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body writing Toward an Understanding of l'Écriture féminine. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the scene of feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the how to persuasive essay factions within it: feminist journals carry on bitter debates, a group of women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at hobby is reading essay, conferences in the United States contradict each other's positions at top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in thesis on stress and job performance the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the my favorite hobby is reading modes through which the cell West has claimed to hobby is reading, discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to essay business communication, change the position of women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in general believe that Western thought has been based on my favorite a systematic repression of homework help, women's experience. Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in and resist it.
This position, the turn to hobby essay, féminité as a challenge to male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and essay papers, set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to theory, to my favorite is reading, philosophical, psychoanalytic, and Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the world. Cory Thesis? (Speakers at recent U.S. feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and is reading, (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and political implications of cell phone, French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and moving beyond it. Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric.
I am the how to start persuasive intro unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and my favorite hobby is reading, ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in relation to me, as man/father, possessor of the phallus. Thesis And Job Performance? l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. To speak and especially to my favorite, write from such a position is to appropriate the world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and everyone else--including women. How To Persuasive Intro? How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of such a culture to be resisted?
These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of jouissance , that is, in is reading essay the direct reexperience of the physical pleasures of homework help er, infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and my favorite essay, Cixous go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from thesis and job performance, expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. Hobby Is Reading Essay? If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the business communication theory and practice of féminité must be focused on women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from men or from men's views of them. From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against it. My Favorite Hobby Essay? Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and forward, the author of several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in hobby essay psychoanalysis the concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in what she calls semiotic discourse: the gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against thesis, the rules and regularities of my favorite is reading essay, conventional language. On Effective? How do women fit into essay, this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and turned away in essay the course of his initiation into my favorite is reading, society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to the symbolic order, asserting as it does the how to intro writer's return to the pleasures of hobby essay, his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and the logic of paternal discourse.
Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to pay it forward papers, male-dominated discourse, for two reasons: the predominance in them of drives related to anality and childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the hobby is reading essay dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to imitate. 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is pay it forward essay papers (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to hobby essay, another end, to becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society. Such an attitude places women on the side of the explosion of start, social codes: with revolutionary movements. 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on my favorite is reading essay the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men.
A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at the University of Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of thesis performance, her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Is Reading? Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in help which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in my favorite hobby is reading a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. Forward Essay? But she offers as the starting point for a female self-consciousness the facts of women's bodies and my favorite, women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in male discourse. Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the two lips of the vulva, and a multiplicity of libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the persuasive essay intro identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is significant in the world reflects my male image).
7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere. She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is hobby essay imagined-in an imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on one and the same. She is infinitely other in cory thesis herself. That is undoubtedly the reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to hobby, mention her language in which she goes off in all directions and in which he is unable to discern the coherence of any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of and job, reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. Hobby Is Reading Essay? In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the existing order: For a woman to arrive at the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by essay the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is is reading essay certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of resume, women, and in hobby is reading others she uses female physiology as a source of papers, critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally. Hobby Is Reading Essay? Yet her focus on the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and help, assert their jouissance if they are to my favorite is reading essay, subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels.
Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for cell phone, the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. Hobby? She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is on effective business convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and that it is their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to my favorite essay, create new female discourses. Homework Help? Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). 12 She has produced a series of analyses of women's suffering under the is reading essay laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for forward essay, what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the hobby is reading ability to perceive and represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. Cory Thesis? She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to bring about life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. 13. Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for its thesis of my favorite hobby, a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at the level of essay, sexual pleasure in my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. 14 In her manifesto for l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and lyricism suggest that she admires in hobby women a sexuality that is remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of phone, its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and essay, which is inscribed only within boundaries. Her libido is pay it forward papers cosmic, just as her unconscious is worldwide.
She goes on immediately, in terms close to Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in my favorite hobby essay the French) in a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and homework help, among them is the gestation drive-just like the desire to my favorite is reading, write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for the swollen belly, for language, for blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the pay it future.
What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in my favorite hobby essay common, then, is to oppose women's bodily experience (or, in Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Cory Dean Thesis? Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is a powerful argument. We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the French context, it offers an island of hope in the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an my favorite hobby is reading essay, ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of dean, meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the my favorite essay body, the id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of perception and a vitality that can bring down mountains of phallocentric delusion.
Finally, to the extent that the female body is seen as a direct source of er, female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts. Hobby Essay? They have been criticized as idealist and essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to phone, constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. My Favorite? What's more, they must be made if American women are to sift out and use the positive elements in French thinking about féminité . Thesis? First off, the basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to or in spite of social experience? Do women in fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and hobby essay, elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in thesis on stress and job the concept of féminité depend. Feminists rereading Freud and Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in women or in men; it is my favorite essay developed through the homework er individual's encounters with the is reading nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in pay it forward essay our society shift their first love for their mothers to a compensatory love for hobby is reading essay, their fathers and develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the difficulty of this shift and used it to account for the complex affective needs of girls and women.
18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and culture; he identifies the symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the basis for contrasts and contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to essay on effective business communication, make sense of it and fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in response to patriarchal structures-as, for example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is sexed in accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and symbolic systems. New readings of Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. My Favorite Is Reading Essay? Theoretical work and practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and males she encounters in her family and to resume cell phone, the male and my favorite is reading, female images she constructs according to her experience especially her loss of direct access to either parent.
20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out of the how to persuasive intro child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the is reading essay meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and er, libido without talking about what happens later to the child's systems of self-perception is to drop out the deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the sexed family as it imprints itself on the child's sense of herself as a sexed being. Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the age of childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to be free of male domination. Is Reading Essay? For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to homework help er, be.
Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by my favorite is reading puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to cory, the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in these decades, is shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to resist roles of domination and hobby essay, submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Help Er? Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of natural childbirth is hobby essay not related to the suspect ideal of resume phone, taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of is reading, mine her cervix for the first time in a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful? As good as a penis any day. All in all, at er, this point in history, most of us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is hobby essay possible to thesis on stress and job performance, argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. My Favorite Is Reading? Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in on stress and job performance various cultures, and it is essential for us to express those meanings rather than to submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the hobby female body hardly seems the best site to launch an start persuasive essay, attack on my favorite hobby the forces that have alienated us from what our sexuality might become.
For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from masculinist dogma) leave us in relation to earlier theories about how to start essay, women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the hobby coercive glorification of dean, motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the world in feminist directions? Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about variations in class , in race, and in culture among women? What about changes over time in hobby essay one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by cory dean herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the two vulval lips so startlingly presented by hobby Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is cory dean not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and hobby essay, Cixous's. Phone? Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is my favorite hobby essay a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by nature of their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them.
It reverses the values assigned to each side of the cory polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the my favorite hobby is reading male-female opposition, but participating in it. This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. Resume Phone? What we need to my favorite hobby is reading, do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. How To Persuasive Intro? We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to hobby essay, be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the power relationships between men and homework, women, and practices based on hobby essay that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only persuasive intro, then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the assertion of a shared female nature made by féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the essay possibility of on effective communication, working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of not working in the public world at all; the freedom for a diversity of is reading essay, sexual practices; the right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the affirmation of start persuasive essay intro, historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of Woman to the view held by men in the past and the present, what happens to hobby essay, our ability to support the multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for on stress and job, in the future? In a critique of my favorite hobby, féminité as praise of women's difference from men, the name of how to start persuasive, Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Active in my favorite hobby is reading essay the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and essay business, her histories to explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be.
21 She rewrites traditional culture in mocking takeovers: one entry in my favorite hobby is reading essay Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the pay it forward papers least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of my favorite, French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and on stress and job performance, festivals of my favorite is reading essay, Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the feminized epic of Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in the United States show, she is suspicious both of the oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of cell, man and of the mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of my favorite is reading essay, féminité . 22 In her argument for how to start intro, a more politically centered understanding of women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. feminists than the philosophical and psychoanalytic frameworks in which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to say that women are a class, which is to say that the hobby essay category woman, as well as man, is a political and economic category, not an essay communication, eternal one. . . . Our first task . My Favorite Hobby Is Reading Essay? . . is thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and thesis performance, woman, the is reading myth. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the cory product of a social relationship. 21. Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the my favorite hobby essay psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on women by men.
There is nothing liberatory, she insists, in cory dean thesis women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master? 24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to analyze and put an end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of women. I have another political objection to the concept of féminité as a bundle of Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in fact separated from one another. As the painful and counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in my favorite hobby the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is more likely to blind us to our varied and immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them. What is the meaning of two lips to heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to thesis, jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the same kind of sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to hobby is reading essay, maintain the right to abortion, to black and Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to women in subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the family depends on the work of every child who is born and survives?
And surely any one woman gives different meanings to her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to on effective business, soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in my favorite essay sexual identity and response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and friendship as alternatives. And it is cell hard to see how the situations of old women, consigned to sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and is reading, cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the essay on effective communication theoretical depth and polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. But a historically responsive and powerful unity among women will come from our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in and against the material world. As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Certainly, women need to shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at their deepest levels, and working out self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle. Women have already begun to transform not only the subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in my favorite hobby essay poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the French may have been too hasty in their claim that women are only now beginning to challenge the on stress and job symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and practical problems arise (again!) from an ideal defined in this way. Can the body be the source of hobby essay, a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of essay on effective communication, one's body, to my favorite hobby is reading essay, move from that state of unconscious excitation directly to a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in 1977.
Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and cory dean, over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in body and language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. We don't have to hobby is reading essay, confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. Start? We don't have to keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves. All we have to my favorite, do is let the help body flow, from the inside; all we have to is reading essay, do is erase . Thesis On Stress And Job Performance? whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over my favorite essay his erected self. 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to language is especially difficult for women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by the father and built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of that order. And in many preliterate and postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to pay it, silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in my favorite is reading essay women by a society in which men have had the first and the last word.
Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at all presents an enormous practical and ideological problem. Cell Phone? 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by working against the concrete difficulties and the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and hobby is reading, idealize the process by locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the resume body. Calls for hobby is reading essay, a verbal return to nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of language as penetrated by phallocentric dogma. True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for themselves. Essay On Effective Communication? But literary modes and language itself cannot be the hobby essay only targets for transformation; the context for women's discourses needs to be thought through and broadened out. A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to her own body, but she writes for how to essay intro, others. Who writes? Who reads? Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to read about other women's experience?
To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to enter into a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the modes of publication and distribution. I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and booksellers than to any woman writer's libidinal body flow. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the French woman who wants to write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to interfere. Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by men-or an attribution to men-of all human values, mixed up with the anti-values of is reading essay, domination-violence-oppression and the like.
In this mixture, where is dean thesis your real identity? Second, you are supposed to write in certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Novels. Minor poetry, in which case you will be stigmatized in hobby is reading essay French by the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. Essay Communication? You are supposed, too, to write about certain things: house, children, love. Until recently there was in France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to write about , but to essay, write, period. And of course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to be genuine. 28.
Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing. But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of languages from Greek through German to Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and revision of conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on pay it forward a level of feminist theory and my favorite hobby is reading essay, literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. Resume Cell? That is also how they need to be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the hobby intertextual games played by all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is always built, at resume cell phone, first, of bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of hobby, one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and sisters. We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of start, écriture féminine . The speaking, singing, story-telling, and my favorite essay, writing of women in cultures besides that of the cell phone Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in my favorite hobby essay their social context if we are to fill in cory dean an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at is reading, least, from the persuasive French position: the critique of phallocentrism in all the material and ideological forms it has taken, and the call for new representations of women's consciousness.
It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the long centuries of patriarchy. We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to my favorite hobby is reading, recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in papers different ways-if we can translate féminité into hobby, a concerted attack not only on language, but also directly upon the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from our own potentials and from each other-then we are on cell our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by French feminisms at their best. 1For a summary of the hobby essay intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in her study of the characters and er, critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in connotations. Pleasure is the my favorite essay simplest translation. The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to revel in how to persuasive intro without fear of the cost; also, to have an orgasm.
See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. 9. A note to Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is considered to be of a different order from the pleasure that is represented within the my favorite hobby male libidinal economy often described in terms of the capitalist gain and profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the notion of cell phone, fluidity, diffusion, duration. It is a kind of potlatch in the world of my favorite is reading essay, orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about thesis and job performance, ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Father is Lacan's formulation for language as the medium through which human beings are placed in culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the my favorite is reading essay father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. Forward? pt.
7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and my favorite, Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). She also contributes frequently to the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no. 74) on women and women's writing. Forward Essay? For her criticism of certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. 77. See, in the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an experiencethat breaks down the categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. 409?38. She expands her argument about the meanings of maternity for women's creativity in my favorite is reading essay Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49.
For an explanation of her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of essay business communication, 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by hobby is reading essay Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and start persuasive intro, Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from French feminist writers is likely to be very useful to English?language readers.
6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38. Kristeva has written mainly about male writers, but see her comments on some typically feminine themes in my favorite is reading a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2.
She comments on certain elements of dean thesis, women's style in my favorite hobby her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and thesis and job performance, Couze Venn. 81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in my favorite hobby is reading essay New French Feminisms, p. And Job Performance? lain 103. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading Essay? Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). How To Start Persuasive Essay Intro? 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the is reading essay historical position of women in Marxist terms in Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe.
Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to cell, James Joyce and Lewis Carroll for Aubler. Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Is Reading? Qa parle is a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for example) she mocks what she sees as the Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. Pay It Forward? 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. 98. 15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60.
16The opening manifesto of Questions f. My Favorite? ministes is homework a long and persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on Common Themes, pp. My Favorite Is Reading Essay? 212?30. See also the appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the homework er Phallus and the Father, pp.
382?98. My Favorite Is Reading Essay? 18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in an article on Freud's analysis of the hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by the child enter the unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of on stress performance, desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an is reading, Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21.
21Wittig's books have all been translated into English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by forward Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. My Favorite Is Reading Essay? 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the help er speech given at the City University of my favorite hobby essay, New York Graduate Center, September 1979. 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out that the claim to difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. blacks, for example) who have not yet succeeded in putting their desire for political self?determination into effect. Help Er? To assert their difference against the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at my favorite hobby, the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference.
25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. Thesis On Stress? See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. My Favorite? 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and anthropological accounts of homework help, women's hesitations to speak, in Language and Gender, Papers on Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for a discussion of the practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp.
The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. 177?258. 2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in business communication New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in my favorite hobby essay a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.
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Sample Research Paper - The Patriot Act The Patriot Act Threatens Fundamental American Freedoms. by Feross Aboukhadijeh - 11th grade. Forty-five days after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act, also known as the “Uniting and hobby essay, Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism” Act, or more simply, the Patriot Act. The Patriot Act was created with the noble intention of finding and prosecuting international terrorists operating on American soil; however, the unfortunate consequences of the Act have been drastic. Many of the Patriot Act’s provisions are in clear violation of the on stress and job performance U.S. Constitution—a document drafted by essay wise men like Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and essay on effective business communication, George Washington in order to protect American rights and hobby, freedoms. How To Start. The Patriot Act encroaches on is reading essay, sacred First Amendment rights, which protect free speech and expression, and Fourth Amendment rights, which protect citizens against on effective “unwarranted search and seizure” (Justice).
The Patriot Act authorizes unethical and hobby is reading, unconstitutional surveillance of American citizens with a negligible improvement in national security. Free speech, free thinking, and a free American lifestyle can not survive in the climate of distrust and constant fear created by the Patriot Act. The great American patriot Robert F. Kennedy once said in his famous “Day of cory Affirmation Address” that the first and is reading essay, most critical element of “individual liberty is the freedom of speech; the homework right to express and communicate ideas, to set oneself apart from the dumb beasts of field and forest . . .” Modern American politicians and lawmakers, it seems, have lost sight of the important ideals that Kennedy spoke about and upon which this country was founded—ideals like civil rights, personal freedom, and the right to privacy. No longer can a newspaper editor publish an article that is critical of the government—even if it is legal—without fear that Big Brother may begin to survey his every thought and action. This may very well be the most frightening aspect of the Patriot Act: the fact that the Act allows the is reading government to resume phone, spy on any of its citizens, not just the essay bad ones. The Patriot Act does not demand sufficient proof that alleged “suspects” are engaged in criminal activity before authorizing government surveillance. Even upstanding American citizens can become targets of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) surveillance simply because of the manner in which they exercise their First Amendment rights (Beeson). Simply put, the Patriot Act fails to secure American liberties; in reality, the Act exposes Americans to potential abuses of power by creating an environment that encourages government corruption, secrecy, fraud and discrimination while using “national security” as a pretense for er, violating basic Constitutional rights like privacy and free speech. As the century drags on, it is becoming painfully obvious that the Patriot Act has actually moved the United States further away from an ideal democratic society since its passage in October of my favorite hobby 2001. Ever since 1776, when American colonists first abandoned their ties with Britain to create an independent nation, American citizens have always cherished basic rights like freedom of start intro speech, freedom of the press, and my favorite, protection from unreasonable searches and seizures (United States). But after the unpredictable events of September 11, 2001, many citizens began to feel that they should give up some of pay it essay papers their cherished rights in order to punish the hobby essay perpetrators of the attacks and thesis performance, avoid future tragedies.
An overwhelming sense of national unity overtook the country and Americans united to face the is reading newly discovered threat of terrorism in a modern age. The President’s approval rating increased from dean thesis, 54% to 86%—its highest level ever—in a matter of days (Ruggles). The American people rallied behind the Federal government and provided support. Tragically, Congress drafted the Patriot Act and decreed that it would be the solution to America’s problems. According to Congress, the Patriot Act would protect America from its enemies who operated on American soil. Many Americans unquestionably accepted the Act to avoid the risk of my favorite hobby being labeled “unpatriotic.” However, thousands of far-seeing Americans publicly questioned the actions of the government, but their cries were not heard. When the House of cory dean Representatives sent the Patriot Act to the Senate, it passed with a vote of 96-1. Peter Justice put it best when he said that “. . . the climate of my favorite is reading fear in the weeks after the September 11 attacks and dean thesis, the haste with which the Patriot Act was passed allowed some of hobby is reading essay its more controversial aspects to escape adequate congressional scrutiny.” Clearly, the “fear frenzy” that took place after the September 11 attacks caused Americans to sacrifice essential civil rights in essay, exchange for a sense of security. The only Senator to vote against the Patriot Act was Senator Feingold. Feingold is significant because he was the only Senator to fight against the Patriot Act before it was signed into law.
The arguments that he made against the Act during September and October of 2001 continue to point out the negative effects the Act has had on American life and will continue to have moving forward in the twenty-first century. When asked why he voted against the Patriot Act, Feingold responded that “we [Americans] will lose that war [on Terrorism] without firing a shot if we sacrifice the liberties of the American people.” Essentially, Feingold argued that the Patriot Act is my favorite hobby essay, counter-productive: if government “security” is meant to how to essay intro, protect American liberties, then the American people should not have to sacrifice their liberties to purchase security. What purpose will “security” serve if there are no liberties left to defend? If the Federal government curtails American liberty, then security is rendered worthless. Colonial statesman Benjamin Franklin once said that “those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.” According to Franklin, real American patriots constantly question their government’s intentions in order to ensure that their elected politicians are keeping the “core of American values and principles” at heart while in office (Justice). The Patriot Act does not keep the my favorite is reading interests of American citizens in mind because it sacrifices crucial civil rights that have been guaranteed by the Bill of Rights ever since 1776 (United States). There is er, no question that the Patriot Act is unconstitutional.
The Act violates the fundamental American ideal of “checks and balances” on essay, government power. Normally, the dean thesis government can not conduct a search of a citizen’s residence without obtaining a warrant and demonstrating a reason to believe that the suspect has committed (or may commit) a crime. But the Patriot Act violates the Fourth Amendment by allowing the my favorite is reading government to conduct searches without a warrant—for just about any reason. If the FBI is homework help, ever questioned about such activity, shrewd FBI officials simply state that the investigation is crucial to national security, and they are permitted to continue with the operation. In more recent years the situation has improved somewhat, however. Now, before conducting a search, the FBI must obtain a warrant from hobby is reading, a secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA). Ideally, this should prevent the FBI from abusing the power granted to it by the Patriot Act. However, in its twenty-two years of existence the resume cell phone FISA court has only rejected six search warrants out of the 18,747 requested since the court’s creation (“Newstrack”). This means that if the FBI decides it wants to spy on a certain American citizen, it will most likely be able to do so, even without sufficient evidence.
Certainly, the United States government needs to hobby, have the power to monitor suspected terrorists—no upstanding American citizen is arguing about that—but the problem lies in the manner in which government monitoring occurs. The Patriot Act fails to how to start persuasive essay intro, strike a desirable balance between protecting American lives against the threat of terrorism and protecting the rights of Americans against is reading essay potential government abuse (“Reform”). Particularly upsetting about the Act are several critical provisions designed to widely expand government power with limited “checks and balances” and nearly limitless potential for abuse. Section 213 is one such provision which greatly expands the power of the Federal government. Section 213 of the Patriot Act authorizes law enforcement agents to conduct “sneak-and-peek” operations in cell, a U.S. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading. resident’s home. Dean Thesis. This provision violates the Fourth Amendment by failing to require that those persons who are the subject of search orders “be told that their privacy has been compromised” (“Reform”). If an individual does not know that the government has been in his home then he will be unable to verify that the government conducted a reasonable search using a valid warrant. My Favorite Is Reading. If the dean government indeed did overstep its bounds, the individual will have no means to take recourse against my favorite hobby essay the government. After all, how can a person protect their rights if they do not know that their rights have been violated?
Section 213 erodes the “sacred rights of western society” as described by Kennedy, and reduces U.S. civil rights to nearly the same level as those of the Nazi Socialists in Russia during the 1930s and 40s. Section 215, also called the “library records provision”, also has serious implications for American civil liberty. Essay. Section 215 opens medical records, magazine subscriptions, e-mails, bookstore purchases, library circulation records, genetic information, academic transcripts, psychiatric records, membership lists, diaries, charitable contributions, airline reservations, hotel records, notes, and social services files to the FBI’s prying eyes (Beeson). For example, the essay FBI can request the names of all the patrons that have checked out a certain book from the cell library, simply because they do not like the topic of that particular book. Even worse, the people whose privacy has been violated may never know about the government’s actions. Section 505 is another particularly threatening provision of the Patriot Act.
Section 505 facilitates the use of my favorite is reading “national security letters”, or NSLs, in federal investigations. How To Start Essay Intro. NSLs are a form of administrative subpoena that legally compel an entity or organization to turn over my favorite hobby is reading essay, personal records and information about certain individuals. Previously, the FBI could only use NSLs to access records of foreign agents and known terrorists, but Section 505 of the Patriot Act adds non-terrorism suspects to essay, the list of entities that the FBI can use NSLs to spy on (“Controversial”). The problem with this is that NSLs are substantially easier to obtain than regular subpoenas; NSLs do not have to hobby essay, be authorized by a judge like normal subpoenas—they merely must be signed by certain key FBI agents. Help. This means that the FBI can use NSLs to illegally obtain information about an American citizen who may be involved in some sort of crime. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading Essay. While many Patriot Act supporters may argue that Section 505 is beneficial because the FBI can more easily obtain information about all types of on stress and job performance criminals, the truth is that Section 505 violates the Fifth Amendment’s “due process of law” clause. According to the Fifth Amendment, no person should be “. . . deprived of my favorite essay life, liberty, or property, without due process of and job law . . .” Section 505, however, allows the FBI to circumvent the usual subpoena procedure (the due process that the law demands) in order to more easily obtain desired information.
This means that NSLs can legally be used to obtain information about ordinary criminals like robbers, shoplifters, and drug users—and even people who have presented little or no evidence of wrongdoing. NSLs are extremely serious legal weapons and should be reserved for only the most serious of my favorite hobby is reading essay crimes, like terrorism. While the potential for government abuse of the Patriot Act is all too clear, another alarming fact is that the Patriot Act fails to secure American liberties—proving that the Act has failed in its purpose. According to Donna Lieberman, Executive Director of the homework help er NYCLU, “Effective law enforcement in hobby is reading, the aftermath of September 11 does not call for a return to intro, the bad old days when there was open season on dissent and dissenters . . . as history has shown, unchecked spying on political activity does not protect safety and puts our valued freedoms in jeopardy” (“ACLU/NYCLU”). The Federal government does not need dictatorial powers to keep America safe. Kennedy would have opposed the Patriot Act for the same reasons that he opposed communism.
Kennedy said “I am unalterably opposed to communism because it exalts the state over the individual . Hobby. . . and because its system contains a lack of freedom of speech, of protest, of religion, and of the press, which is characteristic of cory dean a totalitarian regime . . .” It is frighteningly un-American to assume that giving politicians authoritarian powers will make America safer. Furthermore, Kennedy would have argued that the way to my favorite hobby, oppose terrorists is to “enlarge individual human freedom”—not take it away. By allowing the on effective communication Federal government to take away freedoms and civil rights, Americans are actually helping the terrorists to erode the ideals of the American system. The Patriot Act, it seems, was a bigger victory for America’s enemies than for its citizens. Alarmingly, the government has already begun to perform some suspicious actions. The FBI is keeping secret “even the most basic information” about FBI surveillance (“Reform”).
For example, the FBI classified information that should have been available to the public—information that would have shown how often the FBI has spied on people based on the manner that they exercise their First Amendment rights. Although this action in and of itself does not prove that the FBI or the Federal government has explicitly broken the law, it does hint that the government is trying to hide its activities from public scrutiny. My Favorite Hobby. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) wrote that “. . . the few known cases of rights violations under the Patriot Act are likely the tip of the cory iceberg in terms of abuses of the investigative powers the hobby is reading government has under the Patriot Act because most such investigation is conducted secretly.” In other words, the few verified cases of government abuse of the Patriot Act may indicate many more abuses which are not disclosed to the public. Although some Americans may say, “I don’t mind the Patriot Act because I have nothing to business communication, hide from the government”, this thinking is flawed for several reasons. First of all, if the American people know that their actions and communications are being monitored they will feel less comfortable expressing their thoughts and exercising their rights to free speech and free thinking; this is essay, especially so if the person’s thoughts are not what the government wants them to think. Second, by eroding American civil rights in order to obtain a sense of security, Americans are actually helping the terrorists to achieve their mission of destroying democratic ideals in the western world. The last and most compelling reason to oppose the Patriot Act is the start persuasive essay fact that it is a direct attack on American ideals.
The Patriot Act essentially destroys the protections offered by the First and Fourth Amendments and exposes Americans to potential abuses at the hands of my favorite essay Big Brother. Protecting Americans from foreign threats is critical; the Federal government should do whatever it takes to communication, keep its citizens safe, but it should never infringe upon their civil rights. No doubt, the Patriot Act represents an emerging trend in American government today—a trend of sacrificing the American Creed’s ideals in my favorite hobby essay, exchange for security. Americans fought the Revolutionary War to phone, earn basic liberties that they felt were their God-given rights—rights that no humans should live without. Americans should not so easily relinquish the rights and liberties cherished for so long as the cornerstone of American society for is reading essay, the mere illusion of security.
ACLU/NYCLU Mobilize Members and Supporters to Keep America ‘Safe and Free’. NYCLU . ACLU Foundation. 5 Mar. Pay It Forward Essay. 2007 http://www.nyclu.org/safe_free101602.html. Beeson, Ann, and Jameel Jaffer. Unpatriotic Acts: the FBI's Power to Rifle Through Your Records and Personal Belongings Without Telling You. ACLU . July 2003. ACLU Foundation.
25 Feb. 2007 http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/spies_report.pdf. Controversial Provisions of the essay USA Patriot Act. Facts on homework, File News Services . 14 Apr. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading Essay. 2006. 5 Apr. Cory Thesis. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/has00001371.asp. Feingold, Russell.
Senator Feingold's Speech Explaining Why He Voted Against the Patriot Act (Excerpts). Facts on File News Services . My Favorite Hobby Essay. 12 Oct. 2001. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/had00000278.asp. Justice, Peter. USA Patriot Act. How To Start Persuasive Intro. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr.
2006. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/haa00001370.asp. Kennedy, Robert F. Day of Affirmation Address. University of Capetown, Capetown. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading. 6 June 1996. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/ Reference+Desk/Speeches/RFK/Day+of+Affirmation+Address+News+Release+Page+2.htm. “Newstrack - Top News. United Press International 26 Dec. 2005.
5 Apr. 2007 http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2005/12/26/ bush_was_denied_wiretaps_bypassed_them/. Reform the Patriot Act: Section 215. ACLU . ACLU Foundation. Help Er. 25 Feb. 2007 http://action.aclu.org/reformthepatriotact/215.html.
Ruggles, Steven. Historical Bush Approval Ratings. 5 Mar. 2007. University of Minnesota. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.hist.umn.edu/ United States. The Bill of Rights . My Favorite Essay. 5 Mar. 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm.
A Case of Justice That Stinks: the Administration's Forced Resignations Among U.S. Attorneys Tell the Tale of the Corrupting Influence of Unchecked Power. The Roanoke Times . Persuasive Essay. 21 Jan. 2007. McClatchy-Tribune Business News. 8 Feb. 2007 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=nfhAN=2W62W63048083835site=src-live.
ACLU/NYCLU Mobilize Members and Supporters to Keep America ‘Safe and Free’. NYCLU . ACLU Foundation. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.nyclu.org/safe_free101602.html. Beeson, Ann, and Jameel Jaffer. Unpatriotic Acts: the essay FBI's Power to Rifle Through Your Records and Personal Belongings Without Telling You. ACLU . July 2003.
ACLU Foundation. 25 Feb. Forward Papers. 2007 http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/spies_report.pdf. Berlau, John. Show Us Your Money: the USA PATRIOT Act Lets the Feds Spy on Your Finances. But Does It Help Catch Terrorists?
Reason (2003). 8 Feb. 2007 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_6_35/ai_109085440/pg_1. Controversial Provisions of the essay USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr. 2006. 5 Apr. On Effective Communication. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/has00001371.asp. Feingold, Russell.
Senator Feingold's Speech Explaining Why He Voted Against the Patriot Act (Excerpts). Facts on File News Services . 12 Oct. 2001. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/had00000278.asp.
Justice, Peter. Help Er. USA Patriot Act. Facts on File News Services . 14 Apr. 2006. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.2facts.com/ICAH/Search/haa00001370.asp. Kennedy, Robert F. Day of Affirmation Address. Essay. University of Capetown, Capetown. 6 June 1996.
5 Apr. 2007 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/ Reference+Desk/Speeches/RFK/Day+of+Affirmation+Address+News+Release+Page+2.htm. Newstrack - Top News. United Press International 26 Dec. 2005. 5 Apr. 2007 http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2005/12/26/ bush_was_denied_wiretaps_bypassed_them/. Reform the Patriot Act: Section 215.
ACLU . ACLU Foundation. 25 Feb. 2007 http://action.aclu.org/reformthepatriotact/215.html. Robert F. Kennedy. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. 8 Feb. Homework Er. 2007 http://www.answers.com/topic/robert-f-kennedy. Robert F. Kennedy. Who2? Biographies . 8 Feb.
2007 http://www.answers.com/topic/robert-f-kennedy. Ruggles, Steven. Historical Bush Approval Ratings. 5 Mar. 2007. University of my favorite Minnesota. 5 Mar. 2007 http://www.hist.umn.edu/ United States.
Cong. Uniting and Strengthening America by business communication Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (Usa Patriot Act) Act of my favorite is reading essay 2001 . 107th Cong. 26 Oct. 2001. 8 Feb. 2007 http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_public_lawsdocid=f:publ056.107. United States. The Bill of help er Rights . 5 Mar. 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm. USA Patriot Act (2001).
The United States At War . Hobby Essay. 26 Oct. 2001. ABC-CLIO. 8 Feb. 2007 http://www.usatwar.abc-clio.com/Research/Display.aspx?entryid=767812searchtext=usa+patriot+actsubcategoryid=46total=18ratio=742bc=newnumentries=9. You just finished Sample Research Paper - The Patriot Act . Nice work! Tip: Use < > keys to homework, navigate! 125,069 views (70 views per day) Posted 5 years ago. A little learning is a dangerous thing; Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring. Alexander Pope.
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15 Tips for hobby is reading, Your Medical School Personal Statement. Don’t underestimate the power of the cell medical school personal statement to make a strong, positive impression on an admissions committee. Combined with your interview performance, your personal statement can account for 60% (or more) of your total admissions score! Medical schools want to enroll bright, empathetic, communicative people. Here's how to write a compelling med school personal statement that shows schools who you are and my favorite hobby, what you're capable of.
Your medical school personal statement is a component of dean, your primary application submitted via AMCAS, TMDSAS (for Texas applications), or AACOMAS (NB: If you are applying to medical school in my favorite hobby, Canada, confirm the application process with your school, as not all application components may be submitted through AMCAS). These applications offer broad topics to consider, and many essay approaches are acceptable. Pay It Forward Essay! For example, you could write about: an experience that challenged or changed your perspective about medicine a relationship with a mentor or another inspiring individual a challenging personal experience unique hardships, challenges, or obstacles that may have influenced your educational pursuits your motivation to seek a career in medicine. You'll write an additional essay (or two) when you submit secondary applications to individual schools.
These essays require you to respond to hobby is reading essay, a specific question. Admissions committees will review your entire application, so choose subject matter that complements your original essay . How to Write a Personal Statement for er, Medical School. Follow these personal statement tips to help the my favorite hobby is reading admissions committee better understand you as a candidate. 1. Write, re-write, let it sit, and write again! Allow yourself 6 months of communication, writing and revision to get your essay in submission-ready shape. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading! This gives you the time to take your first pass, set your draft aside (for a minimum of 24 hours), review what you’ve written, and re-work your draft.
Your personal statement should highlight interesting aspects of your journeynot tell your entire life story. Choose a theme, stick to it, and homework help, support it with specific examples. Loving science and wanting to help people might be your sincere passions, but they are also what everyone else is writing about. Instead, be personal and specific. What can you say about hobby is reading yourself that no one else can? Remember, everyone has trials, successes and failures. What's important and unique is how you reacted to those incidents.
Bring your own voice and perspective to your personal statement to give it a truly memorable flavor. Start with a “catch” that will create intrigue before launching into homework er, the story of who you are. Make the admissions committee want to read on! Instead of telling the admissions committee about your unique qualities (like compassion, empathy, and my favorite, organization), show them through the stories you tell about how to intro yourself. Don’t just say itactually prove it. 7. Embrace the my favorite essay 5-point essay format. Here's a trusty format that you can make your own: 1st paragraph: These four or five sentences should catch the reader's attention. 3-4 body paragraphs: Use these paragraphs to persuasive, reveal who you are. Ideally, one of these paragraphs will reflect clinical understanding and one will reflect service.
Concluding paragraph: The strongest conclusion reflects the beginning of my favorite hobby is reading essay, your essay, gives a brief summary of you are, and ends with a challenge for the future. Good medical studentsand good doctorsuse clear, direct language. Pay It Forward Essay! Your essays should not be a struggle to comprehend. 9. Be thoughtful about transitions. My Favorite Is Reading Essay! Be sure to vary your sentence structure. You don’t want your essay to be boring! Pay attention to pay it forward essay papers, how your paragraphs connect to each other. Good medical studentsand good doctorsuse clear, direct language.
Watch your word count. That’s 5,300 characters (including spaces) for AMCAS applications, 5,000 characters for TMDSAS, and 4,500 characters for AACOMAS. Rambling not only uses up your precious character limit, but it also causes confusion! Think about the three to five “sound bytes” you want admissions committee to know and remember you by. My Favorite Hobby! Beware of being too self-congratulatory or too self-deprecating.
Before you hit “submit,” ask several people you trust for on effective, feedback on my favorite hobby is reading essay, your personal statement. The more time you have spent writing your statement, the less likely you are to spot any errors. A professor or friend whose judgment and writing skills you trust is invaluable. Always check for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. This goes for cell phone, the rest of your application (like your activities list), too. Is Reading Essay! A common oversight is referencing the wrong school in your statement! Give yourself (and your proofreaders) the time this task truly requires. Cory Thesis! 15.
Consult the experts about my favorite is reading your personal statement strategy. Performance! Our med school admissions counselors can diagnose the “health” of your overall application, including your personal statement. Get expert help and hobby is reading essay, guidance to write an effective personal statement that showcases not only your accomplishments, but your passion and your journey. Want to get an edge over how to start persuasive essay, the crowd? Our admissions experts know what it takes it get into med school. Get the hobby is reading essay customized strategy and guidance you need to help achieve your goals. The Staff of start persuasive intro, The Princeton Review. Our course teaches you the section-by-section strategies you need to tackle the MCAT.
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Disrespect In The Army Essays and Research Papers. Commissioned Officers is a very important part of the army life. NCO's feel good and feel like they have the power when they are respected and . tend to be less disrespectful to their fellow soldiers. Essay? There’s an old saying among Army leaders which goes as follows, “Take care of your people, and they will take care of homework, you.” The army strength lies in its people, more than any other single factor of combat readiness. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? A former Chief of Staff of the army once noted that it’s the way soldiers feel about themselves. Military , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 876 Words | 3 Pages. today…being in the Army is one of the wisest choices I’ve made in my life, many people take being in the Army for granted and . have no clue how beneficial the army can be. Your rent is guaranteed paid every month, money for food and your basically approved for anything in thesis on stress and job performance, the world as long as you serve in the Army or any branch of service. You also gain free knowledge and experience that many outside people in the civilian world do not have the chance or opportunity to be a part of. The Army has a lot to.
Corporal , Leadership , Non-commissioned officer 2016 Words | 4 Pages. Tele Mil : 6991 Civ Tele : 0361-2640134 Army Recruiting Office, Narangi PIN-900328 c/o 99 APO 20 Apr 11 1837/R/ FOR BRIGHT YOUNG MEN . My Favorite Is Reading? TO JOIN THE ARMY OPEN RECRUITMENT RALLY AT GOALPARA 1. Army Recruiting Office, Narangi will carry out an Army Recruitment Rally for business communication MALE CANDIDATES of Baksa, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Darrang, Dhubri, Goalpara, Kamrup, Kokrajhar, Nalbari and Udalguri districts of Assam is being organized from 17 –29 May 11 at my favorite DN Singha Sports Stadium, Goalpara (Assam) with. 1939 , 1970 , 1981 985 Words | 4 Pages. and professionalism of on effective, these officers. Reimer (1996) asserts that leaders must possess creative leadership skills and hobby is reading, positive attitude and provide an . atmosphere where all soldiers can exploit their potential to the fullest. He continues to say that Army is not a group of people but it is the people and homework er, all of them offer volunteer services.
Furthermore, good commanders understand their soldiers well and know them by names. Governments must, therefore, mentor non-commissioned and young officers and. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2371 Words | 6 Pages. Since I failed to complete the 2000 word essay on Disrespect to a Non-Commissioned Officer that I was ordered to hobby is reading, do I was reordered to cory dean, write . Essay? this 3000 word essay on how to essay intro, Failure to is reading essay, follow orders and the possible consequences I was told that if I had simply taken what was originally written and reworded it I would have been good as gold . Pay It Forward? I now have come to realize that my failure to follow orders is not only hobby essay affecting me but it is affecting others. I am taking up a lot of my sergeants time by them having. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2207 Words | 6 Pages.
military discipline, military respect, and help er, disrespect are and the history behind these acts are. I will first give the my favorite, definitions of how to start persuasive intro, military . discipline; which is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. My Favorite Essay? ay look at help you, Discipline helps to complete certain jobs/instructions efficiently and correctly. in the military it is used to train people so that they are good at their job/career as they have improved due to discipline. Disrespect to my favorite is reading, a Non-Commissioned Officer; which is where. Corporal , Military ranks , Non-commissioned officer 1427 Words | 4 Pages. Discipline is the glue that holds a combat team together. Without it there is no unit cohesion, no espirit de corps, and no coordination. However, discipline . is cory thesis, a complex product of training, leadership, and respect.
Disrespect , however, has exactly the opposite effect. If a leader disrespects his troops, he fails to earn their respect and therefore fails to create devotion to the team. His attitude will be noticed and will become detrimental to morale, which in turn will hurt the hobby, combat effectiveness. Armed forces , Army , Enlisted rank 1027 Words | 3 Pages. 2012 Disrespect and Disrespectful The definition of pay it papers, disrespect is rudeness or a lack of courtesy. (noun) An example of . disrespect is not saying “Thank you” to someone who helps you. To disrespect means to show rudeness or a lack of respect. My Favorite Is Reading? (verb) An example of to resume cell, disrespect is for a child to call his mother rude names. (Webster) Disrespect is a lack of respect for hobby is reading someone.
For instance, if you are mean to on stress, your parents that is considered disrespectful. Is Reading Essay? Teenagers often show disrespect to start persuasive, their. Emotion , Feeling , Human behavior 948 Words | 3 Pages. Disrespect of an Nco and Disobeying a Direct Order. The effects of disrespect of a non commissioned officer and the effects of disobeying a direct order. On 25 of August 2011, I accompanied . SGT Williams off post.
Although it seems to be nothing at all by that statement. The consequences of that night and the things I should have done are possibly going to cost a good NCO his career, and landed me in this punishment. Before I get in to the actual circumstances of this incident I want to cover my references Article 92 and article 89 of the hobby essay, UCMJ. Army , Military , Military law 1757 Words | 5 Pages. Why I Should Not Disrespect An NCO And The Consequences. ?Why I should not disrespect an NCO and start, the consequences I am writing this essay because I disrespected a non commissioned officer. I do . apologize for my favorite hobby is reading essay what I did and have said.
I have learned from my mistake and I see why I am to do this essay and that is to show that disrespecting a non commissioned officer will not be tolerated and two give clear understanding of the impact that disrespecting a Non Commissioned officer has on others. For many reasons the Non Commissioned Officers keep the pay it forward, moral. Corporal , Master Gunnery Sergeant , Military ranks 2170 Words | 4 Pages. the United States Army we are taught to live by the Seven Army Values. My Favorite Is Reading Essay? They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’ which . is thesis, short for Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage. We are all taught these 7 Army values repeatedly from my favorite hobby is reading day one in the United States Army . First we memorize these values. Then we are trained to live by essay business, them. All of these 7 values coincide with each other, and play an important roll in our Army lives.
These 7 Army Values also play. Continental Army , LDRSHIP , Respect 1817 Words | 4 Pages. ARMY CORE VALUES LDRSHIP is the acronym which stands for: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and my favorite, Personal Courage . LOYALTY: Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army , your unit, and other soldiers. Be loyal to homework help er, the nation and its heritage. Loyalty is a two-way street: you should not expect loyalty without being prepared to give it as well. The loyalty of your people is a gift they give you when, and only when, you deserve it— when you train them well. Core issues in ethics , Courage , Ethics 941 Words | 3 Pages.
immoral, dangerous and is reading essay, otherwise unhealthy for the general good of the people he or she affects. What makes a leader? FM 6-22 describes a leader as: . A?a‚¬A“A?a‚¬A¦An Army leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and Influences people to accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and Outside the chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking, and shape decisions for the greater Good of the organizationA?a‚¬A¦A?a‚¬A?. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 2054 Words | 6 Pages. The 7 Army Values and Malingering. The seven Army values are the backbone of the forward essay papers, United States Army . They are broken down to us in the acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Loyalty, . “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the my favorite hobby is reading essay, Army , and other soldiers.” Duty, “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect, “Treat people as they should be treated.” Selfless Service, “Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor, “Live up to essay business communication, the army values.” Integrity, “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and Personal.
Army , Military , Non-commissioned officer 1444 Words | 4 Pages. uniform. It represents the army and what we stand for. In the essay, united States Army paying attention to detail and following your . chain of command is important part in the mission. Failure to do so can affect the mission drastically. it can hinder even small parts, in forward papers, which case can turn into hobby is reading essay something more important.
In this essay, I will, hopefully, be able to explain the importance of essay on effective business, all of the hobby is reading essay, listed above in the following paragraphs, as well as a way to adhere to the Army Standards. Phone? . Army Combat Uniform , Battle Dress Uniform , Dress uniform 2139 Words | 5 Pages. ?U.S ARMY ETHICS Ethics are standards that are based on value that uphold professionalism through beliefs such as duty, honor and integrity . that drives actions and my favorite is reading essay, attitudes (Fluker, 2009). Ethical values ultimately relate and are in homework help, regards to what is my favorite essay, right and wrong. This brings about the aspect of making decision that is rational in regards to what is right and wrong ethically. Essay On Effective Communication? It is on my favorite, this note that ethical values should be considered and especially when it comes to homework er, decision making. There exist. Business ethics , Ethics , Intrinsic value 943 Words | 5 Pages. Army Ants Anthony Palmieri November 20, 1996 Contemporary Science Topics A quote made by hobby, Lewis Thomas, Ants are so much like human beings . as to be an embarrassment. They farm fungus, raise aphids as livestock, launch armies into war, use chemical sprays to alarm and confuse enemies, and exchange information ceaselessly. They do everything but watch television.
I am going to focus this report on the part of the quote, ..launch armies into war. which sets a metaphor of ants and our armies. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Attack! , British Army 870 Words | 3 Pages. Management and the Army Mark Bietsch MGT330: Management for thesis Organizations (BAC1250A) Professor Moore 28 July 2013 Management and my favorite is reading essay, the . Army The Army has a very well organized structure that has many different elements within its structure. The Army uses many different regulations that cover the way it runs its organization to essay on effective, ensure it maintains and improves the my favorite hobby is reading, way it is managed. The Army uses the Human Resources Command Center (HRC) which is to execute career management, sustainment, distribution. Army , Human resource management , Leadership 1706 Words | 5 Pages. ? Army Values To begin with there are seven army values, of these seven we have loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, . honor, integrity and personal courage.
As you read this you will learn the army definitions as well as what these values mean in my own words. This first paragraph will move us on to loyalty, and the final paragraph will close this essay by explaining my personal opinion on pay it forward essay papers, all the my favorite hobby, army values. On Effective Business Communication? Loyalty means to bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Hobby? constitution, the. Ethics , Law , Moral 934 Words | 1 Pages. The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is an international movement, an communication evangelical part of the is reading, universal Christian church. It . is dedicated to the propagation of the Christian faith and to the furnishing of on effective communication, various forms of assistance to persons in is reading, need of spiritual solace and material aid.
The Salvation Army was founded in 1865 in London by the English Methodist minister William Booth. It was originally founded as the homework help er, Christian Mission, with the aim of my favorite hobby is reading essay, carrying on cell, evangelical and social-welfare. Baptism , Catherine Booth , Christendom 1310 Words | 4 Pages. ? Report for the Army Externalising its recruitment Procedure. B120 - TMA02 Tutor: Submitted by: Rob November 2014 1.0 . Opportunities and my favorite, dangers to homework, be considered by the Army in externalising the recruitment processes. a. Preston (2012 P.36) shows how the hobby is reading essay, two-way process of recruitment ‘should be as much about the applicant finding out whether the business is right for them as about whether they are deemed acceptable by the business’. c. Having employment opportunities for the. 2003 in resume phone, film , Employment , Human resource management 1289 Words | 7 Pages. their way of fighting was so organized that every able bodied man could fight in the army and my favorite, know the Roman system perfectly.
Important . Essay On Effective Business Communication? things about Polybius are that he was born in Greece but was deported to Rome in 168 BCE after the defeat of the King of Macedon, Persius. While in is reading essay, Rome he became friends with people like Scipio who was a leading aristocrat in Rome at the time following his success in the army at Carthage and cory dean, Corinth. Hobby Essay? Polybius followed around Scipio on his journeys and wrote. Ancient history , Ancient Rome , Augustus 1305 Words | 8 Pages. ? Looking back my army life, it has been not only one of the thesis on stress and job, most difficult times butalso one of the most memorable times in my life. Since in . Korea the youth in their20’s have to join the military mandatorily, I had no choice but to join into the armywhen I was drafted. Even though it had been a hard time, I now appreciate serving there as I gained many benefits and essay, memorable times from there. In modern Korean history, there was tragic civil war called “Korean War” between North.
History of Korea , Korea , Korean Demilitarized Zone 1369 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Confederate Army Of The South Eric Vlasin Mrs. Person American Literature November 19, 2013 The . Civil War, the war that rocked the United States in the late 1800’s, a war of a divided country, The war of the forward papers, north and the south. The South wanting to secede from the nation, is what flared the war into my favorite is reading essay action, and the South would soon be in danger. The South in the civil war, what did they plan, what did they have, and who were the leaders? The average soldier. American Civil War , Army of Northern Virginia , Confederate States Army 2067 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Army Training Network is on stress, a consolidated training resource site for my favorite hobby is reading essay managing training for Army units. Everything is based on essay communication, . the Army Field Manual, FM 7-0 - Training for Full Spectrum Operations.
FM 7-0 covers the principles, systems, and management of Army training. ATN has many types of users from unit training managers down to individual Soldiers trying to further develop their own knowledge. Hobby? The main function of the ATN is to facilitate the pay it essay papers, development, improvement, and implementation. Common Access Card , Input , Leadership 1027 Words | 2 Pages. need your help! The Army Medical Department is conducting a world-wide survey aimed at understanding and my favorite essay, improving outpatient care . experiences. As a part of persuasive essay intro, this, COL Barry Pockrandt is interested in hearing about your recent experience with JESSICA E LIETZ on May 17, 2013. Please consider only this particular visit. You have been randomly selected from the many patients seen by this health care provider.
Your answers will provide feedback to the Commander of Farrelly Army Health Center and to. Health care , Health care provider , Medicine 1234 Words | 5 Pages. Army Reserve: A Better Choice Stacy Tharpe Devry University With tensions building around the globe, it takes a multi-tiered force of my favorite hobby essay, . highly trained, committed Soldiers to protect our freedoms and uphold democracy. Thesis? This force consists of my favorite hobby, Active Duty Soldiers and Soldiers in the Army Reserve. (US Army ) Many families struggle with the decision to enlist Army Reserve or Active Duty. Evaluating your current living situation can help in resume, the final decision. Army Reserve allows you to hobby is reading, serve your country. Army , Military , Paisley Park Records 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Respect Vs Disrespect By Osita Onyebuchi Respect vs. Start? Disrespect Have you ever met someone who was rude to my favorite hobby is reading essay, you and didn't . hold you with much regard? How did you feel? Did you feel angry?
What do you think respect is? How is respect earned? Respect is an important way of dean, being kind and good to my favorite is reading, other people. We live in a society that respect is earned not given. With respect there is also an opposite side of disrespect . The definition of respect is to consider worthy of high regard. There are.
Bowing , Core issues in thesis and job performance, ethics , Faith 1242 Words | 3 Pages. The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Tina M. Lamb Business Ethics 301 Abstract The . My Favorite Hobby? Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. They set themselves apart from all other militaries. The standards are held to a higher level than most. I enjoy being in the Army . As a Noncommissioned officer we are charged to on stress performance, uphold the standard and in force the standards. We must groom soldiers to be a great product of the Army . Hobby? There are measures we take into persuasive essay making a great. Army , Military , Morality 1116 Words | 4 Pages. One of the values the United States Army most seeks in my favorite essay, its soldiers is resume cell, accountability. According to Army Regulation 600-8-14, . the wear of identification tags is governed in such a way requiring each and every soldier to hobby is reading, wear their identification tags when in resume, a field environment, while traveling via aircraft carrier, and when the soldier is outside the continental United States.
All personnel should be wearing identification tags around their neck except when there are safety considerations such. Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1281 Words | 3 Pages. This fact is hobby is reading essay, most obvious, and can not be illustrated any further, than by looking at the worlds militaries, and by resume phone, observing customs, courtesies, and . policies of different military organizations, past and present. If one researches ancient armies and navies, it would not be hard to see, that while it took many hundreds of years for hobby is reading essay some civilizations to come into contact one another for the ?rst time, and while each one has its own unique culture, language, and traditions, the homework, application. Army , Military , Military life 1079 Words | 2 Pages.
Define the Standards for Effective Army Writing Writing Guidelines Mandating Quality Army Writing The ability to prepare clear, . concise documents, which advocate a position or advance a goal is an essential leadership skill. Effective writing teaches you the my favorite hobby, techniques of writing different types of military documents targeted for specific audiences. To become a more effective communicator, the Army developed some specific guidelines and cory thesis, standards to help you write clearly and concisely. Define. Acronym and is reading, initialism , English passive voice , Grammar 1688 Words | 6 Pages.
THE SEVEN ARMY VALUES In the US army we are taught to live by the 7 army values. They are broken down to phone, us in the . acronym ‘LDRSHIP’. Loyalty “Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. constitution, the Army , and other soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should be treated.” Selfless Service “Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor “Live up to the army values.” Integrity “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and. High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle , LDRSHIP , Morality 1365 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Salvation Army is an international charitable organisation, the Salvation Army is a worldwide organisation consisting of . soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists. Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to essay, bring salvation to the poor, destitute and hungry. It has a presence in 126 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and providing disaster relief and essay on effective business communication, humanitarian aid to developing countries.
The Salvation Army was founded in my favorite hobby essay, 1865 in London. Australia , Catherine Booth , Generals of The Salvation Army 702 Words | 3 Pages. Serving in the army In America, serving in the army is often associated with respect and honour. From an outsider’s view, . Homework Help? America has always been a very patriotic country based on a strong passion for freedom and democracy. So is that the driving power that makes so many young American men and women to enlist themselves in the Army ? Yet it seems that not everyone looks upon the army with the same amount of respect, and maybe America today isn’t as patriotic as it used to be. In the my favorite is reading essay, text “A. Combat , Iraq War , Military 1195 Words | 3 Pages. people you work for.
Being on time and where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in the army or any other branch of service . .The military waste millions of dollars on appointments every year. This Plan of action is ambiguous and confusing. From the oral statements that were made from how to persuasive essay intro you I believe you wish for me to write 2000essay (Importance of Accountability in the army ) i.e.: appropriate place of duty, proper place and proper time. I Pride myself on being a soldier that is. Armed forces , Army , Military 2093 Words | 5 Pages. Downloadet fra Opgaver.com Serving in the Army – Engelsk stil Sunday, May 06, 2012 Frederikssund Gymnasium A – Serving in the . My Favorite Hobby Essay? Army 1. All over the world there are soldiers deployed to help maintain or make peace in war ravaged countries. There are many different attitudes to being deployed – some sees is as a positive experience and some as something they regret. Sarah Palin, who, when the text was written, was both John MacCain’s vice-presidential running mate and the governor of Alaska, tells.
John McCain , Military , Nathaniel Fick 1021 Words | 3 Pages. they’re on the job or off. In short, the Seven Core Army Values listed below are what being a Soldier is homework help, all about. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? Loyalty Bear true . faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army , your unit and other Soldiers. Bearing true faith and allegiance is a matter of forward, believing in and devoting yourself to something or someone. A loyal Soldier is one who supports the hobby, leadership and stands up for fellow Soldiers. By wearing the uniform of the U.S.
Army you are expressing your loyalty. And by doing. Core issues in on stress, ethics , Military , Morality 637 Words | 3 Pages. The Mongols had large armies , certainly; but it is hobby essay, their character rather than their size which is crucial His army is as . numerous as ants and locusts. His warriors are as brave as lions. -Anonymous Historians used to opine that the Mongol's success was a result of their overwhelmingly large armies . Thesis Performance? They proved to my favorite hobby is reading essay, be superior to all their enemies, across the globe, having rarely lost a dramatic battle. Quality, not quantity, was the key to the incredible unbroken chain of Mongolian military. Central Asia , Genghis Khan , Inner Mongolia 1165 Words | 3 Pages. northern California to a married father of two with solid a career and opportunities to resume cell phone, live and work around the US and my favorite, World once I decided to join the cory dean thesis, . United States Army . It all started with my oldest brother who was in the California Army National Guard at the time. Essay? He told me I could get an eight thousand dollars bonus from the Army , just for signing my name, or so I was led to believe. Since that was the most money I had ever heard of, I must have been the easiest contract that recruiter ever signed.
2003 invasion of Iraq , Iraq War , Non-commissioned officer 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract The Army is homework help, a great profession were many individuals come together and my favorite, make the on effective communication, impossible happen. This institution has to overcome . more obstacles then most average career paths will take you. The only way these thing have happened and my favorite hobby is reading, will continue to happen is through discipline, leadership, training and mentorship. Pay It Forward Essay? The army is is reading essay, always changing at a fast rate of on stress and job performance, speed and without these elements the my favorite is reading essay, profession of arms will fall apart. Thesis And Job? After over a decade of war the army is changing again. Army , Coaching , Leadership 1438 Words | 4 Pages.
Army Wives Wendy Agbay Baker College The American public’s perception of military spouses is skewed due to a lack of information and . incorrect media interpretation. Military spouses must be willing to sacrifice, as well as have courage and integrity to make their family work under extreme circumstances. This cannot be portrayed in the media accurately. Is Reading Essay? Television shows such as Army Wives makes light of what a military spouse has to endure. In turn, this hurts the reputation of the military. Army , Improvised explosive device , Marriage 1686 Words | 5 Pages. A Soldier’s Accountability A soldier of the United States Army has many values that are set forth in the “Soldier’s Creed.” The Soldier’s . Pay It Essay Papers? Creed states: I am an American Soldier. I am a Warrior and a member of a team. I serve the people of the United States and live the Army Values. I will always place the hobby, mission first.
I will never accept defeat. I will never quit. Help Er? I will never leave a fallen comrade. I am disciplined, physically and mentally tough, trained and my favorite hobby essay, proficient in essay papers, my. Accountability , Continental Army , Social philosophy 900 Words | 3 Pages. Question #1 of 23 1. | What class of supply do repair parts and components for equipment belong to? | | | | | | | | | | IX | 2. | What . Standard Army Management Information System is the primary automation system used by Army Direct Support and General Support supply units? | | | | | | | | | | Unit Level Logistics System - Aviation Enhanced | Question #3 of 23 3. | Which of the following sources would you use to hobby is reading essay, determine the Accounting Requirements Code.
English-language films , Following , Management 486 Words | 5 Pages. men and women from serving in the military. Specifically focusing on thesis, how it affected these students academic experience and essay, the dynamics of the how to start intro, relationships . they had with their fellow cadets. By expressing my personal experience as a gay cadet in army ROTC at my favorite hobby is reading the University of Kansas I hope to provide an alternative point of view from those that have already been studied. As my research is different from others in essay business, this way, I can come closer to the truth of my favorite hobby essay, my research question. The military has.
Bisexuality , Gay , Gender 1112 Words | 3 Pages. Responsibility is one of the how to intro, most important things in the Army . Accountability is also a very important part of being in the army . and is reading essay, it goes hand in hand with responsibility. I failed to maintain accountability of my weapon while at Yakima Training Center. Cory Thesis? This was not an example of being a responsible soldier. This essay will explain what happened and why I think responsibilty is so important in the US Army . I had set my weapon down in the tool room so that I can go grab a couple of my favorite is reading essay, things. Army , Artillery , Military 1315 Words | 3 Pages. Accountability - The importance of obligation with the Army. moral discipline and start persuasive essay, portrays maturity. Accountability also correlates with knowing where a certain person resides currently or in the future. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading? In the . Army accountability represents organization, discipline, and control.
Accountability becomes an er obligation when you join the my favorite hobby, Army , it benefits every party involved. The importance of obligation with the how to persuasive essay intro, Army . Your obligations given to you as a soldier are there to help you perform your duties, much like guidelines to success. My Favorite Hobby Essay? Obligations within a workplace. Core issues in ethics , Duty , Leadership 1597 Words | 4 Pages. ?Serving in the army 1. Dean Thesis? The first text “Why they serve” by Sarah Palin is about a mother talking about her army son, Track.
He . became enlisted in the army in 2007 and a year later he and 3500 others from the First Stryker Brigade Combat Team, travelled Iraq from my favorite hobby is reading essay Alaska to serve their country. Pay It Essay Papers? She is my favorite hobby is reading essay, deeply proud of dean thesis, her son, who joined the my favorite hobby essay, army not to serve the country, but to cory dean, defend the is reading, idea of how to start, America. Track wanted a safe world, where people could feel free, because that’s what real Americans grew. 1996 albums , English-language films , Posttraumatic stress disorder 927 Words | 2 Pages. have three types of duties: specified duties, directed duties and implied duties: specified duties, direct duties and implied duties. Specified duties are . related to is reading, jobs and positions. such as Army regulations, Department of the Army general orders, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, soldier's manuals, Army Training and Evaluation Program Publications and MOS job descriptions specify the duties. Direct duties are not specified as part of a job position or MOS or other directive. A superior gives. Corporal , Enlisted rank , Military ranks 822 Words | 3 Pages.
Statement of Understanding for Use with Army Tuition Assistance (TA) the thesis, proponent agency is DCS, G-1 DATA REQUIRED BY THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 . AUTHORITY PRINCIPAL PURPOSES ROUTINE USES DISCLOSURE For use of this form, see AR 621-5; 10 U.S.C. 3013, Secretary of the Army ; 10 U.S.C. 2005, Advanced education assistance: active duty agreement; reimbursement requirements; 10 U.S.C. 4302, Enlisted members of my favorite essay, Army : schools; AR 621-5, Army Continuing Education System; and E.O. Dean? 9397 (SSN). My Favorite Hobby Essay? To provide. Academic degree , Degree completion program , Education 1822 Words | 5 Pages. Mosley 1/504 HHC 82nd AB Bco. 1st PLT Medic Shaving in the Army It is important to maintain discipline in the army , . because essentially your life depends on essay on effective, it. If you forget to my favorite essay, bring the battery to your radio, get lazy and don’t keep a low profile,or just say screw it and do what you want.
You can get yourself or someone else killed or maimed for life. And apparently shaving is part of that discipline. Thesis On Stress Performance? Here is hobby essay, what the army has to phone, say about hobby essay, male grooming standards. Persuasive Intro? Male haircuts. Beard , Facial hair , Goatee 939 Words | 3 Pages. ?Essay on Bureaucracy- Army Coalition in Pakistan By the my favorite essay, turn of the decade, the Muslim League had lost all credibility in essay, East Pakistan . because of its language policy.There the mainstream Muslim League broke away and formed the Awami League in is reading, 1949. In West Pakistan, the resume, Muslim League split into two informal groups-one consisting of old Leaguers who were mostly migrants from India and the other comprising the new entrants, mostly Punjabis and a few Sindhis and Pathans. While the former were mostly. Ayub Khan , Constitution , Defence Minister of Pakistan 910 Words | 3 Pages. the Army , and other Soldiers.” Duty “Fulfill your obligations.” Respect “Treat people as they should be treated.” Selfless Service . “Put the welfare of the hobby, nation, the Army and your subordinates above your own.” Honor “Live up to the army values.” Integrity “Do what’s right legally and morally.” and thesis on stress, Personal Courage “Face fear, danger or adversity physical or moral.” We are all drilled on these 7 army values from the very first day of basic training and my favorite essay, throughout our Army career.
Army , Core issues in ethics , Duty 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Professionalism by SPC Murray Professionals in the United States Army stand apart from others engaged in particular careers in the . Forward Essay Papers? civilian world. While many vocations contain some of the characteristics of professional, a lot of careers do not include all of the elements necessary to distinguish themselves as being as close to my favorite hobby is reading, a professional as a United States soldier. Professionalism grows depending on the time and service they have in the Army . A professional has specialized knowledge and skill which. Integrity , Management , Military 1916 Words | 5 Pages. fight. a riflemen's duties are as followed executing the pay it essay papers, orders of his Fire Team and Squad Leaders, maneuvering and providing cover fire with his element, . and completing his mission at whatever cost. Although a riflemen holds the my favorite is reading essay, lowest rank in the army they have a very high powered posistion as far as there job goes. A grenadier is also a great member consisting of a SPC (E-4) Armed with an forward essay M4 and is reading, M203 grenade launcher, the start persuasive essay intro, Grenadier can deliver 40mm smoke and explosive rounds at point and ?area. Army , Corporal , Military 1270 Words | 4 Pages. ?I am counseling you for the conduct noted above. If this conduct continues, action may be initiated to separate you from the Army IAW AR . 635-200.
If you are involuntary separated, you could receive an Honorable Discharge, a General (Under Honorable Conditions) Discharge, or Under Other Than Honorable Conditions Discharge. An Honorable Discharge is a separation with honor based on is reading, the quality of phone, service, which meets the standards of acceptable conduct and performance of duty. A General Discharge. G.I. My Favorite Hobby Essay? Bill , Military , Military discharge 588 Words | 2 Pages. A 1. Essay On Effective Business? Give an outline of the various views on serving in hobby is reading essay, the army presented in the three texts. Text 1 is about Sarah Palin giving her . opinion on why young people in America should be motivated to join the army . Business? Her own son enlisted himself, and she uses him as an example. In the text she elaborates on, “[…] they are doing much more than defending a piece of land. Hobby Is Reading? They are defending the idea of dean thesis, America itself”. My Favorite Hobby Essay? Text 2 is about Ryan Kahlor. Resume Phone? Today, the two combat tours in Iraq defines who.
Center for a New American Security , John McCain , Marine 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Nanotechnology in the Army Name: College: Course: Tutor: Date: Nanotechnology in the . Army Nanomaterials can be designed at is reading the atomic level, lending more control over start persuasive essay, their properties, and making them better suited to their desired purpose. Most nanomaterials derive their enhanced abilities from the hobby is reading, large increase in surface area that results when individual particle-size decreases. The first military stride teat came about inferential of this technology. Army , Lithium-ion battery , Military 1399 Words | 5 Pages. Punishable Articles Related to forward, Disrespect Article 89— Disrespect toward a superior commissioned officer (1) That the . accused did or omitted certain acts or used certain language to or concerning a certain commissioned officer; (2) That such behavior or language was directed toward that officer; (3) That the officer toward whom the acts, omissions, or words were directed was the superior commissioned officer of the accused; (4) That the accused then knew that the commissioned officer. Corporal , Master's mate , Non-commissioned officer 954 Words | 3 Pages. EDUCATION: 6 Sem. Hrs., University of Maryland University College; 14 Sem.
Hrs., Central Texas College; 70 Sem. Essay? Hrs., North Central Institute MILITARY . EDUCATION: 4 Jan 09 – 10 Feb 09 ANCOC US Army Soldier Support Center Fort Jackson, SC 24 Jan 08 – 6 Mar 08 BNCOC Phase II US Army Soldier Support Center Fort Jackson, SC Currently attending course. Distinguished Honor Graduate, placed on the Coveted Commandant’s List, and was also selected by my peers as.
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Essays schrijven - het literaire zelfonderzoek. Naast hoofdredacteur van Schrijven Magazine en Schrijven Online is my favorite hobby essay Louis Stiller ook docent essayschrijven bij de Schrijversvakschool in Amsterdam, en auteur van een aantal essayboeken. Intro? Tevens is hobby hij auteur van het boek 'Essays schrijven', in thesis and job performance de Schrijfbibliotheek van Augustus. Essays zijn overal, elke dag. My Favorite? In de krant, op de radio, in pay it forward essay de Tweede Kamer, in de klas, in de kerk. Hobby Is Reading Essay? Elke dag vergasten auteurs Ca of forward essay papers Mu ons op een essayjuweeltje in het linkerbenedenhoekje van de Volkskrant. Elke week spreken dominees en pastoors hun uitgesponnen religieuze essays vanaf de preekstoel. Elke maand verschijnen tientallen literaire essays in my favorite hobby is reading tijdschriften als Tirade, De Gids of Bunker Hill – soms vermomd als recensie, monografie of on stress ingezonden brief. Door deze alomtegenwoordigheid zouden we het essay het meest succesvolle literaire genre kunnen noemen.
Nog meer dan gedichten en verhalen. Essay? Die tref je weliswaar tegenwoordig ook op de merkwaardigste plaatsen aan, maar de veelkoppigheid van het essay maakt dat je vaak als lezer, kijker of how to intro luisteraar nauwelijks door hebt dat je met een essay te maken hebt. My Favorite? Ingezonden brief van een brandweercommandant in on stress and job NRC Handelsblad: essay. Slotbeschouwing bij het najaarsoverleg: essay: Gesproken column van Francisco van Jole in is reading essay De Leugen Regeert: essay. Ondanks deze brede verschijning lijkt het essay nog altijd het literaire genre met de minste status te zijn. Romanschrijver, dat willen we worden, of pay it papers dichter; toneelschrijver zou ook mooi zijn, misschien scenarist. Is Reading Essay? Verhalenverteller, ook leuk. Performance? Maar essayist?
Ooit een groepje adolescenten bij de studie Nederlands met rode konen horen discussieren wie betere essays schrijft: Piet Meeuse of Bas Heine? Weliswaar wordt de PC Hooftprijs afwisselend uitgereikt aan een dichter, een prozaist en een essayist, maar nog nooit hoorde ik een aangeschoten jongedame in de kroeg opscheppen dat zij de beste essayist van Nederland wil worden. My Favorite Hobby Is Reading Essay? Veel uitgevoerd, weinig begeerd: dat is essay on effective business communication het lot van het essay. Het zij zo. Bedenk: waar kun je essays aantreffen? In welke media, op welke plekken? Wat doen die essays? Wat is my favorite hobby is reading hun doel, hun functie?
Probeer voor jezelf te formuleren wat essays zijn. Deel 2: Op zoek naar de persoonlijke vraag. Wat een essay precies is, is nog altijd voer voor vele discussies. Communication? Is elke willekeurige column en recensie in een dag- of weekblad er een, hoort een biografie ook tot het genre, en kun je alle schoolopstellen essays noemen? Dat laatste is my favorite is reading nog niet eens zo’n rare veronderstelling, als je naar het curriculum van Amerikaanse en Engelse scholen kijkt. Essayschrijven wordt daar gedrild: inleiding, these, uitwerking, conclusie. And Job Performance? Ook de dikke Van Dale lijkt een Angelsaksische knieval te maken door een essay te definieren als ‘een persoonlijk gekleurde verhandeling over my favorite een wetenschappelijk of letterkundig onderwerp’, met daarachter een grote pijl en het woord ‘opstel’. Er zijn echter verschillende redenen om het schoolopstel niet tot de kerngroep der essays toe te laten.
Een van de belangrijkste argumenten is dean thesis dat een echt essay een persoonlijk onderzoek is, een gedachtenexperiment waarbij je van te voren niet weet waar het je zal leiden. Hobby Is Reading Essay? En zelfs als je nergens uitkomt, dan nog is phone het soms boeiend om op te schrijven hoe je van punt A naar punt G kwam, via F, S, L en – wederom – A. Een opstel heeft daarvoor een veel te rigide structuur. My Favorite Is Reading? Alleen al die verplichte conclusie: dat heeft weinig te maken met het meanderende, onderzoekende karakter dat het echte essay kenmerkt. De Franse werkwoorden assayer / essaier die ten grondslag liggen aan het genre betekenen dan ook proeven, toetsen of essay on effective uitproberen. Hobby Is Reading? ‘Essayisten zijn vrijbuiters, ze zijn niemand ook maar een zier verplicht,’ concludeert Tanny Dobbelaar dan ook in dean haar boek Schrijven met Montaigne (besproken in Club Schrijven Magazine 9/5). Wat zijn dan wel ‘echte’ essays, welke horen tot de kerngroep? Een naam werd hiervoor al even genoemd, namelijk de grondlegger van het genre, Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) die zich halverwege zijn leven terugtrok op zijn landgoed om zijn gedachten te ordenen en te scherpen in essay een nieuwe vorm, die hij de naam essai meegaf. Start Persuasive Essay? Wie Montaignes drie kloeke delen essays leest (niet te snel, ze zijn voor fijnproevers), ziet al snel wat deze onderscheidt van opstellen, scripties en dissertaties. My Favorite? Bij een Montaigne-essay ga je namelijk uit van je persoonlijke ervaringen, gedachten en emoties – iets wat je in (semi)wetenschappelijke werk juist te allen tijde probeert te vermijden. How To Essay? Vrijwel alle goede essays geven dan ook inzicht in het persoonlijke leven of in hobby is reading essay de persoonlijke gedachten van de auteur.
Niet omdat die belangrijk zijn (soms gaat het om hele eenvoudige waarnemingen), maar omdat ze een aanleiding kunnen vormen om algemeen geldende ideeen te onderzoeken. Wanneer kun je zeggen dat iemand een gelukkig leven heeft gehad? Wat betekent het om verbannen te zijn? Mag een arts fouten maken? Wat is cory dean de waarde van vriendschap? Dat soort kwesties worden door Montaigne en zijn nazaten onderzocht. Uiteindelijk gaat het niet om ‘hoe je ergens over my favorite denkt’, maar ‘hoe je ergens over thesis denkt’. My Favorite? Ofte wel: het gaat niet om je mening, niet eens om je argumenten, maar om de manier waarop je redeneert, voelt, verbanden legt: de logica, evenzeer als de plotselinge invallen.
Als je een goed essay schrijft, geef je de lezer een kijkje in and job performance je geest. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in my favorite hobby je hoofd rondwarrelt. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten. Liever niet. Thesis? Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Elke essay begint in is reading wezen met zo’n vraag. Essay Business? Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is voor een essay. Hobby? Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in on effective communication je hoofd rondwarrelt. Hobby Essay? Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten.
Liever niet. Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of cory dean thesis je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Essay? Elke essay begint in on stress and job wezen met zo’n vraag. My Favorite Essay? Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is voor een essay. Pay It Forward Essay? Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Een persoonlijke aanleiding, zorg of my favorite hobby is reading vraag is thesis het beginpunt van een essay, maar daar moet het niet bij blijven. Met een essay wil je uiteindelijk proberen uit je persoonlijke ervaringen een algemene kwestie aan te snijden en te onderzoeken, zoals Jorge Luis Borges deed in my favorite hobby zijn beroemde mini-essay ‘Argumentum Ornithologicum’ uit het boek De Maker . ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels. Performance? Het visioen duurt een seconde of hobby misschien korter; ik weet niet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Start Persuasive Intro? Was hun aantal bepaald of my favorite hobby onbepaald?
Deze vraag impliceert die naar het bestaan van God. Als God bestaat, is dean het aantal bepaald, want God weet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Als God niet bestaat, is is reading essay het aantal onbepaald, want dan kan niemand de telling verrichten. Pay It Essay Papers? In dat geval zag ik niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, vier, drie of hobby twee vogles. Thesis? Ik zag een aantal tussen de tien en een, dat niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, enz., is. Hobby Is Reading? Een dergelijk getal is resume niet voorstelbaar: ergo, God bestaat.’ Slechts tien regels telt het essay, dat begint met de beroemde zin: ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels.’ Hoeveel vogels het zijn weet Borges niet, en juist dat intrigeert hem. Als God bestaat, weet hij het juiste aantal en is is reading essay het een bepaald getal. En als God niet bestaat is het een onbepaald getal, want niemand heeft het aantal vogels geteld: het kunnen er drie, vijf, acht of negen zijn.
En dus zag Borges in cory die flits een getal dat niet twee, drie, vier, etcetera was, en dat kan niet. En dat bewijst dat God bestaat. Van een eenvoudig fantasiebeeld naar een Godsbewijs in tien zinnen: dat is het essay ten voeten uit. Wat ook goed te zien is aan dit voorbeeld is my favorite hobby hoe een essay bij de lezer werkt: het biedt geen voordehandliggende conclusie, maar zet aan tot denken, tot redeneren, tot het verzinnen van tegenargumenten. How To Start Essay Intro? Klopt het wel wat Borges beweert? Hoezo is een onbestaand getal een bewijs dat God bestaat? Kun je het bestaan van God wel beredeneren? De lezer maakt als het ware zelf het essay af. Bedenk hoe je zelf een lezer over je onderwerp kan laten nadenken.
Wat prikkelt hem? Hoe kun je hem laten nadenken? Natuurlijk niet door hem alleen maar te overladen met argumenten en voorbeelden. Hoe moet je redeneren, schrijven, om je lezer in hobby is reading zijn hoofd je essay 'af te maken'? Om een essay goed op te kunnen bouwen, moet je als schrijver eerst vele wegen in communication je hoofd aflopen. Sommige wegen lopen al snel dood, andere zijn te evident: daarvoor hoeft een lezer je artikel niet te lezen. Hobby? Zoek dus naar de onverwachte sporen, die je een eind verder brengen. Doe dit door jezelf voortdurend vragen te stellen, argumenten en voorbeelden te verzinnen, losjes te associeren. Je materiaal mag je overal vandaan halen, van wetenschappelijke rapporten tot songteksten. Juist die vele mogelijke dwarsverbanden onderscheiden een essay van een wetenschappelijke tekst. Stel bijvoorbeeld dat je je al een tijdje ergert aan mensen die trein en tram proberen in phone te komen voordat iedereen de trein verlaten heeft – een verschijnsel dat de laatste jaren steeds vaker de kop opsteekt.
Als je rechttoe rechtaan je ergernis zou uitschrijven, zou je geen essay hebben, maar een opinierend stuk, een column. Je onderzoekt namelijk niets, poneert alleen maar. Dus: zet je ergernis opzij en probeer onder, achter, in, over my favorite het probleem te duiken. Je medepassagiers voor laten gaan is een kwestie van etiquette, maar wat is on effective business de functie van etiquette? Kan die functie veranderen? Ken je nog meer voorbeelden van modern voordringen? Waar doet je die langs elkaar duwende en schuivende massa aan denken, welk beeld komt in my favorite hobby essay je op?
Hoe gaat het in thesis on stress performance de ons omringende landen? Hebben we eigenlijk al een naam voor de voordringers? En hoe noemen we de mensen die zich laten wegdringen? Probeer in essay deze fase zoveel mogelijk ideeen en sporen te verzamelen: het bekritiseren en uitwerken ervan komt later. Ga terug naar je basisvraag of essay business communication –kwestie uit oefening Zet deze middenop een vel papier. Associeer nu vrijelijk en zet de beelden, woorden, vragen, voorbeelden en argumenten eromheen.
Schets met pijlen welke elementen met elkaar te maken hebben. Doe nu hetzelfde met de beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden: werk ze verder uit door ze op hun beurt weer te omringen met eigen beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden. Hobby Is Reading Essay? Hoe ga je hier een essay uitschrijven? Bedenk een route, een structuur, een vorm. Na het vrijelijk associeren begint het bekritiseren van je eigen ideeen: welke zijn te evident, welke sporen lopen dood.
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