriman, the personality U.S. ambassador to Moscow, remonstrated that If it were possible to see him /Stalin/ more frequently, many of our difficulties would be overcome(5). Yet the difficulties were not overcome. American fears grew. To understand them, scholars nowadays examine the global context of postwar American and Soviet diplomacy.

They see the contest between American freedom and Soviet totalitarianism as part of an evolving fabric of international economic and political conditions in the twentieth century. After World War II, they say, U.S. leaders assumed the role of hegemon, or leader, of the international economy and container of Soviet power. To explain why, scholars examine the counseling essay operation of the world economy and the distribution of personality theories essay power in comparison essay the international system. Essay. They look at transnational ideological conflict, the disruption of hot to a book colonial empires, and the rise of revolutionary nationalism in essay Asia and Africa. They explain the spread of the cold war from Europe to Asia, Africa, the Middle East and counseling Latin America by personality essay, focusing on decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living. Yet the capacity of the U.S. to assume the roles of hegemon, balancer, and college research container depended on essay more than its wealth and strength; the success of the U.S. also depended on the appeal of counseling essay its ideology, the vitality of its institutions, and personality theories essay the attractiveness of its culture of mass consumption—what many scholars nowadays call soft power (6).

At the end of World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the two strongest nations in the world and as exemplars of competing models of political economy. Hot To. But it was a peculiar bipolarity. The U.S. was incontestably the theories most powerful nation on comparison on dracula the earth. It alone possessed the atomic bomb. It alone possessed a navy that could project power across the oceans and an air force that could reach across the personality continents. The U.S. was also the reference list for writing essays richest nation in the world. Personality Essay. It possessed two-thirds of the counseling direction world's gold reserves and three-fourths of its invested capital. Its gross national product was three times that of the Soviet Union and five times that of the United Kingdom. Personality Theories Essay. Its wealth had grown enormously during the war while the Soviet Union had been devastated by the occupation by Nazi Germany.

Around 27 million inhabitants of the U.S.S.R. Counseling Direction Essay Spiritual. died during World War II compared to about 400,000 Americans. The Germans ravished the agricultural economy of Soviet Russia and devastated its mining and transportation infrastructure (7). Compared to the U.S. in 1945, the Soviet Union was weak. Yet it loomed very large not only in the imagination of theories essay U.S. officials, but also in the minds of reference list for writing political leaders throughout the world. It did not loom large because of fears of Soviet military aggression. Contemporary policymakers knew that Stalin did not want war. They did not expect Soviet troops to march across Europe.

Yet they feared that Stalin would capitalize on the manifold opportunities of the postwar world: the vacuums of power stemming from the defeat of Germany and Japan; the breakup of colonial empires; popular yearnings for postwar social and theories economic reform; and widespread disillusionment with the functioning of film democratic capitalist economies (8). During World War II, the American economy had demonstrated enormous vitality, but many contemporaries wondered whether the world capitalist system could be made to function effectively in peacetime. Its performance during their lifetimes had bred worldwide economic depression, social malaise, political instability, and personal disillusionment. Throughout Europe and Asia, people blamed capitalism for the repetitive cycles of boom and bust and for military conflagrations that brought ruin and despair. Describing conditions at personality, the end of the war, the historian Igor Lukes has written: Many in Czechoslovakia had come to essay english history believe that capitalism. had become obsolete. Theories Essay. Influential intellectuals saw the world emerging from the ashes of the war in black and white terms: here was Auschwitz and there was Stalingrad. The former was a byproduct of a crisis in capitalist Europe of the 1930s; the latter stood for the superiority of comparison essay socialism (9). Transnational ideological conflict shaped the cold war.

Peoples everywhere yearned for a more secure and better life; they pondered alternative ways of organizing their political and economic affairs. Everywhere, communist parties sought to present themselves as leaders of the resistance against fascism, proponents of socioeconomic reform, and advocates of essay national self-interest. Reference List For Writing. Their political clout grew quickly as their membership soared, for example, in Greece, from 17,000 in 1935 to 70,000 in 1945; in Czechoslovakia, from theories 28,000 in May 1945 to 750,000 in direction spiritual September 1945; in theories Italy, from 5,000 in 1943 to 1,700,000 at the end of online 1945 (10). For Stalin and his comrades in Moscow, these grassroots developments provided unsurpassed opportunities; for Truman and his advisers in Washington, they inspired fear and gloom. There is theories essay complete economic, social and political collapse going on in Central Europe, the extent of which is english history unparalleled in history, wrote Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy in April 1945 (11). The Soviet Union, of course, was not responsible for personality theories essay, these conditions. Danger nonetheless inhered in the capacity of the Kremlin to capitalize on them. The greatest danger to the security of the United States, the counseling direction essay spiritual CIA concluded in one of its first reports, is the possibility of economic collapse in theories Western Europe and the consequent accession to research papers power of Communist elements (12).

Transnational ideological conflict impelled U.S. officials to take action. Personality. They knew they had to restore hope that private markets could function effectively to serve the needs of humankind. People had suffered terribly, Assistant Secretary of State Dean G. Acheson told a congressional committee in 1945. They demanded land reform, nationalization, and social welfare. Online Papers. They believed that governments should take action to alleviate their misery. They felt it so deeply, said Acheson, that they will demand that the whole business of state control and personality theories essay state interference shall be pushed further and further (13). Policymakers like Acheson and McCloy, the officials who became known as the Wise Men of the cold war, understood the causes for the malfunctioning of the capitalist world economy in counseling direction essay spiritual the interwar years. They were intent on personality theories essay correcting the fundamental weaknesses and vulnerabilities.

Long before they envisioned a cold war with the Soviet Union, they labored diligently during 1943 and 1944 to design the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. They urged Congress to reduce U.S. tariffs. They wanted the American people to buy more foreign goods. They knew that foreign nations without sufficient dollars to purchase raw materials and fuel would not be able to on dracula recover easily. They realized that governments short of gold and short of dollars would seek to hoard their resources, establish quotas, and regulate the theories essay free flow of capital. And they knew that these actions in the years between World War I and World War II had brought about the Great Depression and write a book created the conditions for personality theories, Nazism, fascism, and totalitarianism to flourish (14). Now, as in research papers the year 1920, President Truman declared in early March 1947, we have reached a turning point in history. National economies have been disrupted by the war. The future is uncertain everywhere. Economic policies are in a state of flux. Governments abroad, the president explained, wanted to regulate trade, save dollars, and essay promote reconstruction.

This was understandable; it was also perilous. Freedom flourished where power was dispersed. But regimentation, Truman warned, was on essay film the march, everywhere. If not stopped abroad, it would force the U.S. to curtail freedom at home. In this atmosphere of doubt and hesitation, Truman declared, the decisive factor will be the personality essay type of leadership that the United States gives the world. If it did not act decisively, the world capitalist system would flounder, providing yet greater opportunities for Communism to essay language grow and for Soviet strength to accrue. If the U.S. did not exert leadership, freedom would be compromised abroad and a garrison state might develop at home (15). Open markets and free peoples were inextricably interrelated. To win the transnational ideological conflict, U.S. officials had to make the world capitalist system function effectively.

By 1947, they realized the IMF and personality essay the World Bank were too new, too inexperienced, and too poorly funded to accomplish the essay language history intended results. The U.S. had to assume the responsibility to provide dollars so that other nations had the means to theories essay purchase food and fuel and, eventually, to reduce quotas and curtail exchange restrictions. Research Papers. In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlined a new approach, saying the U.S. would provide the funds necessary to promote the reconstruction of Europe. The intent of the Marshall Plan was to personality essay provide dollars to likeminded governments in Western Europe so they could continue to grow their economies, employ workers, insure political stability, undercut the appeal of communist parties, and write avoid being sucked into theories essay an economic orbit dominated by the Soviet Union. U.S. officials wanted European governments to cooperate and college research pool their resources for the benefit of theories their collective well-being and for the establishment of a large, integrated market where goods and capital could move freely. In order to do this, the U.S. would incur the responsibility to list make the capitalist system operate effectively, at personality theories, least in those parts of the globe not dominated by the Soviet Union. Essay English. The U.S. would become the hegemon, or overseer, of the global economy: it would make loans, provide credits, reduce tariffs, and insure currency stability (16). The success of the essay Marshall Plan depended on the resuscitation of the coal mines and industries of western Germany (17). Most Europeans feared Germany's revival. Nonetheless, U.S. officials hoped that Stalin would not interfere with efforts to merge the essay three western zones of Germany, institute currency reform, and personality create the Federal Republic of Germany. Marshall Plan aid, in research papers fact, initially was offered to Soviet Russia and its allies in theories essay eastern Europe.

But Stalin would not tolerate the rebuilding of Germany and comparison essay its prospective integration into personality a western bloc. For Writing. Nor would he allow eastern European governments to essay be drawn into essay quoting an evolving economic federation based on the free flow of information, capital, and trade. Soviet security would be endangered. Stalin's sphere of influence in eastern Europe would be eroded and his capacity to control the future of German power would be impaired. In late 1947, Stalin cracked down on eastern Europe, encouraged the communist coup in Czechoslovakia, and instigated a new round of purges (18). Germany's economic revival scared the French as much as it alarmed the Russians.

The French feared that Germany would regain power to act autonomously. The French also were afraid that initiatives to revive Germany might provoke a Soviet attack and culminate in another occupation of France. French officials remonstrated against American plans and demanded military aid and security guarantees (19). The French and other wary Europeans had the capacity to essay shape their future. They exacted strategic commitments from the U.S. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 as a result of their fears about reference for writing Germany as well as their anxieties about Soviet Russia. U.S. strategic commitments and U.S. troops were part of personality a double containment strategy, containing the uncertain trajectory of the Federal Republic of Germany as well as the anticipated hostility of the Soviet Union. Essay Quoting Film. Hegemonic responsibilities meant power balancing, strategic commitments, and military alliances (20).

Just as western Germany needed to be integrated into a western sphere lest it be sucked into a Soviet orbit, so did Japan. U.S. officials worried that their occupation of Japan might fail and that the personality essay Japanese might seek to enhance their own interests by online, looking to the Soviets or the theories communist Chinese as future economic partners. In 1948, U.S. policymakers turned their attention from reforming Japanese social and political institutions to list for writing promoting economic reconstruction. Japan's past economic growth, they knew, depended on links to Manchuria, China, and Korea, areas increasingly slipping into communist hands. Japan needed alternative sources of raw materials and outlets for her manufactured goods. Studying the functioning of the global capitalist economy, America's cold warriors concluded that the industrial core of northeast Asia, Japan, needed to be integrated with its underdeveloped periphery in southeast Asia, much like Western Europe needed to personality essay have access to petroleum in the Middle East (21). It was the direction essay spiritual obligation of the hegemon of the world capitalist economy to make sure component units of the system could benefit from the operation of the whole.

But, as hegemon, the U.S. also had to be sensitive to the worries and responsive to the needs of other countries. Personality Essay. In Asia, as in Europe, many peoples feared the revival of the power of former Axis nations. Truman promised them that U.S. troops would remain in Japan, even as Japan regained its autonomy, and that the U.S. would insure peace in the Pacific, even if it meant a new round of security guarantees, as it did with the college papers Philippines and with Australia and New Zealand (22). Yet, much as American officials hoped to theories integrate Japan with Southeast Asia, revolutionary nationalist movements in the region made that prospect uncertain. During World War II, popular independence movements arose in French Indochina and the Netherlands East Indies. Nationalist leaders like Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam and comparison Sukarno in Indonesia wanted to gain control over their countries' future (23). Decolonization was an embedded feature of the postwar international system, propelled by the defeat of Japan and the weakening of traditional European powers. Decolonization fueled the cold war as it provided opportunities for the expansion of communist influence.

Third World nationalists wanted to develop, industrialize, and personality theories modernize their countries. They often found Marxist-Leninist ideology attractive as it blamed their countries' backwardness on capitalist exploitation. At the same time, the Soviet command economy seemed to provide a model for hot to write a book, rapid modernization. Stalin's successors, therefore, saw endless opportunities for expanding their influence in the Third World; leaders in Washington perceived dangers (24). As hegemon of the free world economy, U.S. officials felt a responsibility to contain revolutionary nationalism and to integrate core and periphery. The Truman administration prodded the Dutch and the French to personality theories make concessions to revolutionary nationalists, but often could not shape the outcomes of colonial struggles.

When the French, for comparison, example, refused to acknowledge Ho Chi Minh's republic of Vietnam and established a puppet government under Bao Dai in essay 1949, the U.S. chose to support the French. Otherwise, Truman and on dracula his advisers feared they would alienate their allies in essay France and permit a key area to gravitate into online college papers a communist orbit where it would be amenable to Chinese or Soviet influence. Theories. Falling dominos in Southeast Asia would sever the future economic links between this region and Japan, making rehabilitation in essay the industrial core of northeast Asia all the more difficult (25). In the late 1950s and 1960s Japan's extraordinary economic recovery, sparked by the Korean War and fueled by personality, subsequent exports to essay language North America, defied American assumptions. Yet, by then, American officials had locked the personality theories U.S. into a position opposing nationalist movements led by comparison on dracula, communists, like Ho Chi Minh. Essay. U.S. College Research Papers. officials feared that if they allowed a communist triumph in Indochina, America's credibility with other allies and clients would be shattered. Hegemons needed to theories essay retain their credibility. Otherwise, key allies, like Western Germany and Japan, might doubt America's will and reorient themselves in the cold war (26). Hegemony and comparison credibility required superior military capabilities. Leaders in Washington and Moscow alike believed that perceptions of their relative power position supported risk-taking on personality essay behalf of allies and clients in Asia and essay Africa.

In the most important U.S. Personality Theories Essay. strategy document of the cold war, NSC 68, Paul Nitze wrote that military power was an indispensable backdrop to containment, which he called a policy of calculated and gradual coercion. To pursue containment in the Third World and erode support for the adversary, the U.S. needed to essay spiritual have superior military force (27). Prior to 1949, the U.S. had a monopoly of atomic weapons. But after the Soviets tested and developed nuclear weapons of their own, U.S. officials believed they needed to augment their arsenal of strategic weapons. Their aim was not only to deter Soviet aggression in the center of Europe, but also to support the personality essay ability of the language U.S. to intervene in Third World countries without fear of personality essay Soviet countermoves. Nuclear weapons, therefore, produced paradoxical results.

Their enormous power kept the cold war from hot to a book turning into a hot war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Leaders on both sides recognized that such a war would be suicidal. But at personality essay, the same time nuclear weapons encouraged officials in both Washington and essay on dracula Moscow to engage in essay risk-taking on the periphery, that is, in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Caribbean because each side thought (and hoped) that the adversary would not dare to escalate the competition into hot to a nuclear exchange (28). When Ronald Reagan revived the determination of the U.S. to personality theories essay regain military superiority in hot to write the 1980s, he sought to use those military capabilities, not for a preemptive attack against the Soviet Union, but as a backdrop to personality essay support U.S. interventions on behalf of anti-communist insurgents from papers Nicaragua and essay El Salvador to essay Afghanistan and theories Angola. In other words, Reagan viewed superior strategic capabilities as a key to containing communism, preserving credibility, and supporting hegemony (29).

For U.S. officials, waging the online cold war required the U.S. to win the transnational ideological struggle and to personality theories essay contain Soviet power. Essays. To achieve these goals, the U.S. had to be an effective hegemon. This meant that the U.S. had to nurture and lubricate the world economy, build and theories coopt western Germany and hot to write Japan, establish military alliances and preserve allied cohesion, contain revolutionary nationalism, and essay bind the industrial core of Europe and hot to a book Asia with the theories essay underdeveloped periphery in the Third World. To be effective, Cold Warriors believed that superior military capabilities were an incalculable asset. They focused much less attention and allocated infinitely fewer resources to disseminating their values and promoting their culture. Yet scholars of the direction essay cold war increasingly believe that America's success as a hegemon, its capacity to essay evoke support for its leadership, also depended on essay spiritual the habits and institutions of constitutional governance, the resonance of its liberal and humane values, and the appeal of its free market and mass consumption economy (30). For example, see Harry S Truman, Memoirs, Vol I: 1945, Year of Decisions, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1955); Truman, Memoirs, Vol. II: Years of Trial and Hope, 1946-1952, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1956); Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change: The White House Years, 1953-1956 (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1963); Dean G. Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years at the State Department (New York: Norton, 1969); George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 2 vol. paperback ed. (New York: Bantam, 1967-1972). See, for example, Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); for a discussion of the different historiographical approaches, see my essay, The Cold War Over the Cold War, in Gordon Martel, ed., American Foreign Policy Reconsidered, 1890-1993 (London: Routledge, 1994). John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). For some of the best new scholarship on Stalin, see Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, reprint (New York: Knopf, 2004, 2003); Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995); Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Eduard Maximilian Mark, Revolution by Degrees: Stalin's National Front Strategy for personality theories, Europe, 1941-1947, Cold War International History Project Working Paper No.

31 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2001); Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin and the Grand Alliance: Public Discourse, Private Dialogues, and the Direction of Soviet Foreign Policy, 1941-1947, Slovo 13 (2001): 1-15. Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910-1959 (New York: Norton, 1983), 522; Harriman to Truman, June 8, 1945, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: The Conference of Berlin: The Potsdam Conference, 1945 (2 vols., Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960), 1: 61. For soft power, see Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004); Nye, The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to direction 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987), 347-72; R. J. Overy, Russia's War (London: Penguin Books, 1997); Allan M. Winkler, Home Front U.S.A.: America During World War II, 2nd ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2000). Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the personality theories essay Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 1-141. Igor Lukes, The Czech Road to Communism, in Norman M. Naimark and L. IA. Gibianskii, eds., The Establishment of quoting film Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 29; William I. Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to personality the Present (New York: Anchor Books, 2004), 1-125. Adam Westoby, Communism Since World War II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981), 14-5. Memo for the President, by John McCloy, April 26, 1945, box 178, President's Secretary's File, Harry S Truman Presidential Library.

Central Intelligence Agency, Review of the World Situation As It Relates to the Security of the United States, September 26, 1947, box 203, ibid. Testimony by Dean G. Acheson, March 8, 1945, U.S. Senate, Committee on Banking and Currency, Bretton Woods Agreement Act, 79th Cong., 1 sess. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945), 1: 35. U.S. Department of Commerce, The United States in the World Economy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1943); Harley A. Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), 128; Georg Schild, Bretton Woods and write Dumbarton Oaks: American Economic and Political Postwar Planning in the Summer of 1944 (New York: St. Martin's, 1995). Harry S Truman, Public Papers of the theories essay Presidents of the United States, 1947 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1963), 167-72; see also his Truman Doctrine speech which followed a few days later, 176-80, and his special message to the Congress on the Marshall Plan, 515-29.

Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987); David W. Ellwood, Rebuilding Europe: Western Europe, America and Postwar Reconstruction (New York: Longmans, 1992); Thomas W. Write A Book. Zeiler, Free Trade, Free World; The Advent of GATT (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). John Gimbel, The Origins of the Marshall Plan (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976); Carolyn Woods Eisenberg, Drawing the Line: The American Decision to Divide Germany, 1944-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Geoffrey Roberts, Moscow and the Marshall Plan: Politics, Ideology and the Onset of the Cold War, 1947, Europe-Asia Studies 46 (December 1994): 1371-86; V. M. Zubok and Konstantin Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 46-53. William I. Hitchcock, France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). Timothy P. Ireland, Creating the Entangling Alliance: The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981). Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Howard B. Schonberger, Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952 (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1989); John W. Theories Essay. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in essay the Wake of theories World War II (New York: W.W. Direction Essay Spiritual. Norton, 1999), 271-3, 525-46.

Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 346-7, 393-4, 428-32, 464-5; Roger Dingman, The Diplomacy of Dependency: The Philippines and Peacemaking with Japan, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27 (September 1986): 307-21; Henry W. Brands, From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy toward Australia and New Zealand, 1952-1954 International History Review 9 (May 1987): 250-70. For the theories essay emerging nationalist struggles in Indochina and direction essay Indonesia, see William J. Duiker, Sacred War: Nationalism and Revolution in personality theories essay a Divided Vietnam (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995); George McTurnan Kahin, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952). Odd Arne Westad, The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms, Diplomatic History 24 (Fall 2000): 551-65; David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman, Mark H. Haefele, and Michael E. Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and english history the Global Cold War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003). Personality. Mark Atwood Lawrence, Transnational Coalition-Building and the Making of the Cold War in Indochina, 1947-1949, Diplomatic History 26 (Summer 2002): 453-80; Andrew Jon Rotter, The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987). For the online college research papers importance of personality theories essay credibility, see the pathbreaking article by Robert J. McMahon, Credibility and World Power, Diplomatic History 15 (Fall 1991): 455-71. NSC 68, United States Objectives and direction Programs for National Security, April 14, 1950, in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, eds., Containment: Documents on American Policy and personality theories Strategy, 1945-1950 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), 401-2; NSC 114/2, Programs for National Security, October 12, 1951, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1951: National Security Affairs; Foreign Economic Policy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979), 1: 187-89.

For Soviet policy, see A. A. Fursenko and Timothy J. Naftali, One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958-1964 (New York: Norton, 1997); Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, Khrushchev's Cold War (New York: Norton, 2005). Peter Schweizer, Reagan's War: The Epic Story of college research his Forty Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism (New York: Doubleday, 2002). G. John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 163-214; Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and personality theories Discord in quoting the World Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), especially 135-81; Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002); Geir Lundestad, Empire by personality essay, Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Gaddis, We Now Know. Most governments publish primary source documents regarding the history of their foreign policy. Essay Language History. These documents are published many decades after the fact, but we now have many documents for the 1940s, 1950s, and personality theories 1960s. For the evolution of the role of the U.S. in the cold war, see U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office); for Britain and hot to write the cold war, see Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Documents on British Policy Overseas. Since the end of the cold war, the Cold War International History Project has been publishing (and distributing free of charge) primary source documents from the Soviet Union and personality other formerly communist nations, including the People's Republic of China.

They are indispensable for counseling direction, understanding the global context of the cold war. See the Cold War International History Project, Bulletin (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center, 1992-2004). The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has published several volumes of documents. See, for example, Woodrow J. Kuhns, ed., Assessing the Soviet Threat: The Early Cold War Years (Springfield, VA: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1997); Scott A. Koch, ed., Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union, 1950-1959 (Washington, D.C.: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1993); Ben B. Fischer, At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on personality essay the Soviet Union and essay Eastern Europe, 1989-1991 (Reston, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1999). There are several key Web sites for locating primary source materials on the cold war. The most important are the Cold War International History Project, the National Security Archive, the Parallel History Project for information on theories essay NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and online college papers the Primary Source Microfilm. The Federation of American Scientists also has a Web site with valuable documents on many issues, like the nuclear arms race. Many U.S. government agencies also have Web sites containing documents on current and personality theories essay past foreign policy. The presidential libraries have sites containing selected documents, speeches, oral histories, and other information.

For short books locating the counseling direction cold war in a global context, see Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); David S. Painter, The Cold War: An International History (New York: Routledge, 2002); Geoffrey Roberts, The Soviet Union in World Politics: Coexistence, Revolution and Cold War, 1945-1991; (New York: Routledge, 1999); Geir Lundestad, East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Relations since 1945, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). Many scholars are now using primary documents from the former Soviet Union and other communist countries to study the cold war. Theories. In addition to the books and essay english language articles listed in note 3, see David Holloway, Stalin and theories essay the Bomb: the Soviet Union and essay film Atomic Energy, 1939-1956 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994); William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003); Hope M. Harrison, Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003). Theories. Some of the most fascinating books deal with Chinese foreign policy and the relations between Mao Tse-tung and Stalin. See, for example, S. N. Counseling Direction Essay. Goncharov, John Wilson Lewis, and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993); Jian Chen, Mao's China and the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001). For key books on the effort to theories essay reconstruct the world economy after World War II, see Richard N. Gardner, Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy in Current Perspective: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980); Herman Van der Wee, Prosperity and Upheaval: The World Economy, 1945-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); Alfred E. Eckes and Thomas W. Hot To A Book. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). For transnational ideological conflict and the cold war, see Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); Walt W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, 3rd. ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Francois Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the personality essay Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Michael E. Latham, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and Nation-Building in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); David C. Essay On Dracula. Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of personality theories Russian Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

There are some wonderful studies on decolonization, revolutionary nationalism, and the cold war. See, for example, Robert J. McMahon, Colonialism and Cold War: The United States and the Struggle for Indonesian Independence, 1945-49 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981); Frances Gouda and list Thijs Brocades Zaalberg, American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia: US Foreign Policy and Indonesian Nationalism, 1920-1949 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002); Matthew James Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 (Chapel Hill: University of theories essay North Carolina Press, 2002). The Vietnam War is often examined in this context; see, for example, William J. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994); George C. Comparison. Herring, America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975, 4th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002). For power and personality essay the cold war, see Mark Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945-1963 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999); William Curti Wohlforth, The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions During the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993); Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992).

Raymond L. Garthoff has written two lengthy and illuminating books that link power and hot to write ideology. See Garthoff, Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations From Nixon to Reagan (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1985) and personality The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994). For discussions of the end of the cold war that focus on ideas and transnational movements, see Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999); Robert D. Comparison Essay On Dracula. English, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals, and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Lawrence S. Wittner, Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003). For discussions of hegemony and soft power, see the personality essay citations in notes 5 and 29. Melvyn P. Leffler is the Edward Stettinius Professor of American History at history, The University of personality essay Virginia. Currently, he is a Jennings Randolph Fellow at the United States Institute of comparison essay on dracula Peace and holds the Henry Kissinger Chair at the Library of Congress.

His book, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford University Press, 1993), won the Bancroft, Ferrell, and Hoover prizes. He is now writing a book about why the Cold War lasted as long as it did and why it ended when it did.