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Azerbaijan Entertainment Attractions. From the time Azerbaijan gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and the petroleum boom in the country, the region has been developing fast as a major tourist centre. Every city in you write a dialogue paper the country has got its own related testimonials and experiences, which focus on the region's ancient history. Also with time, new construction projects along with improved technology are coming together to provide a wonderful blend of contemporary services entertainment and comparison essays on two people classic Azerbaijani culture history. The Palace of the Shirvanshahs, located in Baku, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site built in the 15th century by the Shirvanshah dynasty. This monument is the biggest piece of architecture under the Shirvan-Absheron branch and includes the how do you write a dialogue main building, Diwan Khana, The Mausoleum, The Palace Mosque and The Palace Bath-house. The construction of the palace was initiated under the rule of Ibrahim I of cars essay, Shirvan dynasty.
The Palace is how do a dialogue, open to about, visitors from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm. Photo Credit: Creative Commons/Frokor. The Maiden Tower is one of the most dominant architectural pieces, due to its vague design and the stories that surround it. Said to be built in the 12th century originally on how do you write paper, the shore of Caspian Sea (later due to jane eyre essay, land reclamation, the tower is no more near the how do a dialogue Caspian Sea), it was supposed to serve as a watch tower. But the construction and architecture, points the a company analysis needle to nearly 2,500 years back. It's an important part of Azerbaijani history considering that it features on the country's currency notes and other documents. Photo Credit: Creative Commons/Fariz Abasov. The Atashgah Fire Temple or the Fire Temple of Baku is situated at Surakhani near Baku. This castle-style temple was nominated for how do paper World Heritage Site status in thesis 1998 and declared a historical-architectural reserve by decree by the Azeri President in 2007.
The inscriptions in how do you write a dialogue paper either Sanskrit or Punjabi state that the place was a Hindu place of worship, unlike claims indicating it was a Zoroastrian Fire Temple. Today, it houses a museum and is no longer used as a temple. Yanar Dag, translated as the burning mountain is a hillside near Baku that continuously vents flames of about, fire all year round, a process that has been going around for 1000 years. Natural gas vents on the sides of the mountain make sure that the flames don't subdue despite of rain. Azerbaijan made advancement in its economy due to its oil reserves. So the how do you write oil rocks complex near Baku has become an attraction for many.
But prior permission from the write State Oil Company of Azerbaijan is needed to view the complex. A hamam or public bath is a type of a sauna that originated in how do you write the Middle East. And Islam? In Baku, the main hamam lies near the Baku Soviet Metro railway station as it is the oldest public bath in the city. Known as Hamam Mahallesi , different days are allotted for men and women with Monday's and Friday's for women and the rest of the days for men. Another public bath, only for men, is located in the old town and is known by you write the name of Teze Bey Hamami . This hamam is a little expensive as they offer a variety of baths like Turkish, Finnish, etc. Icheri Sheher or the Old Inner City is the oldest part of Baku and is surrounded by fortification walls dating back to the 9th century. The streets inside the historical core of the report city have been designed to block the strong winds coming from the Caspian Sea. Photo Credit: Creative Commons/Khortan. Nizami's mausoleum (Tomb of Nizami) ( Wikipedia ) Situated just outside the city of Ganja, the tomb was built in honour of poet and how do a dialogue writer Nizami Ganjavi.
The monument was rebuilt in about 1991 on the existing old structure which dated back to the 1940's. You Write A Dialogue? The mausoleum is 20m tall and the area surrounding it displays the poet's books inscribed on jane, metal. In the city of Ganja, lies a two storied building, aptly named Bottle House. A Dialogue Paper? It is decorated with nearly 50,000 glass bottles. Private Are Better Than Government School.? A private family house, the decorations include a portrait of a dialogue, a member of the are better than school. essay family who went missing during WWII. Juma Mosque of Ganja (Shah Abbas) ( Wikipedia ) The Shah Abbas or Juma Mosque includes two a 17th century minarets built as a tribute to the independence of Ganja from the Osman Empire. The red bricked building has been designed by Sheykh Baga-ud-din and has been decorated by Shebke stained glass paintings. How Do? Old Prison Lighthouse (Maiak) This is quite a famous place in Lankaran and the story goes that the prison held Joseph Stalin for a time. A historical monument that became well-known when the then President of Azerbaijan helped Stalin escape from the prison through an underground tunnel. Photo Credit: Creative Commons/Neftchi at school are better government school. essay, en.wikipedia. Tomb of Seyid Khalifa.
The tombs of Seyid Khalifa are situated in how do you write the village of how to write a company report, Jil, nearby Lankaran. The tombs are supposed to have been built in the 19th century with tall and heavy stones / slabs inscribed with pictures of arrows, shields, words, footprints and hands. The place is how do you write, famous because it is the burial place for many religious saints who came to Lankaran to spread Islam. Yanar Bulag, meaning burning spring is a hot water spring that emits water and fire simultaneously. The water is said to have remedial properties. It is located on thesis, the highway that joins Lankaran and Astara.
Nearby Lankaran is the Ballabur village where once stood the ancient Bazz castle used by Khuramid chief, Babek to defend his kingdom against Arab invasion. Babek lost and was beheaded and the castle was also demolished, but its remains can still be seen. Gizil Agaj State National Reserve ( Wikipedia ) Spread around 88,360 hectares, this reserve is home to you write a dialogue, thousands of land and aquatic animals, both resident and migrants. Rare species of thesis and islam, migratory birds such as flamingos, ducks and swans fly from Eastern countries during winter to Azerbaijan. Located on the M.F. Akhundov Avenue, Caravan Sarai or Caravan Palace is a historically cherished monument that was built by the Sheki Khans.
The Caravan Palace was built as a resting place for the caravans that passed along the Silk Road through Azerbaijan. The site on which Caravan Sarai is built is said to be one of biggest stopovers for caravans in the Caucasus region. The Caravan Sarai has been decorated with traditional stained Shebke glass and frescoes and finds its notation among many poems of Ajerbaijan. Photo Credit: Creative Commons/Gilad Rom. The Juma Masjid is a mosque built in the 16th century. Like any other mosque, it includes all regular features like the place where the Imam gives his lecture, mihrab pointing towards Mecca, and minarets through which Islamic followers are called during prayer rituals. But the highlight of this mosque is the 40m tall spire from where one can hear echo of a prayer. Khansarai (The Palace of the Sheki Khans) Khansarai or The Palace of the Sheki Khans has been the summer residence of the famous Sheki Khans and its palace, gardens and fortification walls has been constructed by Khan Hussein. The palace offers a stunning view of the how do a dialogue paper surrounding mountains and you can also have a look at the tea house, parks and museums nearby the palace. Sheki has been an important city along the Silk Road and persuasive essay a major manufacturer in silk products for the last four centuries. It's difficult to see the working of the Silk Factory which is how do you write a dialogue paper, situated nearby the town, but one can buy silk items from the adjacent store.
Hiking is essay, great in the northern region of Azerbaijan with a wide range of hiking walking routes available. In Sheki there are many hiking trails such as the Sheki-Bash Kyungyut-Bideiz-Sheki route,Sheki-Kish-Gelersen-Gorersen fortress-Sheki route, Sheki-Oraban-Bashkeldek-Keshnazar-Gyurgala-Sheki route and the Sheki-Ortazeyzit-Bashzeyzit-Quzuyolu-Khanyaylagi-Markhal-Sheki route. How Do You Write Paper? The mountains, vivid scenery, bonding with local Azerbaijani's, having the local Chay and kebabs, is a dream come true. Albanian Mosque is an persuasive on graffiti, Islamic religious place, built in a dialogue paper the 4th century. A similar mosque can be found in Qabala which today is a city in Sheki region, but served as the capital of Albania for past many centuries. Mosque of Sheikh Yusuf (XV) The monument is one of the earliest constructions which was built in the mausoleum style and later extensively used in private school government school. essay the 16th and how do a dialogue paper 17th centuries. Sheikh Yusuf who was a renowned philosopher and about cars writer has been buried along with his wife and four sons in this mosque. Heydar Aliyev Park.
A beautiful, well designed landscaped park with an how do a dialogue paper, array of sites which includes a park, cafe, the Heydar Aliyev Museum, tea houses, a chess school and how to a company the Khazar Cinema Club. Sarkartapa is an archaeological site that belongs to the Bronze Age. It is how do paper, also known as the Sarkar Winter Camp and is an thesis on christianity and islam, interesting place for those who love to how do a dialogue, research on human life in prehistoric times.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A thinker with wide-ranging interests, Robert Nozick was one of the most important and influential political philosophers, along with John Rawls, in the Anglo-American analytic tradition. His first and most celebrated book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), produced, along with his Harvard colleague John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice (1971), the revival of the discipline of social and political philosophy within the paper, analytic school. Rawls’ influential book is a systematic defense of egalitarian liberalism, but Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and essay Utopia is a compelling defense of free-market libertarianism. Unlike Rawls, Nozick neglected political philosophy for the rest of his philosophical career.
He moved on to address other philosophical questions and made significant contributions to other areas of philosophical inquiry. In epistemology, Nozick developed an externalist analysis of knowledge in terms of you write paper, counterfactual conditions that provides a response to radical skepticism. Cars Essay? In metaphysics, he proposed a “closest continuer” theory of personal identity. His final work, Invariances (2001), offers a theory of how do you write a dialogue paper, objective reality. His other significant contributions to analytic philosophy notwithstanding, Nozick’s defense of libertarianism remains his most notable intellectual mark on philosophical inquiry. Robert Nozick was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1938, and he taught at private school are better, Harvard University until his death in January 2002. He was a thinker of the prodigious sort who gains a reputation for brilliance within his chosen field while still in how do you write paper, graduate school, in his case at jane english essay, the Princeton of the early 1960's, where he wrote his dissertation on decision theory under the supervision of Carl Hempel. He was also, like so many young intellectuals of that period, drawn initially to the politics of the New Left and to a dialogue paper, the socialism that was its philosophical inspiration. But encountering the works of persuasive essay, such defenders of how do paper, capitalism as F.A. Jane Essay? Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, and Ayn Rand eventually led him to renounce those views, and to you write a dialogue paper, shift his philosophical focus away from the technical issues then dominating analytic philosophy and toward political theory.
The result was his first and most famous book, Anarchy, State, and school are better than government school. Utopia (1974), an ingenious defense of how do you write, libertarianism that immediately took on canonical status as the major right-wing philosophical counterpoint to his Harvard colleague John Rawls's influential defense of social-democratic liberalism, A Theory of Justice (1971). Like Rawls's book, Nozick's generated lively debate and about cars an enormous secondary literature. How Do? But where Rawls made the development of his theory of justice and essay its defense against critics his life's work, Nozick took little interest either in responding to critics of Anarchy, State, and Utopia in particular or in how do a dialogue, continuing to do systematic work in political philosophy in general. Instead, he moved on to produce groundbreaking work in several other areas of philosophical inquiry, particularly in how to a company analysis, epistemology and how do a dialogue metaphysics. His development of an externalist theory of knowledge and his closest continuer account of personal identity have been particularly influential. Persuasive On Graffiti? It remains to be seen what impact on philosophy will be made by the general theory of objective truth developed in his last book, Invariances (2001), published shortly before his untimely death from how do a dialogue, stomach cancer. In any case, it seems clear, judging from the disproportionate amount of attention that it has received relative to the rest of his writings, that it is his early work in political theory that will stand as his most significant and lasting contribution. 2. Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Libertarianism. Anarchy, State, and Utopia is, together with Rawls's A Theory of Justice , generally regarded as one of the two great classics of twentieth-century analytic political philosophy.
Indeed, these two works essentially revived the comparison and contrast essays, discipline of political philosophy within the analytic school, whose practitioners had, until Rawls and Nozick came along, largely neglected it. Nozick's book also revived interest in the notion of rights as being central to political theory, and it did so in how do a dialogue paper, the service of another idea that had been long neglected within academic political thought, namely libertarianism. Libertarianism is a political philosophy holding that the essay on graffiti, role of the how do a dialogue, state in society ought to be severely limited, confined essentially to english essay, police protection, national defense, and the administration of how do a dialogue, courts of law, with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments - education, social insurance, welfare, and so forth - taken over by religious bodies, charities, and other private institutions operating in a free market. Many libertarians appeal, in defending their position, to economic and thesis on christianity sociological considerations - the how do you write paper, benefits of market competition, the persuasive essay, inherent mechanisms inclining state bureaucracies toward incompetence and inefficiency, the poor record of governmental attempts to deal with specific problems like poverty and pollution, and so forth. How Do? Nozick endorses such arguments, but his main defense of libertarianism is cars a moral one, his view being that whatever its practical benefits, the strongest reason to advocate a libertarian society is simply that such advocacy follows from a serious respect for you write individual rights. a. Self-Ownership, Individual Rights, and the Minimal State. Nozick takes his position to follow from a basic moral principle associated with Immanuel Kant and write enshrined in Kant's second formulation of his famous Categorical Imperative: Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only. How Do You Write A Dialogue Paper? The idea here is that a human being, as a rational agent endowed with self-awareness, free will, and the possibility of formulating a plan of about cars, life, has an inherent dignity and cannot properly be treated as a mere thing , or used against his will as an instrument or resource in the way an inanimate object might be. In line with this, Nozick also describes individual human beings as self-owners (though it isn't clear whether he regards this as a restatement of Kant’s principle, a consequence of it, or an entirely independent idea). The thesis of paper, self-ownership, a notion that goes back in political philosophy at least to John Locke, is just the claim that individuals own themselves - their bodies, talents and abilities, labor, and by extension the fruits or products of their exercise of their talents, abilities and labor.
They have all the prerogatives with respect to themselves that a slaveholder claims with respect to his slaves. But the thesis of self-ownership would in eyre english, fact rule out slavery as illegitimate, since each individual, as a self-owner, cannot properly be owned by anyone else. (Indeed, many libertarians would argue that unless one accepts the how do you write paper, thesis of self-ownership, one has no way of explaining why slavery is evil. After all, it cannot be merely because slaveholders often treat their slaves badly, since a kind-hearted slaveholder would still be a slaveholder, and thus morally blameworthy, for that. The reason slavery is immoral must be because it involves a kind of stealing - the jane essay, stealing of a person from himself.) But if individuals are inviolable ends-in-themselves (as Kant describes them) and self-owners, it follows, Nozick says, that they have certain rights , in particular (and here again following Locke) rights to their lives, liberty, and the fruits of their labor. To own something, after all, just is to have a right to it, or, more accurately, to a dialogue, possess the bundle of rights - rights to possess something, to about cars, dispose of it, to determine what may be done with it, etc. - that constitute ownership; and you write paper thus to own oneself is to have such rights to about cars, the various elements that make up one's self. These rights function, Nozick says, as side-constraints on how do a dialogue the actions of others; they set limits on how others may, morally speaking, treat a person. So, for example, since you own yourself, and a company report thus have a right to yourself, others are constrained morally not to kill or maim you (since this would involve destroying or damaging your property), or to kidnap you or forcibly remove one of your bodily organs for transplantation in someone else (since this would involve stealing your property). They are also constrained not to force you against you write a dialogue paper, your will to work for another's purposes, even if those purposes are good ones. For if you own yourself, it follows that you have a right to on christianity and islam, determine whether and how you will use your self-owned body and its powers, e.g. either to work or to a dialogue paper, refrain from working.
So far this all might seem fairly uncontroversial. But what follows from essay, it, in Nozick's view, is the surprising and radical conclusion that taxation , of the redistributive sort in which modern states engage in order to a dialogue, fund the various programs of the bureaucratic welfare state, is morally illegitimate. On Graffiti? It amounts to a kind of how do you write paper, forced labor , for the state so structures the tax system that any time you labor at all, a certain amount of your labor time - the amount that produces the wealth taken away from you forcibly via taxation - is time you involuntarily work, in effect, for the state. Indeed, such taxation amounts to partial slavery , for eyre english essay in giving every citizen an entitlement to you write a dialogue paper, certain benefits (welfare, social security, or whatever), the state in essay on graffiti, effect gives them an entitlement, a right , to a part of the proceeds of how do, your labor, which produces the taxes that fund the benefits; every citizen, that is, becomes in such a system a partial owner of you (since they have a partial property right in essay, part of you, i.e. in your labor). You Write A Dialogue Paper? But this is flatly inconsistent with the principle of self-ownership. The various programs of the modern liberal welfare state are thus immoral, not only because they are inefficient and incompetently administered, but because they make slaves of the citizens of such a state. Indeed, the thesis on christianity, only sort of you write a dialogue paper, state that can be morally justified is what Nozick calls a minimal state or night-watchman state, a government which protects individuals, via police and military forces, from force, fraud, and theft, and administers courts of and islam, law, but does nothing else.
In particular, such a state cannot regulate what citizens eat, drink, or smoke (since this would interfere with their right to use their self-owned bodies as they see fit), cannot control what they publish or read (since this would interfere with their right to use the property they've acquired with their self-owned labor - e.g. printing presses and how do you write paper - as they wish), cannot administer mandatory social insurance schemes or public education (since this would interfere with citizens' rights to use the fruits of their labor as they desire, in about, that some citizens might decide that they would rather put their money into private education and private retirement plans), and cannot regulate economic life in general via minimum wage and rent control laws and the like (since such actions are not only economically suspect - tending to produce bad unintended consequences like unemployment and housing shortages - but violate citizens' rights to charge whatever they want to for the use of their own property). It might be thought that given Nozick's premises, no state at all , minimal or otherwise, could be justified, that full-blown anarchism is you write what really follows from the notion of thesis and islam, self-ownership. For the activities of even a minimal state would need to be funded via taxation. Wouldn't this taxation also amount to forced labor and partial slavery? Nozick thinks not. Indeed, in his view it turns out that even if an anarchistic society existed, not only could a minimal state nevertheless arise out of how do you write, it in a way that violates no one's self-ownership rights, in fact such a state would, morally speaking, have to eyre english, come into existence.
Suppose there is a certain geographical area in which no state exists, and everyone must protect his own rights to life, liberty, and property, without relying on a government and its police and military to do so. Given that doing so would be costly, difficult, and time-consuming, people would, Nozick says, inevitably band together to form voluntary protection associations, agreeing to how do you write a dialogue paper, take turns standing watch over each others' property, to on christianity, decide collectively how to how do a dialogue, punish rights-violators, and so forth. Eventually some members of this anarchistic community would decide to go into the protection business full-time, instituting a private firm that would offer protection services to members of the community in exchange for a fee. Other members of the community might start competing firms, and a free market would develop in on graffiti, protection services. Inevitably, Nozick argues, this process will (via a kind of invisible hand mechanism of the you write a dialogue, sort discussed by economists) give rise to either a single dominant firm or a dominant confederation of firms. For most people will surely judge that where protection of their lives and property is concerned, nothing short of the on two, biggest and most powerful provider of such protection will do, so that they will flock to whatever firm is you write perceived as such; and the snowball effect this will create will ensure that that firm ends up with an overwhelming share of the market. Even if multiple large firms come into being, however, they are likely to form a kind of single dominant association of firms. For there will be occasions when the clients of different firms come into conflict with one another, one client accusing the other of violating his rights, the other insisting on his innocence. Firms could go to war over the claims of their respective clients, but this would be costly, especially if (as is likely) such conflicts between clients became frequent. More feasible would be an agreement between firms to abide by certain common rules for write adjudicating disputes between clients and to go along with the decisions of arbitrators retained by you write paper the firms to interpret these rules - to institute, that is, a common quasi-legal system of sorts. With the advent of persuasive, such a dominant protection agency (or confederation of how do a dialogue paper, agencies) - an organization comprised essentially of analogues of police and military forces and courts of law - our anarchistic society will obviously have gone a long way toward evolving a state, though strictly speaking, this agency is still a private firm rather than a government.
How will the dominant protection agency deal with independents - those (relatively few) individuals who retain no protection firm and insist on english essay defending their rights themselves - who attempt to mete out justice to those of its clients they accuse of how do a dialogue paper, rights violations? Will it allow them to about cars, try and punish its clients as they see fit? Nozick argues that the dominant agency will not allow this and, morally speaking, must not. For the agency was hired to protect its clients' rights, and that includes a right not to you write, be arrested, tried, or punished unjustly or, where one really is guilty of a rights violation, to be punished more harshly than one deserves. How To Write A Company? Of course, its clients might really be guilty; but the point is, so long as the a dialogue paper, dominant agency doesn't itself know that they are, it cannot allow them to on christianity and islam, be punished. The dominant agency must, accordingly, generally prohibit independents from defending their own rights against its clients; it must take upon itself the exclusive right to decide which of its clients is worthy of punishment, and what sort of punishment that ought to be. In doing so, however, it has taken on one of the defining features of how do you write a dialogue paper, a state, namely, a monopoly on jane essay the legitimate use of force. It has become what Nozick calls an ultra-minimal state. In doing so, however, the dominant agency seems to have jeopardized the rights of independents - for how do you write a dialogue paper though it has (rightly) prohibited those independents from comparison and contrast on two, exacting justice on its own clients, lest they inflict unjust punishments, it has thereby also left them unable to defend their own rights. To avoid committing an injustice against independents, then, the dominant agency or ultra-minimal state must compensate them for this - it must, that is, defend their rights for them by providing them the very protection services it affords its own clients. How Do A Dialogue Paper? It can, Nozick says, legitimately charge them for this protection, but only the amount that they would have spent anyway in defending themselves.
The end result of this process, though, is that the jane english essay, ultra-minimal state has taken on another feature of how do a dialogue, a state, namely the thesis on christianity and islam, provision of protection to everyone within its borders. Moreover, in charging everyone for this protection it engages, in effect, in a kind of taxation (though this taxation - and a dialogue only this taxation – does not violate self-ownership rights, because the essay, original clients of the agency pay voluntarily , while the later, formerly independent, clients are charged only an amount they would have spent anyway for protection). The ultra-minimal state has thus become a full-fledged minimal state. A minimal state would thus inevitably arise out how do you write, of an originally anarchic society, given both practical circumstances and the moral requirements - concerning the prohibition of potentially rights-violating self-defense and compensation for on christianity and islam this prohibition - binding on any agency acting to enforce the rights of others. And it would do so in a way that violates no one's rights of self-ownership. You Write A Dialogue Paper? So the anarchist can have no principled objection to it. Nozick's conception of the origins of the state is reminiscent of the social contract tradition in political thought represented by thesis on christianity Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and, in contemporary thought, Rawls. How Do Paper? For insofar as the state arises out of a process that begins with the voluntary retention by individuals of the services of an agency that will inevitably take on the features of a state, it can be seen to be the thesis on christianity, result of how do you write paper, a kind of contract.
The details of the state-originating process in Nozick's account are very different from than government, those of other social contract accounts, however; and, most importantly, for Nozick, unlike other social contract theorists, individual rights do not result from, but exist prior to how do you write a dialogue paper, , any social contract, and put severe constraints on comparison and contrast essays the shape such a contract can take. Furthermore, the parties to how do a dialogue paper, the contract in Nozick's conception are to and contrast essays people, be imagined very much on how do paper the model of human beings as we know them in analysis, real life, rather than along the lines of the you write, highly abstractly conceived rational agents deliberating behind a veil of ignorance in Rawls's original position thought experiment. Most critics of the libertarian minimal state don't complain that it allows for too much government; they say that it allows for far too little. In particular, they claim that a more-than-minimal state is necessary in order to a company analysis, fulfill the requirements of distributive justice. How Do A Dialogue? The state, it is held (by, for instance, Rawls and his followers), simply must engage in redistributive taxation in thesis, order to how do you write a dialogue, ensure that a fair distribution of wealth and income obtains in the society it governs. About Cars Essay? Nozick's answer to this objection constitutes his entitlement theory of justice. Talk about distributive justice is inherently misleading, Nozick argues, in that it seems to a dialogue paper, imply that there is some central authority who distributes to individuals shares of wealth and income that pre-exist the distribution, as if they had appeared like manna from heaven. Of course this is not really the comparison essays, way such shares come into existence, or come to be distributed, at all; in fact they come to you write, be, and cars come to be held by the individuals who hold them, only through the scattered efforts and transactions of these innumerable individuals themselves, and these individuals' efforts and transactions give them a moral claim over these shares. You Write? Talk about the distribution of wealth covers this up, and unjustifiably biases most discussions of distributive justice in and islam, a socialist or egalitarian liberal direction.
A more adequate theory of justice would in Nozick's view enumerate three principles of how do a dialogue, justice in holdings. The first would be a principle of justice in acquisition , that is, the appropriation of natural resources that no one has ever owned before. Than Government Essay? The best-known such principle, some version of which Nozick seems to endorse, is the one enshrined in Locke's theory of a dialogue paper, property, according to which a person (being a self-owner) owns his labor, and by cars mixing his labor with a previously unowned part of the natural world (e.g. by whittling a stick found in a forest into a spear) thereby comes to own it. The second principle would be a principle of justice in transfer , governing the manner in which one might justly come to own something previously owned by another. How Do Paper? Here Nozick endorses the principle that a transfer of holdings is just if and only if it is voluntary, a principle that would seem to follow from respect for a person's right to use the fruits of the exercise of his self-owned talents, abilities, and labor as he sees fit. About Cars? The final principle would be a principle of justice in rectification , governing the proper means of setting right past injustices in acquisition and transfer. Anyone who got what he has in a manner consistent with these three principles would, Nozick says, accordingly be entitled to it - for, his having abided by how do these principles, no one has any grounds for complaint against him. This gives us Nozick's entitlement theory of people, distributive justice: a distribution of wealth obtaining in a society as a whole is a just distribution if everyone in that society is entitled to what he has, i.e. has gotten his holdings in accordance with the principles of acquisition, transfer, and how do rectification. Jane Eyre Essay? And it is therefore just however equal or unequal it happens to be, and indeed however fair or unfair it might seem intuitively to be. Paper? Standard theories of distributive justice, Nozick says, are either ahistorical end-state or “end-result” theories, requiring that the distribution of wealth in a society have a certain structure, e.g. an egalitarian structure (regardless of how the distribution came about thesis or how people got what they have); or they are historical theories requiring that the how do you write a dialogue paper, distribution fit a certain pattern reflecting such historical circumstances as who worked the hardest or who deserves the most. The entitlement theory of private government essay, justice is historical yet unpatterned: The justice of a distribution is how do a dialogue paper indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to end-state theories), but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the hardest or are most deserving have the most shares.
What matters is only that people get what they have in a manner consistent with the three principles of justice in holdings, and this is fully compatible with some people having much more than others, unlucky hard workers having less than lazier but luckier ones, morally repulsive individuals having higher incomes than saints, and so forth. Nozick illustrates and defends the entitlement theory in than, a famous thought-experiment involving the basketball player Wilt Chamberlain. Imagine a society in which the distribution of you write a dialogue paper, wealth fits a particular structure or pattern favored by a non-entitlement conception of justice - suppose, to keep things simple, that it is an equal distribution, and call it D1. Persuasive? Nozick's opponent must of course grant that this distribution is just, since Nozick has allowed the opponent himself to determine it. Now suppose that among the members of this society is Wilt Chamberlain, and that he has as a condition of his contract with his team that he will play only if each person coming to see the game puts twenty-five cents into a special box at how do you write, the gate of the sports arena, the contents of which will go to him. Suppose further that over the course of the season, one million fans decide to pay the twenty-five cents to watch him play.
The result will be a new distribution, D2, in are better than, which Chamberlain now has $250,000, much more than anyone else - a distribution which thereby breaks the original pattern established in how do you write, D1. Now, is D2 just? Is Chamberlain entitled to his money? The answer to these questions, Nozick says, is clearly Yes. And Contrast On Two People? For everyone in D1 was, by how do a dialogue hypothesis, entitled to persuasive on graffiti, what he had; there is paper no injustice in cars essay, the starting point that led up to D2. Moreover, everyone who gave up twenty-five cents in the transition from D1 to D2 did so voluntarily , and thus has no grounds for complaint; and those who did not want to pay to see Chamberlain play still have their twenty-five cents, so they have no grounds for complaint either. But then no one has any grounds for a complaint of injustice; and thus there is you write a dialogue no injustice. What this shows, in Nozick's view, is that all non-entitlement theories of justice are false. Persuasive On Graffiti? For all such theories claim that it is a necessary condition for a distribution's being just that it have a certain structure or fit a certain pattern; but the Wilt Chamberlain example (which can be reformulated so that D1 is, instead of an egalitarian distribution, a distribution according to hard work, desert, or whatever) shows that a distribution (such as D2) can be just even if it doesn't have a particular structure or pattern.
Moreover, the example shows that liberty upsets patterns, that allowing individuals freely to use their holdings as they choose will inevitably destroy any distribution advocated by non-entitlement theories, whether they be socialist, egalitarian liberal, or some other theory of distribution. A Dialogue Paper? And the corollary of this is that patterns destroy liberty , that attempts to how to write a company, enforce a particular distributional pattern or structure over time will necessarily involve intolerable levels of you write paper, coercion, forbidding individuals from using the fruits of their talents, abilities, and labor as they see fit. How To A Company? As Nozick puts it, the socialist society would have to forbid capitalist acts between consenting adults. This is not merely a regrettable side-effect of the quest to attain a just distribution of wealth; it is a positive injustice, for it violates the principle of how do a dialogue, self-ownership. Distributive justice, properly understood, thus does not require a redistribution of wealth; indeed, it forbids such a redistribution. Accordingly, the minimal state, far from being inconsistent with the demands of distributive justice, is in fact the school are better than school. essay, only sure means of securing those demands. The minimal state might seem, even to those sympathetic to the arguments for it, to make for how do you write a dialogue a rather austere vision of how to write a company report analysis, political life.
But Nozick insists that we ought to see it as inspiring, as well as right. Indeed, the minimal state constitutes in his view a kind of paper, utopia . For, among all models of political order, it alone makes possible the attempt to how to write report analysis, realize every person's and group’s vision of the good society. It is often thought that libertarianism entails that everyone must live according to a laissez faire capitalist ethos, but this is not so; it requires only that, whatever ethos one is committed to, one not impose it by force on anyone else without his consent. If some individuals or groups want to live according to socialist or egalitarian principles, they are free to do so as far as Nozick is concerned; indeed, they may even establish a community, of whatever size, within the boundaries of the minimal state, and require that everyone who comes to live within it must agree to have a portion of his wealth redistributed. All they are forbidden from doing is forcing people to join or contribute to the establishment of such a community who do not want to do so. The minimal state thus constitutes a framework for utopia - an overarching system within the boundaries of which any number of social, moral, and religious utopian visions may be realized. It thereby provides a way for people even of radically opposed points of view - socialists and you write paper capitalists, liberals and and contrast essays on two conservatives, atheists and how do religious believers, whether Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus - to make a go of private school than, implementing their conceptions of you write a dialogue, how life ought to be lived, within their own communities, while living side by side in peace. Private Are Better Than Government Essay? This gives us, in Nozick's view, a further reason to endorse it. Nozick's most influential contributions to philosophy outside of political theory have been in epistemology and how do a dialogue the metaphysics of personal identity. In the case of the former, he is best known for cars his version of an externalist theory of knowledge, developed in his second book, Philosophical Explanations (1981).
Traditional theories of knowledge hold that a knower S knows a proposition p if and only if S believes p, p is true, and how do you write a dialogue S is justified in believing p. The third condition has always been the most problematic: the logical possibility of skeptical scenarios in about cars essay, which the would-be knower is the hapless victim of an omnipotent, omniscient, and deceiving Cartesian demon, or a brain in a vat hooked up by mad scientists to a virtual reality supercomputer feeding it non-stop hallucinations, threaten to you write a dialogue paper, make the justification of almost any belief impossible. Examples of the sort made famous by Edmund Gettier - wherein S has a justified true belief (say, a belief that it is on graffiti now 5:00, based on S's glance at a nearby clock) that nevertheless does not plausibly amount to knowledge (say, because the clock is broken, and just by chance happens to be displaying the correct time) - also cast doubt on the adequacy of the traditional analysis of knowledge, whatever one says about the threat of skepticism. These supposed inadequacies in the traditional view of knowledge are often said by its critics to stem from its internalism - the assumption that the factors that warrant S's claim to knowledge must be factors of which S is aware: factors internal to how do you write paper, the set of on graffiti, his consciously held beliefs. But these inadequacies can, it is argued, be remedied by adopting an externalist perspective instead, on which the how do you write a dialogue paper, factors that warrant S's belief, and comparison and contrast essays make it genuine knowledge rather than mere belief, may well be factors of which S is entirely unaware, and which are external to his conscious cognitive processes. One such factor (emphasized by reliabilist versions of externalism) might be a belief's having been produced by a reliable belief-producing mechanism: a mechanism of the existence and operations of which S might be utterly ignorant. Nozick's unique contribution to the externalist approach is to suggest that the conditions that make S's true belief that p count as knowledge are the counterfactuals: (a) that were p not true S would not believe it (the variation condition), and (b) that were p still true in a dialogue, somewhat different circumstances, S would still believe it and essays on two would not believe that not-p (the adherence condition). A belief that fulfills these conditions is one that, in you write, Nozick's expression, tracks the thesis and islam, truth. (S’s belief that it is 5:00 in the example above would fail to meet these conditions, and thus fails to how do you write a dialogue paper, track the truth: had it in fact been 4:55 when S looked at the broken clock, he would still have believed that it is on graffiti 5:00; and had the clock been stopped at how do you write paper, 4:55 instead, S would not believe that it is 5:00, and indeed would believe that it is not 5:00.) Nozick applies this analysis to answering skepticism as follows. We ought to thesis, concede to how do you write a dialogue, the skeptic that S cannot know that he is not in fact a brain in a vat, for his belief that he isn't is not one that tracks the private school than government school., truth (since the variation condition can't be met - if it were not true that S is not a brain in a vat, S would still believe he isn't). How Do A Dialogue Paper? But though this might appear to give away the store to skepticism, in fact it does not.
For what the persuasive essay, skeptic claims to threaten are everyday beliefs such as, e.g., S's belief that he is driving in his car - for obviously, if S is actually a brain in a vat, he isn't really driving in how do paper, his car. Nozick argues that S can indeed know that he is driving and english know that if he is driving then he isn't a brain in a vat, even though he cannot know that he isn't a brain in a vat. For it may well be that S's belief that he is driving tracks the how do you write a dialogue paper, truth (it might, for how to write report analysis instance, be produced by a reliable belief-forming process) even if his belief that he isn't a brain in a vat doesn't; and a dialogue paper if so, then it is at least possible, contra the skeptic, to know, for example, that one is driving in one's car. In taking this position, Nozick famously, and jane english controversially, denies what is known among epistemologists as the closure principle, the principle that if S knows that p and you write a dialogue paper that p entails q, then S knows that q. Nozick's contribution to the debate over personal identity is his closest continuer theory, also presented in Philosophical Explanations . Philosophical puzzles over personal identity arise from about cars, various bizarre thought experiments that seem to present genuine logical possibilities. For instance, there is Locke's famous example of the prince and the cobbler, wherein the man who wakes up in the cobbler's body one morning appears to have all the memories of the you write paper, prince, and none of the memories of the comparison essays, cobbler. So who is the man actually in the cobbler's body, the prince or the how do you write paper, cobbler himself? Or we can imagine a person A stepping into a teleportation machine of the sort described in and islam, science-fiction stories, and, due to some glitch in the machine's operation, not one but two persons similar to A, call them B and C, appearing in the spot where the machine was supposed to send A. Which, if either, is the real A? Nozick's answer to such questions is that it is the later person who most closely continues the earlier one who is the paper, one who is truly identical to the latter. What counts as closeness in this context is not susceptible of a simple, cut and dried answer.
If we take psychological properties to be of greater importance to personhood than bodily ones, the about, closest continuer of the prince in Locke's example would be the man who wakes up in the cobbler’s body, even though he has none of the prince's bodily traits (and indeed, even though the you write, prince's body may still exist, and especially if someone else - the cobbler, say -seems to be in the prince's body now). If instead we take bodily properties to be of report analysis, greatest importance, then the closest continuer of the prince would be the person in the prince's body, whatever memories, if any, that person has. In any case, part of what counts as contributing to closeness is, in Nozick's view, going to be determined by a person’s own self-conception, by what a person himself takes to how do a dialogue paper, be most important to his identity. What about the case where two or more individuals seem equally close continuers of an earlier person, as in the transporter example? Here Nozick's view is that, in about essay, the latter case, neither B nor C is identical to A - since there is a dialogue paper no single closest continuer - and thus A no longer exists; though had only one person arrived in the spot to which the are better essay, machine was supposed to send A, A would have continued to exist. Personal identity thus depends in part on factors extrinsic to the person himself. Nozick made contributions to other areas of philosophy as well, developing a complex theory of rationality in The Nature of Rationality (1993) and meditating on how do the meaning of life in The Examined Life (1989), though these works received nothing like the attention garnered by Anarchy, State, and Utopia. But his work in epistemology and how to metaphysics has been nearly as controversial as his work in political philosophy, and has generated as large a literature.
Time will tell whether similar controversy will be generated by how do you write his final work, Invariances , wherein he developed a theory of objective reality on which the mark of the objectively real or true, whether in science, metaphysics, or ethics, is invariance under transformations, a property of the sort exhibited by the relationships between the numbers we use to measure the temperature, relationships which remain constant or invariant whether we use the how to write a company report, Fahrenheit or centigrade scales, despite the how do paper, various differences these scales exhibit in other respects. In any event, it is almost certain that it is Nozick's defense of libertarianism that will stand as his most significant contribution to philosophy.
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Will Paper Books Exist in the Future? Yes, but They’ll Look Different. What Will Become of the Paper Book? Book designed by Sara De Bondt Studio/Visual Editions. The change has come more slowly to you write a dialogue, books than it came to music or to thesis, business correspondence, but by now it feels inevitable. How Do Paper? The digital era is upon us. Eyre English Essay? The Twilight s and Freedom s of you write, 2025 will be consumed primarily as e-books.
In many ways, this is good news. Books will become cheaper and more easily accessible. Hypertext, embedded video, and other undreamt-of technologies will give rise to jane eyre, new poetic, rhetorical, and narrative possibilities. You Write Paper? But a literary culture that has defined itself through paper books for centuries will surely feel the loss as they pass away. In the past several years, we’ve all heard readers mourn the about essay passing of the how do printed word. The elegy is familiar: I crave the smell of a well-worn book, the weight of it in my hands; all of my favorite books I discovered through loans from a friend, that minor but still-significant ritual of trust; I need to see it on my shelf after I’ve read it (and I don’t mind if others see it too); and what is a classic if not a book where I’m forced to rediscover my own embarrassing college-age marginalia? Luddites can take comfort in how to the persistence of vinyl records, postcards, and photographic film. The paper book will likewise survive, but its place in the culture will change significantly. As it loses its traditional value as an how do paper efficient vessel for text, the paper book’s other qualitiesfrom its role in persuasive literary history to its inimitable design possibilities to its potential for physical beautywill take on more importance.
The future is yet to be written, but a few possibilities for the fate of the paper book are already on display on bookshelves near you. We’re warned from an how do you write a dialogue early age not to be taken in by the sensuous aspects of a paper book’s design, such as its cover. Yet the visual effect of a well-made book, even an inexpensive paperback, unquestionably shapes our interpretation and appreciation of the jane eyre english essay text. Consider this Penguin UK collection of essays by the German critic Walter Benjamin. A Dialogue Paper? The front cover comments on the book’s status as a manufactured object. This is in harmony with Benjamin’s text: “[T]hat which withers in about essay the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of you write a dialogue paper, art. And Islam? By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of a dialogue paper, copies for a unique existence.” Book designed and photographed by David Pearson. Now, as we move into the digital age, the well-made copy has come to occupy a familiar, almost nostalgic middle ground between the aura of an original and the ghostly quality of a computer file. A mass-produced paper book, though bulkier and more expensive, may continue to be more desirable because it carries with it this material presence. And presence means somethingor it can, at least, in the hands of a good book designer.
The mechanical reproduction of literary texts is a very old storymore than 500 years old. Printed books were an early experiment in the mass production of art. Out of that successful venture, among other literary advances, the novel was born. Writers like Cervantes recognized and realized the potential of the printed book, that ingenious device for on graffiti delivering stories and ideas to a dialogue paper, an idle provincial reader. The story of Don Quixote features countless printed books, and the entire novel can be read as a commentary on and intellectual advancement of that revolutionary technology. Is it any more appropriate to consume Quixote on about cars an e-reader than it is to, say, watch a colorized, 3-D Citizen Kane ? This question points to how do a dialogue, a second possible mode of survival for the paper book in the digital age. Purists will argue that some important texts ought to be read in their original form.
This may be especially convincing when it comes to the novel, a literary form so bound up in the history of the write analysis printed bookand, by you write a dialogue paper many accounts, well past its golden age as the digital transition begins. Of course, advances in book technology often add to texts as much as they take away. For example, innovations in wood engraving led to eyre, Gustav Doré’s famous 1863 illustrations of Quixote . Plate 1 of Gustave Dore's illustrations to Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote via Wikimedia Commons. When we speak of illustrations, book covers, typesetting, and other features specific to a given print edition, we’re analyzing what the French theorist Gérard Genette calls “paratexts.” In Paratexts: Thresholds of you write a dialogue paper, Interpretation , he writes, “[A]lthough we do not always know whether these productions are to be regarded as belonging to the text, in analysis any case they surround and how do extend it, precisely in about cars essay order to present it, in the usual sense of this verb but also in you write a dialogue paper the strongest sense: to make present , to ensure the text’s presence in the world, its ‘reception’ and consumption in private government essay the form (nowadays, at least) of a book.” As e-books overhaul and re-present many long-standing paratextual categories, we trade off layers of established meaning. The typescript page shown here, from James Joyce’s Ulysses , is a famous example of a paratext with clear authorial intent. Joyce asked the printer to how do you write, enlarge the final, redundant period at comparison and contrast essays, the end of the “Ithaca” chapter. On a Kindle, the how do a dialogue paper reader can adjust the font size herself.
Joyce wanted his free-floating period to school than school. essay, be especially visible because it meant more than the average punctuation markit gave a full stop to how do you write paper, the long “sentence” that was Ulysses . Recently, several young writers have further cultivated paratextual elements like punctuation, typesetting, and jane english essay binding as arenas of authorial expression. Dave Eggers prints body text on the cover of his book; Mark Z. Danielewski uses colored, upside-down, and Braille fonts; Salvador Plascencia crosses out words and blacks over whole columns of how do you write a dialogue paper, text. Laurence Sterne’s 1759 novel Tristram Shandy , with its blank, black, and marbled pages, stands as an early precedent for these sorts of than government school. essay, explorations. Tree of Codes , Jonathan Safran Foer’s 2010 novel-by-erasure, is one example of paper, a paratextually audacious paper book that would lose much in translation to an e-book. Comparison And Contrast Essays? Foer picked through the pages of his favorite novel (Bruno Schulz’s Street of Crocodiles ), pulling out words to create a new narrative composed entirely from Schulz’s raw material. Foer’s originality can be questioned (Tom Phillips’ A Humument tried the same trick 40 years ago), and his finished product arguably fails to bridge the divide between conceptual art and literature, but the design work is you write, unimpeachable.
Substantial portions of each page are die cut, creating evocative, three-dimensional wells of negative space. Schulz was killed in the Holocaust at the age of 50 with several good works likely left in him. Foer’s tribute gives paratextual emphasis to this loss. Tree of Codes designed by Sara De Bondt Studio/Visual Editions. Unlike Cervantes, Joyce, and Schulz, living writers can raise objections when their work is adulterated to fit new forms of literary consumption. For example, Salvador Plascencia, author of the 2005 McSweeney's novel The People of Paper , has been vocal in asking that readers enjoy his book in printed form and not on Kindle, Nook, iPad, or other e-readers. He points to the title of his novel by way of an write explanation. “Readers would be missing an essential material metaphor if they were on you write a dialogue a pixel reader,” he says. “That, and I don't want hapless readers enlarging my fonts and thinking that the book lives in this androgynous space that is neither recto nor verso,” Plascencia adds. “The book is sexed: on your left you have a verso, in the middle your gutter, and to the right your recto. How To Write A Company Report Analysis? E-readers are neutering and spaying our sexy novels.” In The People of Paper , for example, different storylines play out in verso and recto, respectively, with odd-numbered pages following one set of characters and even-numbered pages another. Salvador Plascencia/The People of Paper/Published by McSweeney’s/Image via Nashville Review/Vanderbilt University.
This is one future for the paper book in the age of digital proliferationa select group of design-conscious authors will continue to address their creations specifically to the printed medium. Their themes, like Plascencia’s and Foer’s, will likely revolve around the history and practice of how do you write a dialogue paper, writing books, but that’s nothing out of the ordinaryone of eyre english essay, literature’s greatest themes has always been itself. Other writers go even further, making over the entire paratextual edifice, as Anne Carson does for her recent New Directions publication, Nox . “When my brother died I made an epitaph for him in how do you write a dialogue paper the form of a book,” she writes on the back cover. Persuasive On Graffiti? “This is a replica of it, as close as we could get.” The book is indeed a facsimile of a handmade original, bound accordion-style and you write boxed. Verso pages “translate” a Catullus elegy by offering long Latin-English dictionary entries for each word in the poem. About? Recto pages tell the story of Carson’s relationship to her brother through fragments of lyric essay and paper primary materials like photographs and cars essay letters. Nox /New Directions Books. Carson, a classicist, is well aware of the ways texts evolve or disappear when confronted with changes in modes of transmission. For instance, her Autobiography of Red (1999) purports to how do you write, complete a once-famous ancient Greek epic of which only a few fragments now survive.
She must have been thinking in that long view, embracing the uncertain future of the book, as she assembled this tribute to her brother in a mortal coil of paperfragile, tactually sensuous, and government fully incarnate in its physical form. Carson’s approach fits into the burgeoning category of “artist’s book”meaning roughly that the a dialogue paper design and school than essay paratextual elements of the book are at you write a dialogue paper, least as artistically significant as the text. William Blake is on christianity and islam, often regarded as the father of the genre. To separate his text from how do, its setting is to lose an private are better than essay essential dimension of meaning and expression. You Write A Dialogue Paper? So his images, the product of an archaic process of engraving and hand-coloring, have survived through centuries of changing print technologies. Though students often first encounter Blake’s poems stripped of their illustrations in paper anthologies, facsimile editions of persuasive, his major works remain available in bookstores to this day. The tendency to read Blake in facsimile will likely survive the digital transition as wella testimony to Blake’s unique and successful blending of literary and a dialogue visual arts. Plate with The Tyger poem by english essay William Blake via Wikimedia Commons.
Along the same lines, a first-edition Blake boasts an aura equal to that of a great painting or sculpture. This opens another possibility for the paper book in the digital age: As paper books lose their use value and become collector’s objects, writers gain access to the speculative art market. If Blake were alive today, he would find an art market primed and how do a dialogue ready to pay vast sums for limited edition copies produced in his studio. This could become an write report analysis enticing alternative for art- and prestige-oriented writers squeezed by a declining publishing industry. Andrew Hoyem’s San Francisco-based Arion Press can be thought of as a sort of laboratory for fine-art approaches to publishing literature. Arion’s catalog features a 50-pound Monotype folio Bible; an elegant Moby Dick with commissioned wood engravings; a radical, two-dimensional Flatland that folds out to form a 30-foot plane of text; and a Pale Fire with John Shade’s meta-fictional poem printed on index cards in a separate volume. A common Arion approach is to a dialogue, pair a hand-setting of a text with new work by a contemporary artist. Pictured below are Kiki Smith’s illustrations of “I Love My Love” by the early Beat poet Helen Adam. Only 101 copies were printed. I Love My Love /Arion Press.
Many fine presses around the about cars country put out how do you write paper, similarly handcrafted products, often featuring new fiction or poetry. Absent the contributions of well-known artists like Smith, these publications are often labors of love, driven more by an ascendant creative-class interest in about pre-digital technologies than any existing profit model. However, as mass-market paperbacks give way to how do you write paper, e-books, fine press editions seem poised to private are better than government school., appeal to the nostalgic consumer of paper books. Photograph by Lorika13 via Flickr. Who will buy these new, well-made paper books? One likely result of the transition to e-books is that paper book culture will move further out of reach for those without disposable income. Debt-ridden college students, underemployed autodidacts, and the everyday mass of bargain-hunters will find better deals on the digital side of the how do you write a dialogue paper divide. (Netflix for on christianity books, anyone?)
As paper books become more unusual, some will continue to buy them as collectors’ items, others for how do the superior sensory experience they afford. Thesis On Christianity And Islam? There’s reason to think this is happening already: Carl Jung’s Red Book , a facsimile edition featuring hand-painted text and illustrations, sold well in paper America in 2010 despite its $195 price tag. When readers believe that a book is special in itself, as an jane object, they can be persuaded to pay more. Bookshelves will survive in the homes of serious digital-age readers, but their contents will be much more judiciously curated. The next generation of paper books will likely rival the you write a dialogue art hanging beside them on the walls for beauty, expense, and “aura”for better or for worse. There’s a whole class of paper books we haven’t discussed yetthe paratextually unremarkable, unimaginatively designed rows of paperbacks and are better than government school. essay late-edition hardcovers that line most of our shelves.
These are headed for the same place most manufactured objects go eventuallythe scrapheap. In its own way, even the how do well-made paper book may someday reach a similar fate. The art market may have deep pockets, but historically it hasn’t been very hospitable to literature. Are Better Government School. Essay? As far as the “artist’s book” is concerned, the first term in the phrase has tended to take precedence, in the past century at least. A lover of literature can’t help feeling thatas the conventions of the paper book have come under the interrogation of the visual artspoetry, rhetoric, narrative, and meaning have often suffered.
Dieter Roth's Multiple Literaturwurst (Martin Walser: Halbzeit). Dieter Roth Foundation, Hamburg c/Dieter Roth Estate courtesy Hauser und Wirth. German artist Dieter Roth’s Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s Work in 20 Volumes (1974) is an ominous example. Roth ground up the philosopher’s complete works and used them as a substitute for meat in a recipe for homemade sausage. Paper? The result is literaturwurst a final possible future for the paper book in the age of analysis, digital proliferation. Slate is published by how do The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company.
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10 tips for writing a first class LLB dissertation. 25 February 2016 | tagged Student blog. Stuart McRobbie is currently a Diploma student at the University of Dundee. He has accepted a traineeship with Stronachs LLP to commence in September 2016 and is set to become the first lawyer in his family. Writing a dissertation as part of my LL.B was undoubtedly the most challenging thing that I have had to do at university, but it also turned out to be the you write a dialogue paper, most rewarding. Like many, I was initially quite apprehensive about writing such an extensive piece having found 3,000 word assignments difficult enough. Universities recognise this and will provide students with detailed structural and formatting guidelines, as well as some high-level guidance with regards to being original and analytical. However, I found that there was a lack of practical advice from those who had been through the on two people, process and so I thought it would be good to share some wisdom from how do a dialogue my own experience and thesis on christianity that of others. 1. Choose a topic that inspires you. Students are likely to be given a list of potential questions to you write a dialogue aid them in their search selection process. My advice would be to generally steer clear of these.
It’s unlikely that you’ll feel truly inspired by a set question, however they can be useful as a basis for tailoring or simply generating ideas. From speaking to students that achieved the highest grades for their dissertations, it’s clear that they all had a genuine interest in what they were writing about. Creating a unique question encourages original analysis and is likely to be more interesting from a marker’s perspective. On Graffiti. The law library can become a bit like something out of you write, Lord of the Flies as people turn their attention to reading everything that has ever been written about their chosen topic. Ordinary library rules of borrowing and returning may appear to and contrast go up in how do you write a dialogue, smoke and it can feel like every person for themselves. The earlier you start your research, the less likely it is you’ll encounter any problems.
Whatever forms the basis of your research, ensure that you keep track of it. A great way to how to report do this is by how do a dialogue paper, completing a bibliography as you go, rather than at the very end. English. There is nothing worse than forgetting in which case or by which judge you read a great dictum (hint: it was probably Lady Hale or Lord Denning!). It is oft said that the human brain can only focus for 30-40 minutes at a time, however students are often guilty of ignoring this in a dialogue, favour of cramming for on christianity, hours on end. This is likely to have a negative affect on how do you write a dialogue paper, the quality of your research and writing. Cars. I found that breaking my time up into 40-minute periods, with 20-minute breaks in between, increased my productivity.
I also found that setting myself achievable daily targets made the task of how do you write, writing an extended piece seem less daunting: 15,000 words to be completed in essay, 3 months suddenly becomes just 170 words a day! Leave time for reviewing your finished dissertation and make sure you beat the how do a dialogue, queue at essay the local printing and binding business. It is paper vital that you create and work in an environment that is conducive to productivity and creative thought. That doesn’t mean installing soundproof walls and about essay non-reflective surfaces a la Kanye West. Everyone is different but I found that sitting at how do a dialogue paper a desk with just a pen and paper to jot down ideas, whilst Buddy Holly played in the background, was a great way to focus. Temporarily blocking certain websites might be a good idea, otherwise the temptation to binge-watch ‘Making A Murderer’ again will always be there! 5. Make the most of your supervisor. Supervisors are a great resource and persuasive on graffiti can be a fantastic sounding board for ideas. Whilst there is only so much a supervisor can do, they may be able to point you in the right direction and they are likely to be au fait with the most appropriate resources and current trends in thinking.
Supervisors are also likely to be incredibly busy with teaching commitments and so you need to establish when and how to how do you write a dialogue approach them. The law doesn’t operate in isolation. Many students make the mistake of persuasive essay on graffiti, simply writing about what the law was or what the law is how do you write paper without necessarily considering the jane eyre english essay, wider social, political or economic consequences of the legislation or case law. Consider, for instance, section 172 of the Companies Act 2006 which requires directors to act in the best interests of how do paper, a company’s shareholders. Such a rule doesn’t affect just shareholders; it also has wide-ranging consequences for the rest of society in terms of the payment of corporation tax, wealth and health inequality, the growth in atypical workers and access to justice. In order to establish these links, it was necessary for me to draw upon financial textbooks, reports from charities and studies conducted by economists – not just legal resources.
This goes without saying, but one of the major problems that students come up against is the evolutionary nature of the law. You will begin researching months before the submission date and there are likely to be some changes in about cars, that time. It’s therefore essential that you read relevant publications, bulletins and updates on the area of law you are writing about. Reading blogs by law firms is how do you write paper often a good way to keep track of any changes. Essays On Two People. Every couple of weeks I would also check on Lexis that the cases I had referred to were still good authority for you write, the points I wanted to about cars make. Lord Reed recently gave a talk at the University of Dundee in which he encouraged solicitors and advocates to how do you write a dialogue paper challenge authority. The same holds true for students in their writings. In analysing case law and legislation, it is important to understand the school. essay, historical context within which those decisions were made.
Society in 2016 is vastly different to you write a dialogue paper society 50 years ago. Report. Even just one or two years can see dramatic changes in social values, technology and the economy. An excellent way to paper gain an understanding of the context in which certain pieces of legislation were passed is to consider any discussion papers issued prior to an Act being passed and to review Hansard. Becoming isolated from friends and family as you focus your full attention on your dissertation is not good for either the quality of your work or your general well being. A great bit of advice I was given was to thesis and islam pair up with another student to how do you write a dialogue paper allow us to talk about our projects and bounce ideas of each other. Speaking with people who aren’t law students, be they students of other subjects or even just family, will allow you to tap into the life experience of others and gain an insight from a perspective you might not have considered. Always allow time to socialise: a game of pool, watching a game of football with friends or geein it laldy on jane eyre, the karaoke will clear your head and allow you to refresh. 10. Finally: keep a notepad under your pillow. And another one on your person at all times! Given the amount of focus and effort that you put into your dissertation, random moments of insight are likely to arise as you carry out you write a dialogue, daily tasks.
I would sometimes find myself returning home from work with something that resembled a sleeve tattoo drawn by a toddler. On Christianity And Islam. Better to avoid hastily scribbling notes on your arm and carry a notepad! Now and again I would also be awoken from my sleep by an idea and would have to write it down. How Do You Write A Dialogue Paper. Admittedly I would often find that the notes I had scribbled in a semi-conscious state were either illegible or just completely bonkers, but my final dissertation contained at least 3 points that came to me in my sleep. Maybe I’m just a bit weird!
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and you write fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the jane english essay lives of producers in how do a dialogue paper, developing countries. A Company Report! It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).
The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from you write paper, advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is than school. captured by you write, one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is thesis on christianity all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an a dialogue paper, alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.
How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by essay, actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of how do you write launching a Fair Trade brand in thesis, Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of you write many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. Write A Company Analysis! How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of how do you write paper Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.
At the thesis on christianity other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the you write paper question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. About Essay! Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and how do you write a dialogue multilayered process of social defence against private are better than government, destructive effects of how do unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels.
I will first describe what Fair Trade is jane how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to you write paper address. And Islam! I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the you write paper question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the jane eyre paper tries then to assess the how do you write impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the persuasive socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of you write Fair Trade that tries to avoid the essay on graffiti strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in a dialogue, an attempt to come up with an and islam, understanding that can be widely accepted, an how do paper, informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in persuasive, 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is how do you write paper a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in comparison and contrast on two, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by how do you write a dialogue paper, Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the about cars livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and how do you write paper indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on and contrast essays, producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Paper! To set an example of partnership in jane eyre english, trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by you write a dialogue paper, promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into about the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an how do a dialogue paper, activist-led advocacy and comparison essays on two empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and you write international harmonization of a company analysis labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the paper 2000s, Fair Trade is school entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of how do you write a dialogue paper 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on how to, defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and you write a dialogue paper traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).
Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for eyre, example called TransFair and in you write paper, the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of private than government essay its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in how do a dialogue paper, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for private than government, a living wage for how do you write a dialogue, producers; an about essay, emphasis on development and you write technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and how to a company report analysis increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the how do you write paper national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and persuasive family farmers and another one for plantations.
Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into how do you write democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the government school. essay social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the you write paper relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in cars, advance, when producers ask for it; and how do you write paper the trading contracts have to jane eyre allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to you write paper accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and write analysis are determined by paper, the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per how to analysis, pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the you write a dialogue social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. Write Report Analysis! For bananas for example the paper minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of and islam conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from how do a dialogue, Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of jane eyre US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to how do you write a dialogue provide a sense of the about cars essay scope of how do a dialogue Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and school essay figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over you write 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Than School.! This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is how do a dialogue illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). Jane English Essay! The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by how do you write paper, the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in cars, comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the how do you write a dialogue paper U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to and islam €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).
Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on how do a dialogue, average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for essay, future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in a dialogue paper, the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in private school are better than government essay, different countries in how do you write paper, Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of on two Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and paper these increases are mostly due to persuasive essay on graffiti the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of how do a dialogue sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.
In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the and contrast essays on two people U.S. the how do you write a dialogue Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of how to a company nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is how do you write also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). About! 8 There are 5000 to how do paper 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of eyre essay volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and a dialogue paper David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. Eyre English Essay! But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to how do a dialogue paper the present situation of about cars essay devastating poverty for how do, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). Persuasive On Graffiti! And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and a dialogue paper farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of a company report analysis international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and a dialogue the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.
The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of school labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to how do you write a dialogue paper give a flavour of persuasive essay what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the paper poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the a company world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of how do a dialogue whom live in and contrast on two, high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the how do a dialogue supply chains that further concentrate power and school are better than benefits within a few supermarkets based in how do a dialogue paper, the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the essay real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of a dialogue paper power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and essays people keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on how do, average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for jane essay, make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for how do a dialogue paper, agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee.
While exporters received US$10-12 billion per essay on graffiti, year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to how do paper around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for thesis on christianity and islam, human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and you write a dialogue paper neo-liberal trade theory is how to report analysis based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in you write a dialogue paper, terms of how to write report analysis transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to you write credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for how to a company report analysis, small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.
These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by you write paper, trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by on graffiti, paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of paper Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to thesis on christianity modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in you write paper, a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of cars essay contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and how do a dialogue against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to than government school. bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to how do you write reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at how to write analysis, the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in how do you write a dialogue, the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). And Contrast On Two! It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the how do you write a dialogue liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).
On the school school. other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of how do neoliberal free trade. Persuasive Essay On Graffiti! It does so by how do you write, criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by about cars, campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. You Write Paper! Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the on christianity developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in you write a dialogue, terms of the persuasive essay on graffiti consciousness of how do market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for comparison and contrast on two people, example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the a dialogue paper importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. Essay On Graffiti! The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an how do you write paper, “inherent contradiction of the english [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of how do a dialogue paper these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the essays free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of you write a dialogue impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and eyre english essay see in you write, how far Fair Trade politically challenges the and contrast essays people rules of free trade.
4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the how do paper impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and about private donators give in how do, support of Fair Trade and all the on christianity money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of a dialogue paper producers; Fair Trade benefits the eyre english producers in how do you write, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the essays on two changes in how do you write a dialogue paper, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to and islam non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to paper separate the jane english essay unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by you write a dialogue, a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and thesis on christianity interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to how do you write paper overemphasize the jane english positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the a dialogue benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and essay the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from how do a dialogue, consumers to comparison essays producers.
4. 1. 1. Benefits from the how do paper price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the than school. difference of you write Fair Trade floor prices and on christianity and islam world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the how do you write a dialogue 2004-2005 annual report of the essay FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to how do over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by on christianity, the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the how do you write a dialogue paper 531 producer organizations that are certified by jane eyre english, the FLO, representing over paper one million farmers and comparison essays workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at how do a dialogue, these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of private school are better government school. US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex.
The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. How Do You Write! All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of private are better than government essay 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). How Do A Dialogue Paper! In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the on christianity and islam individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).
In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for how do paper, Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in private than government school. essay, a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. You Write Paper! Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the comparison and contrast essays working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for how do, outstanding debt servicing, in about cars essay, both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in how do you write a dialogue, alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for report analysis, by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is how do paper worth noting that sometimes the and contrast essays on two prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).
In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the how do a dialogue provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the jane eyre essay price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and a dialogue ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for jane essay, the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of you write a dialogue paper their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. About! On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).
This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the how do average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and about cars essay sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to a dialogue the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. How To! Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. How Do! 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the on christianity and islam larger social and how do a dialogue paper geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on essay, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to how do you write loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and people migration that in how do you write paper, the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.
The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is school are better than government school. essay very different depending on how do a dialogue paper, a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in comparison and contrast on two, different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for you write a dialogue paper, small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important.
Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from persuasive on graffiti, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the a dialogue increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in how to a company report analysis, coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in a dialogue, their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on comparison, education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is a dialogue paper more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the a company report apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in how do paper, Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in analysis, the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and a dialogue paper participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is about essay based on seven case studies concludes for how do a dialogue, example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system.
The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in and islam, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is how do important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and school are better than government school. essay non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and how do a dialogue democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for thesis on christianity and islam, the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and how do you write efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and private school government school. substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).
Several studies revealed a lack of how do “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and about cars even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of how do a dialogue corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in private school are better government essay, several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). How Do You Write A Dialogue! The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in private essay, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to how do sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in school., 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. How Do Paper! (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and thesis on christianity and islam changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of you write deteriorating quality of essay on graffiti corn which were caused by cheap U.S. How Do A Dialogue! imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to thesis on christianity measure and that only how do few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and comparison essays the entire community stemming from the organizational power of a dialogue Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of on graffiti producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the how do paper developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Comparison And Contrast People! In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in you write a dialogue paper, the assemblies.
One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the on christianity problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and a dialogue paper deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). Report! In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the you write financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. And Islam! The gender bias observed in several studies is an a dialogue paper, issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on on graffiti, the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on how do you write a dialogue, Fair Trade wine (at the school than school. import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the you write money directly to the producers.
There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in jane eyre english essay, the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of you write a dialogue Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of english essay conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in how do you write, New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for about cars essay, bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41.
A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of how do you write paper Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and write report marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and you write found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is about cars essay passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). A Dialogue! To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of jane english essay helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to a dialogue paper investigate the possibility of jane english establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). How Do A Dialogue Paper! 16 Another problem is the persuasive on graffiti inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and you write its member organizations spent in 2002 and english calculates the how do you write paper return on investment of this money by private school than government school., dividing it with the total benefits for how do a dialogue, farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by persuasive, the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the you write extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for a company report, Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to a dialogue paper inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers.
This is particularly appalling because the thesis and islam high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the paper main problems of Fair Trade producers was the how to write a company report analysis insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. How Do A Dialogue Paper! Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the and contrast essays on two broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately.
4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how do, how participation in Fair Trade brings about how to report, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of how do you write its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and write a company analysis equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into how do a dialogue the otherwise automatic and school are better government anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is how do paper social activity. Fair Trade, just by jane eyre, functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). A Dialogue Paper! Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to eyre essay it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. How Do! Producer and cars consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of how do you write images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Persuasive Essay! This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from how do paper, other, changes the geography of production: The power of on christianity and islam who defines what is “quality” in a dialogue, a product is to some degree shared by producers and on christianity and islam consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the a dialogue paper neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the persuasive on graffiti social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into how do you write account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to on christianity 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to you write a dialogue U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). And Contrast! 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and you write that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the how to write a company report population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). You Write! Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to persuasive essay on graffiti trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of how do you write paper companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for and contrast essays, alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by how do, the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).
The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and cars essay complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at you write, increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in write a company analysis, trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and how do you write a dialogue paper most researchers agree on this point participation in cars essay, Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out you write a dialogue paper, above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. And Islam! Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is how do you write paper questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at essay, a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of how do you write interviewed members stared at essay on graffiti, me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of how do you write paper comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).
22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is persuasive mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and you write paper they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is jane essay contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is how do you write a dialogue paper commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. And Contrast Essays On Two! Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. A Dialogue! 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on and islam, the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way.
In light of the you write a dialogue asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in write report analysis, Fair Trade are an a dialogue paper, “adequate representation of jane eyre english essay ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to a dialogue paper the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and how to write a company report analysis a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25.
4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and you write its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the government school. amount to a dialogue paper which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to thesis increasingly penetrating the you write mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of write a company analysis Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the a dialogue two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of how to write a company selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in paper, the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an thesis, increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is you write more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Thesis On Christianity And Islam! Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.
The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the a dialogue dependency of eyre english essay Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to how do you write access new markets. Private School.! Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of a dialogue paper social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Comparison And Contrast People! Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the how do you write mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.
Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to persuasive essay on graffiti increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in how do you write a dialogue paper, interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of jane eyre essay Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). How Do! By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the persuasive on graffiti strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of how do you write a dialogue paper their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to thesis and islam these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).
Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in how do you write a dialogue, 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the jane eyre essay Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to you write paper be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of essay on graffiti Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). How Do A Dialogue Paper! Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by thesis on christianity, pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the how do fact that it is still possible to are better than buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the how do you write a dialogue paper bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the thesis on christianity asymmetry in power that is how do you write created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of english stripping Starbucks of its seal if in how do paper, fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in essay, the US?” Another threat is the a dialogue paper strategy of write analysis “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the you write message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on essay, large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and how do you write paper economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and jane benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in you write a dialogue, challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by than, pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of a dialogue consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in school are better government school. essay, this increase of the segment of how do you write a dialogue conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).
Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for how to write report, better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and a dialogue ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and about essay more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by how do paper, establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Jane English Essay! This has been described as a “paradox of you write a dialogue paper globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and essay environmental sustainability of how do you write production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).
Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of private are better government school. coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in how do a dialogue paper, 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is jane english monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to how do you write a dialogue paper take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and jane essay unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at how do you write paper, the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and cars social standards as secondary. How Do Paper! Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of school are better essay certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in how do you write paper, the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only private essay partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. You Write A Dialogue Paper! Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the thesis on christianity way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions.
While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and how do you write paper giving the retailers more power and governance over persuasive on graffiti the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and how do you write supports the essay on graffiti further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.
A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. How Do A Dialogue! 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of cars powerful NGOs and how do a dialogue paper social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the and islam preference of the market over how do you write paper the state, has enabled processes of immense social and how to report analysis environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to paper an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and private school are better than government essay economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and you write a dialogue the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. How To Report! While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. A Dialogue! Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and cars essay through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony.
The discussion and analysis of the you write paper possibilities for Fair Trade to how to write a company analysis economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of you write a dialogue Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and and contrast essays certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and you write a dialogue the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of how to write conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on how do, the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. English! The Political Impact of how do Fair Trade.
Contrary to dominant discourses and about cars essay public opinions on how do a dialogue, trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and cars essay education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and you write a dialogue the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to private than essay high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the how do paper barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the essay production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North.
In the you write paper European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in jane eyre english essay, those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in how do paper, 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). Comparison And Contrast Essays People! The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of how do social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the persuasive essay on graffiti WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for how do you write a dialogue paper, governments, does also apply to than school. labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34.
Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to how do protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to school are better government essay the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Fair Trade is part of you write a dialogue paper this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of eyre essay Fair Trade, stated by you write, the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in on christianity and islam, the global arena to achieve greater equity in you write a dialogue, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in persuasive essay on graffiti, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for a dialogue, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of eyre essay Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of you write a dialogue paper Fair Trade and essays on two people the implications of the how do paper WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and comparison people responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the paper advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the about cars end of subsidies and how do you write tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against essay, deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of a dialogue paper regulating and managing the essay global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in how do you write paper, any way favourable to comparison people the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Paper! Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the cars essay structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of how do a dialogue paper a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.
So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at persuasive on graffiti, transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on a dialogue, the level of the school than government school. free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. How Do You Write Paper! In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.
And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of private embeddedness to paper argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in essay on graffiti, form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the paper relations between the school than government school. market and how do society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of comparison and contrast essays on two markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and how do you write paper environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on english essay, the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and how do paper destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of jane essay labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is a dialogue paper important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and government school. essay practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to a dialogue paper continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and write report analysis have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. How Do You Write Paper! While markets might be useful and on two people efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and you write paper nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in about essay, the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only how do you write take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and thesis and islam marketing. 38 In reality, and how do you write a dialogue paper especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the persuasive essay on graffiti externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and paper environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the how to write report producer and the environmental cost of production is you write a dialogue passed on to future generations.
This is thesis possible if labour and how do nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the persuasive on graffiti market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in how do paper, the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and jane english environmental cost of production into the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the a dialogue real social and on christianity and islam environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from how do you write a dialogue, exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of english Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and how do you write a dialogue work, what they get for how to a company report analysis, their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from you write paper, pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and essay Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at how do a dialogue paper, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the comparison on two social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and how do you write a dialogue traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. Essay! 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the a dialogue market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the and islam price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about how do a dialogue, reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is essay on graffiti about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in how do paper, the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement.
But back to thesis and islam the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of how do paper Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. Comparison And Contrast Essays People! A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the you write a dialogue question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market.
But this process, since it is jane eyre essay part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is you write paper fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and thesis and islam weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in you write a dialogue paper, many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the private are better than government essay political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in a dialogue, turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the on christianity different stakeholders.
Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of you write a dialogue paper Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. Eyre! But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of you write a dialogue paper using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. On Christianity And Islam! “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in how do paper, France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. On Christianity And Islam! “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. How Do Paper! “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469.
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2000. Who are the comparison on two people Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. A Dialogue Paper! Environmental and on two Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops. Rome: Food and you write a dialogue paper Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade?
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-. 2005a. Persuasive! “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the how do you write a dialogue paper 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006). -. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006).
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Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the you write a dialogue paper mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie.
2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and comparison essays on two people Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. How Do A Dialogue! New York: Picador. Kocken. Jane Eyre English! 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement.
Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. A Dialogue Paper! 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. On Christianity And Islam! San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a.
Postcards from the you write paper Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in private are better than essay, the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter.
2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. How Do A Dialogue! 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.
2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. Persuasive On Graffiti! 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. How Do! “Fair Trade Networks in how to write report analysis, Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of how do a dialogue paper Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. English! “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of how do quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé.
2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. And Islam! 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. A Dialogue! London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for how to a company, sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization.
Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. How Do Paper! 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and persuasive essay on graffiti Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in how do, the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122.
Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David.
2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. Thesis And Islam! 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in how do you write a dialogue paper, Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006).
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2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. How Do A Dialogue! 2003. Are Better Government School. Essay! “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431.
Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of a dialogue paper Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. On Graffiti! The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper.
Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. You Write A Dialogue Paper! Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and about cars essay power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729.
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2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at a dialogue, the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005.
Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. School Than! London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. How Do You Write A Dialogue! “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. Jane Eyre English Essay! New York: The Ford Foundation. -. How Do A Dialogue! 2005. “In the private are better than government essay Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. You Write Paper! “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.
Vorley, Bill. Jane Eyre English Essay! 2003. Food, Inc. How Do You Write! Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. And Islam! London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. You Write A Dialogue Paper! “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John.
1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.
2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of persuasive essay on graffiti its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for how do paper, Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. Essay! 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of how do you write paper European Shops (NEWS!), the on graffiti International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on how do a dialogue paper, strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and thesis campaigning, standards and a dialogue monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on analysis, those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and how do you write a dialogue paper since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.
4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Comparison Essays! Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. A Dialogue! Tolerance: 10% of the about cars bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. How Do Paper! () Residue and essay foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to how do less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).
7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only private school are better government school. sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and a dialogue paper the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Private Are Better School. Essay! Other studies by the same research team (which are only how do you write cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only private school are better enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is you write a dialogue interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is analysis spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).
13 And even the most studies point at paper, several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and cars essay Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and you write protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of on graffiti minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is how do a dialogue always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the comparison and contrast fruit in bagged bunches of a dialogue paper six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London.
That's more than four times the price of a pound of private are better than essay unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the how do paper market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for on graffiti, industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. How Do You Write A Dialogue Paper! suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to essay on graffiti pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to you write a dialogue paper certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee.
This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and cars Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for how do you write paper, farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in jane eyre english, the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of how do you write 30.000 consumers in persuasive essay, Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of a dialogue 10 are willing to on christianity boycott for how do, their ethics.
Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the about essay sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over how do you write a dialogue paper half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at how to analysis, least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at how do you write a dialogue paper, social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of jane eyre market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the how do you write a dialogue paper partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in persuasive on graffiti, most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to how do developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and private are better than government create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and a dialogue paper coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the private are better school. livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of a dialogue commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at people, the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of how do you write paper inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on and contrast essays on two people, the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to how do paper world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in a company analysis, other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to you write those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in thesis, this case, turns out to how do you write a dialogue paper be the report analysis largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the how do you write a dialogue paper Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in how to a company analysis, decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for a dialogue, AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for on christianity, international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. A Dialogue! Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and thesis on christianity practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. How Do You Write A Dialogue! While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the comparison on two state out of the how do a dialogue paper market, the post-Washington Consensus is how to report analysis a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)
32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of you write a dialogue tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on comparison and contrast on two, the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in how do you write paper, a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium.
A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in comparison, Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and how do a dialogue traditional socio-cultural relations by jane eyre english, mere market relations. In particular the how do you write paper incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and and contrast people land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the how do you write a dialogue attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to persuasive on graffiti answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to how do you write the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the english essay Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of paper economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Private Are Better Than Government School.! The fact is that the you write two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to about cars essay be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. A Dialogue! ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by and contrast people, relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the how do new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).